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h f 











JOHN D' ALTON, Esq., M.R.I.A., 




234 ?H5 

ex AV'D 
A. iO-.3. 


• •• • •,' 

> /•• • •• 
•, • • • 

• • •• 

-•• ••• • 









• My Lord, 

Although the chronicles of 
so important a portion of the kingdom, over 
which your Excellency presides, have some 
claim to be thus inscribed, their compiler could 

^ not presume to solicit such an honour for his 
labours ; he has, however, ventured to assume 

o it, in the consciousness that the work has been 

^ undertaken with the object of affording an 
honest, impartial, and popular local memoir. 

? .He proudly relies upon the fact, that the list of 
its promoters comprises upwards of seven hun- 



dred noblemen, clergymen, and gentry of every 
varied shade of religious and political opinion ; 
and yet more, he is so assured of justifying at 
least such an expectation of impartiality, that, 
while he has in no instance compromised the 
truth of history, he has been equally tenacious 
of a single comment that could make one Irish- 
man unfriendly to another. If these his wishes 
have been accomplished, your Excellency will 
excuse the adoption of this dedication, and the 
respectful wish that it may be received as an 
humble tribute of the profound respect of 

Your Excellency's 
Devoted, humble Servant, 



It has been ibe silent patriotism of my life, '' even from my 
boyish days," to collect such evidences as time had spared of 
Ireland's history and antiquities, the achievements of her 
families, the associations of her scenery, and the literary 
reminiscences that clung around her ruins ; a portion of these 
acquisitions had a serviceable affinity to my profession^ and 
all were endeared by affording to me such intellectual 
attachments to my country, as it would be my object to 
transfuse into others. The result of my earnest research has 
been such an accumulation of materials, as extends through 
nearly one hundred volumes of manuscript ; and furnishes, 
perhaps, the most complete references extant for credible 
information on these subjects. To stamp some of my collec- 
tions with the immortality of print, was ever a proud and 
flattering hope ; to connect the publication with one district 
of " the emerald isle," was yet more alluring. Every spot 
of the scenery, and every monument of the antiquities^ of 
England and Scotland, have had their annalists and illus- 
trators; but Ireland was suffered still to remain, the Cinderella 
of the empire in her beauty and her obscurity. Happily, the 
general history of the country has been at length led in by 


dry details of births, marriages, promotions, and deaths; but, 
as far as I could, with such a foliage of achievements as 
leaves the trunk and its ramifications but secondary ob- 
jects. Such memoirs have, however^ been introduced only 
in respect to families long identified with localities within the 
courvty, and whose representatives exhibited an interest in 
the undertaking. 

Much as the work has grown beyond the original con- 
ception, my greatest labour has been to compress my mate- 
rials ; yet were these entirely the result of my individual 
researches and personal inquiries, with the exception, in the 
County History, of some very interesting communications, 
most kindly volunteered by Mr. George Alexander Hamilton 
of Hampton, and some valuable ancient maps and surveys by 
Mr. John Taylor of Newbrook, Rathfarnham; and in the 
Memoirs, of some original letters by Mr. Matthew O'Conor, 
and some interesting particulars relative to the later Ro- 
man Catholic Archbishops by the Rev. Mr, Woods. The 
other gentlemen of the county, the farmers, and the ma- 
nufacturers in every order and grade, exhibited a most 
repulsive determination to deny their answers to my statisti- 
cal inquiries : for accuracy in notices on such subjects, I can, 
therefore, be hardly held responsible, although I have 
used my best exertions to attain it. In reference to other 
sources of information, searches in the public Record Offices 
could not be accomplished, without such a privileged admis- 
sion from Government as I should Qot presume to solicit ; 
and even the manuscripts in Trinity College are so herme- 
tically sealed, as noticed in the " Memoirs/' &c., p. 247, 
as leave them, even with the anxiety to oblige, which their 
guardian, the Rev. Mr. Todd, always evinces, wholly un- 
available. One source more remains to be alluded to — the 
manuscripts in the Evidence Chamber at the castle of the 
Earl of Howth; I have to acknowledge, with the deepest gra- 
titude, offers of the most iberal and confidential access 


thereto ; but, while I am led to appreciate his lordship's col- 
lections, as the most valuable for illostrating the history of 
the Pale, circumstances, which I could not control, denied me 
the leisure for sudi minute inspection as they would require, 
and fi>r &e memoir of the St Lawrence family, the history of 
the country afforded ample materials, without intruding on 
any private repository. 

Profesttonal avocations have retarded ^e completion of 
these works, and prevented audi a close correction of die 
proofii as might best improve the style; but this, at least, I am 
proud to say, that in all the details, (with the exception of the 
paper), they are Irish manufacture ; and, although I feel most 
gratefol to Messrs. Longman and Co. for the polite ofl^r of 
their London imprimatur, and services as publishers, it was a 
gratification I could not forego, to see the title page stamped 
with the more national attestation of '* Dublin — Hddges and 



In consequence of the size of this vohme, the list of the 
subscribers to it and the '< Memoirs/' kc,, has heenprejited to 
the latter work. 



Dublin, the metropolitan county of Ireland, is 
bounded on the south by the county Wicklow ; on 
the west by that of Kildare, on the north by Meath; 
and on the east by the Irish Sea. It extends from 
north to south thirty English miles, from east to 
west about eighteen, and contains, according to the 
survey and valuation return of 1824,* 147,884 Irish 
acres, i. e. 237,74 r acres in English admeasurement, 
exclusive of the city, and the liberties of Donore and 
St, Sepulchre's thereto annexed. Of this quantity about 

* This return^ which was in truth but a transcript of the scale for road 
assessments in this county, as recognized in the act of 1763 hereafter 
particularly mentioned, and based on immemorial local subsidies, is an 
exceedingly defective, but as yet, unfortunately, the best criterion; 
the trigonometrical survey of this county not being completed suf- 
ficiently to verify a total estimate. Through the kindness, however, 
of Lieutenant Larcom, a return of the parochial acreable contents is 
promised for this work, as accurately as can at present be ascertained, 
and within the requisite time. 



16,000 Irish acres have been calculated as waste, while 
the church lands are returned as 8,966a. 3r. 17p. 
arable and pasture, exclusive of 385 acres of mountain 
and bog ; the commons. Archer,* at the commence- 
ment of this century, calculated as 2,560 Irish acres. 
Happily, however, the last item has been greatly 
diminished since his time, and much excellent but 
long neglected land has, by inclosure, been made the 
object of individual interest and improvement. 

The -city is considered to have derived its name 
from the " black channel" of the Liffey, and to have 
communicated the appellation to the surrounding 
county, which comprises six baronies and one half 
barony, viz. Coolock, Balrothery, Nethercross, and 
Castleknock, on the north side of the river Liffiey ; 
ctnd Newca^e, Uppercross, and Half Rathdown, on 
the south ; while these civil divisions are ecclesias- 
tically portioned into eighty-seven parishes, and 
eighteen parts of parishes, conta»ing, in the yet more 
minute subdhrision of townlands, 693 denominations. 

In 1795 the population of this county was oalcn- 
lated as 54,000. In 1813 it w«s stated to be 110,437. 
In 1821 the census returned it as 125,625, and in 
1831 as 151,228; exclusive, however, in the two 
latter instimoes, of the liberties of Donore and St. 
Sepulchre*s, which are classed Jn connexion with the 
city ; while the number of houses in the county, as 
90 defined, were duly Teported to be, in 1821, 19,966, 
and in 1831, 22,385. 

♦ Statistical Survey of the County of Dublin. 


A table of the comparative population of Ireland, 
at different periods, witji the authori);ies on which 
each estimate is ground^, may be coa8i4ered of 
sufficieuit interest to justify its iQtroduction here» 
premising that Sir William Petty, in his Political 
Aritihmetic, conjectaces it to have been, at the time 
of the English invasion, not much moi-e than 300,000. 
This number, by the ordinary course of generation^ 
he calculates would, in 500 years, allowing for epi- 
demics, famines, wars, &c., increase to 1,200,000, 
which, he says, was the population of Ireland in 1641 ; 
hut soon afterwards so more than decimated by the 
civil war and feuds of the disastrous period that 
immediately ensued, as fully to justify the reduction 
made by the same political economist, and which forms 
the iirst item in the following table : — 

1652 Sir Wm. Petty, 850,000 
1672 Sir Wm. Petty, 1,100,000 

Same, corrected, l,ddO,000 

1695 Captain South, 1,084,102 
1712 Thomas Dobbs, 2,099,094 
1718 The same, 2,169.048 

1725 The same, 2,317,374 

1 726 The same, 2,309, 1 06 
1731 Poll tax return, 2,010,221 
1754 Hearth money 

collectors, 2,372,634 
1762DeBurgo, 2,317,384 
1767 Hearth money 

collectors, 2,544,276 

1777 The same, 


1785 The same. 


1787 Dublin Chro- 



1788 Gervase P. 



1791 Hearth mone) 




179J2 RevDr.Beaufort 4,088,226 

1805 Thomas New- 



1814 Census, 


1821 Census^ 


1831 Census, 


* This estimate is rather noticed on account of the remarkable sub. 
division which it makes of this total, viz. : — 




This county, excepting a mountainous tract at the 
south, is very fertile, and exceeds any other in the 
kingdom in culture, trade, and wealth ; yet its pro- 
ductiveness is more attributable to its position in the 
vicinity of the metropolis, than to the natural quality 
of the soil, which, if it were not husbanded with large 
outlays of capital, and all the refreshments of compost 
that the city and the sea supply, would fail to present 
such a robe of richness and verdure as it now exhibits. 
Neither does the scenery in general derive its 
greatest beauty from its own resources, the perspec- 
tive of the bay of Dublin and the Wicklow mountains, 
communicating to almost every view its softest and 
finest finish. It is not, however, to be concluded, that 
the county is deficient in picturesque attractions of 
its own. Scenes of singular, but unappreciated love- 
liness, occur in various localities^ as shall be particu- 
larly pointed out in the progress of the work. Nor 
does it want its own bold mountains, its dark wooded 
glens, its graceful river, its meandering streams, and 
its sacred islands ; there is but one feature of the pic- 

In Uie army, indadiDg in- 
valids . . 12,000 

In the revenue, . 4,000 

Employed in manafactures520,000 

Mariners, fishermen, and 
boatmen . . 46,000 

Handicrafts and trades- 
men . 580,000 

Shopkeepers, dealers, and 

pedlars, . . 260,000 

Resident nobility and 

gentry . . 10,000 

Labourers employed, . 600,000 
Children, . . 400,000 

Merchants, . . 2,500 

Clergy of all denomina- 
tions, . . 11,500 
Men of the law, doctors, 

and surgeons, . . 5,200 

Unemployed poor, idlers, 
and vagrants, . 550,000 



turcsque in which it had been somewhat cheated, it 
has no silver lake 

«< That to the fringed bank^ 
Her crystal mirror holds.** 

The southern district is almost entirely a range 
of granite hills, the loftiest of which, Garrycastle, 
attains an elevation of 18G9 feet above the level of 
the sea, while in the van, and the most remarkable 
in the group, the Three Rock Mountain rears its 
mystic, crowning monuments to a similar elevation of 
1585 feet. 

The Liffey, of which a more particular account 
shall be given in its proper place, intersects the 
county, and is the only river of note that wanders 
through it. The baronies south of this river have 
a gentle inclination towards the sea, are well supplied 
with water from the mountains behind them, and 
thickly peopled, and ornamented with elegant villas 
and demesnes. Those at the northern side contain 
also many spacious and beautiful parks and residences, 
but, not being in equally fashionable estimation, are 
not so thickly studded with seats and improve* 

As has been remai*ked, there are no lakes here, 
but neither are there, with the exception of some 
tracts upon and between the mountains of Montpe- 
lier, Cruagh, and Kilmashogue, Glancree, Kippure, 
and GlancuUen, those deforming bogs, in which the 
crystal brightness of too many Irish lakes is set. 
Two canals, injudiciously approximated to each 


Other, the one the Royal, north of the LiflPey, the 
other the Grand, south of it, extend their parallel 
lines of navigation across the county, and thence 
respectively communicate with the lordly Shannon. 

On the geology of the county in general, Pro- 
fessor Scouler supplies the following observations : — 

" The vicinity of Dublin offers a great variety of 
interesting matter for the study of the geologist. 
Within a very limited distance from the capital, we 
are presented with an important series both of pri- 
mary and secondary rocks. To the south of the bay. 
Primary Rocks alone occur ; which are remarkable 
not only from their variety, but from the indications 
of violence exhibited in the contortions of the strata, 
the intrusion of granitic veins into the micaceous 
schist, and the chemical changes which the schists 
have suffered when in contact with the granite. The 
primary rocks consist of a central ridge of granite, 
on each side of which the micaceous and argillaceous 
schists, the quartz rock, and mountain limestone are 
arranged. This granite chain extends from Kings- 
town on the North into the county of Waterford on 
the South, a distance of nearly sixty miles. 

" In the vicinity of Dublin the course of the 
granite chain is well ascertained: it extends from 
Dalkey Island to Black Rock, and from thence passes 
southward to Dundrum and Rathfamham ; it then 
crosses the Military Road behind Montpellier hill, 
and running across the northern extremity of Glenis- 
maule, forms the basis of Seechon, and consequently 
supports the schist which constitutes the greater por- 


tion of that hill. On the east, that is, next the sem 
the boundary of the granite i& very apparent ; from 
Dalkey it runs along the shore to Killiney, from 
thence it runs inland to Rochestown hill, extending 
in nearly a right line to the Scalp, passing on to 
Glancree and Lough Dan, holding a southerly 

** This central granite ridge includes some of the 
loftiest hills in the vicinity, they are, however, rivalled 
by the adjoining quartz mountain, called the greater 
Sugar Loaf, and the schistose mountains of Seechon 
and of Djouce. This granite ridge is destitute of 
the sharp and spiry outlines which so often charac- 
terize mountains composed of this rock ; a circum- 
stance apparently dependent on the inconsiderable 
elevation of the hills, and also on the very decom- 
posible nature of some of the kinds of this rock, which 
disentegrate rapidly with exposure to the weather. 

" The mineral nature of the granite in general ex- 
hibits, nevertheless, but little variety, and is almost 
completely free from hornblende or other ingredients, 
not essential to its character. The felspar is for the 
most part of a pearly whiteness, and forms a striking 
contrast with the black mica. The stone is much 
employed for architectural purposes in Dublin and 
the vicinity, and considerable quantities of it are ex- 
ported to Liverpool, and there employed for paving 
the streets. Near Killiney, at the junction of the 
granite with the schist, the quality of the former 
is rather different from that obtained in the quarries 
near Kingstown. It is harder; and the mica, in- 


stead of occurring in plates, has assumed the form 
of plumose mica. At Glancullen, Glenismaule, 
&;c., the granite is more coarse-grained and the 
mica is of light colour, forming large hexagonal 
plates, sometimes half an inch in breadth. This 
variety is less compact than the granite of Killiney, 
and contains more felspar and mica ; hence, perhaps, 
its more decomposible nature. In the vicinity of 
Glenismaule the granite is often completely disinte- 
grated for a depth of four feet or more ; and the de- 
cay of the rock would proceed with great rapidity, if 
the covering of peat did not afford a protection 
against the destructive effects of the weather. This 
decomposed granite sand is brought to Dublin under 
the name of freestone, and is employed for scouring 
and other domestic purposes. 

" The mass of granite, whose limits have been de- 
fined, is almost every where in contact with the mi- 
caceous schist, both on its western and eastern flanks, 
and the junction of the rocks may be studied at Kil- 
liney, the Scalp, and Rathfamham. In the first of 
these situations, the schist is seen resting on its up- 
turned edges, on a basis of granite, and traversed by 
numerous veins of that substance. As the granite 
veins run in two directions they often intersect, and 
one set runs parallel to the lamination of the schist, 
while a second set cuts across the strata. Many of 
these veins contain fragments of the schistose rock. 
Along the line of junction of the two rocks, the schist 
is much curved, and contains abundance of crystals 
of chiastolite arranged in stelliform groups. The 


schist is not the only rock which is in contaet with 
the granite ; for, from Black-Rock to Dundrum, the 
limestone succeeds the granite, and consequently the 
whole series of primary strata are absent The ac- 
tual contact of the two rocks has not been observed; 
but at Black-Rock they are within a few jrards of 
each other ; and the limestone is extremely compact, 
consisting of angular fragments, as if it had been 
shivered into small pieces and subsequently reunited. 
The quartz rock of Shankhill, if not in actual con- 
tact with the granite, is only separated from it by the 
intervention of a thin film of micaceous schist ; and 
at Ballinascomey, the argillaceous schist is not far re- 
moved from the granite; but, as the two schists gra- 
duate into each other, it is not easy to characterize 
them, in every instance, by precise miheralogical dis- 

" The Micaceous Schist occurs both on the eas- 
tern and western flanks of the granite ; on the east it 
commences at Killiney, occupies the eastern side of 
Rochestown hill, and extends from thence to the Scalp, 
where it is seen reposing on the granite, much con- 
torted, and containing crystals of Andalusite. From 
the Scalp, it passes to the west of Enniskerry, and 
constitutes the rocks of Powerscourt waterfall ; and 
still continuing its southerly direction, it passes by 
the head of Glancree, constitutes Djouce mountain, 
and may be seen in contact with the granite at the 
upper extremity of Loch Dan. On the western side, 
the micaceous schist commences at Rathfamham, and 
the junction of the' two rocks may be seen, on the 


road side, near the commencement of the Military 
Road ; it then runs across Glenismaule and forms the 
mountain of Seechon. 

^ The micaceous schist exhibits the usual mineral 
characters of that rock, md consists of a mixture of 
quartz and mica, in variable pr(^ortions. Sometimes, 
alternating laminae of the two ingredients are so fine, 
that the mica aj^ars to preponderate, and the quartz 
is not so apparent : on the other hand, the quartz 
sometimes attains the thickness of an inch, and almost 
excludes the tiaica. Not unfrequently the quartz is 
replaced by argillaceous laminae, and thus the rock 
passes into an argillaceous schist; which, when in 
contact with the granite, is sometimes changed into 
hornblende schist. At Killiney the schist exhibits 
a peculiar mode of decomposition, which it is diffi- 
cult to explain. At first little circular depressions 
may be observed in the schist, and as these enlarge, 
little cavities are formed, often the size of an orange, 
and giving the rock a remarkably corroded i^pearance, 
as if it had been an amygdaloid which had lost its 
mineral nodules. This, however, is not the case in 
the present instance, for the cavities are not caused 
by the falling out of nodules or portions of conglome- 
rate, but appear to depend on some ill understood 
concretionary structure. 

*< The mica schist is followed by Argillaceous 
Schist and Quartz Rock ; the former occurring on 
both sides of the granite chain, whilst the latter is 
only found on its eastern side : quartz rock also ap- 
pears on the north side of the bay, constituting the 


peninsula of Howth. The schist occurs in continuous 
strata, which may be traced over a wide extent of 
country, but the quartz rock is found only in detached 

" On the eastern side of the granite ridge, the 
argillaceous schist, being the outennost of the rocks 
on that side, is bounded by the sea. The other mar- 
gin of the clay strata is bounded by the micaceous 
schist, and may be defined by a line drawn from 
Shankhill and passing to Enniskerry, and to the west 
of the great Sugar Loaf, and continuing in the same 
direction beyond Loch Dan. It includes the country 
around Bray, the Dargle, and Glen of the Downs ; 
and also includes several extensive masses of quartz 
rock, such as Shankhill, the two Sugar Loafs, Bray 
Head, the Glen of the Downs, &c. 

" On the western side of the granite ridge, the 
commencement of the argillaceous schist may be seen, 
beyond Rathfamham, where it is bounded by the 
river Dodder, which separates it from the micaceous 
schist ; it then passes to the west of Seechon till it 
reaches the sources of the Liffey. There is often 
considerable difficulty in tracing the junction of the 
two schistose rocks, as they pass into each other by 
insensible gradations, and have both been greatly 
disturbed and contorted. The lower parts of the 
argillaceous schists often pass into grey wacke schist, 
viz., into schist containing fragments of schistose rocks, 
which are fine in some cases, as near Bray, while 
they are coarse conglomerates near the Tallagh Hills. 

" Near the granite, these rocks undergo a very 
remarkable change ; and, as we trace them, they gra- 


dually lose the stratified appearance, and even their 
schistose structure ; they have become, in short, hard 
and compact, passing into a very close*grained green 
stone, consisting of hornblende and felspar, and, where 
the crystals of felspar attain a larger size, a green* 
stone porphyry is the result. In the ravines, portions 
of schorl in acicular crystals are very common, but 
they have not been traced to their source. 

*< Lambay Island, to the north of Dublin, may be 
included under the head of argillaceous schist The 
island consists of strata of schist and beds of green 
stone and porphyry. The schistose strata are much 
indurated, and are contorted in a most intricate 
manner, and these contortions occur both on the 
minute and the great scale. These strata often 
lose their stratified appearance and pass into green 
stone and porphyry. The porphyry is sometimes 
amygdaloidal, containing nodules of calcareous spar. 
The crystals of felspar often exhibit a very peculiar 
laminar structure. 

" The Quartz Rock exists in two states, either 
alternating with schist, and in that case decidedly 
stratified, or destitute of all foreign intermixture, and 
in these examples the stratification is very indistinct. 
The hills composed of quartz rock are easily recog- 
nized by their conical outline, a circumstance which 
has served to give names to some of them. The 
chief masses of quartz are Bray Head and Howth, 
in which it alternates with schistose strata ; Shank* 
hill, and the greater and lesser Sugar Loaf, in which 
no schistose strata occur. 

*' The quartz of the peninsula of Howth exhibits 


the phenomenon of contorted strata in a very beau- 
tiful manner. The stratification is very obvious, and 
the schistose beds exhibit a great diversity of hues 
from purple to red, thus rendering the contortions 
more apparent. Some of the strata rest on their 
edges, others are undulated, and sometimes curved 
upon themselves, so as to resemble the concentric 
crusts of some spheroidal concretion. The same phe- 
nomenon is observable at Bray. 

" The only secondary rock, that occurs in the vi- 
cinity of Dublin, is the Mountain Limestone, which 
constitutes all the country beyond the primary strata; 
occupying the counties of Meath and Kildare, and 
greater part of the county of Dublin. No limestone 
is found in the county of Wicklow, and the farmers 
of that county, on the eastern or sea side, obtain their 
supplies from Howth or from the beds of stratified 
calcareous alluvium, the only condition under which 
limestone occurs in that county. On the opposite 
side of the county the supplies of lime for building 
and agricultural purposes are chiefly drawn from the 
county of Carlow. 

" The limestone exists in two very distinct states 
in the vicinity of Dublin ; in the one it has the cha- 
racter of the ordinary carboniferous limestone, con- 
taining the usual organic remains; but near the 
primary strata it is very impure, has a schistose struc- 
ture, contains but few organic remains, and is the 
Calp of Kirwan. The calp is distinctly stratified, 
the strata seldom exceeding two feet in thickness, 
and being separated by thin beds of slate clay. This 


limestone, which is much used for architectural pur- 
poses, occurs in many localities furound Dublin^ and 
every where exhibits marks of contortion and vio- 
lence. At Lucan there is a beautiful example of 
(Contorted limestone strata; and equally interesting 
instimces may be seen at Portrane, where the sea 
coast has exposed numerous sectiodQs, in which the 
nature of the ealp is fully displayed. 

<< Besides the calp, magnesian limestone occurs in 
a few localities, as at Howth, near the junction of the 
primary and seecmdary strata, at Malahide, and on 
the Dodder between Milltown and Classon Bridge. 
This limestone contains no organic remains, but oc- 
casionally, as at Howth, we find it contains imbedded 
fragments of the mountain Umestone." 

Some few occurrences of interest, respecting the 
geology and mineralogy of particular localities, shall 
be there respectively sUU;ed, to which subdivision of 
the subject all botanic notices are wholly referred, as 
are also some few remarks on the conchology. 

The agricultural use and experience of the county 
is greatly curtailed by the appropriation of so large a 
portion of its surface to the enjoyment of the gentry ; 
and, although the rocky basements of the hills are 
yielding daily to the hand of industry and the pro- 
gress of civilization, yet the vegetable productions are 
not much augmented thence, as the reclaimed ground 
is generally anticipated for country houses and plea- 
sure grounds. The agriculture of the county, how- 
ever, is not within the scope of this work5 and would 
require the devotion of an exclusive volume, and 


the investigation of one better acquainted with the 
subject, than the author of this could profess to be ; 
but the following table of the succession of its fistirs, 
arranged in the order of the year, may not be deemed 
unworthy of insertion. 

Carrickmines, .... 1 2th January. 

Tallow, 1st Tuesday in March. 

Swords, 17th March. 

Carrickmines (two days), . 14th and 15th April. 

Skerries, 28th Do. 

Balbriggan, 29th Do. 

Bray, 1st May. 

Rusb, 1st Do. 

Lusk, 4th Do. 

Garristown, 5th Do. 

Balrothery, 6th Do. 

Newcastle, 9tTi Do. 

Swords, 9th Do. 

Kilsallaghan, Ascension Thursday. 

Fieldstown, Whit-Monday. 

Carridcmines, .... 24th June. 

Saggard, 1st Thursday after Tri- 
nity Sunday. 

Tallagh, 7th July. 

Rathfarnham, ..... 10th Do. 

Swords, 12th Do. 

Ludk, 13th Do. 

St. Margaret's, .... 30th Do. 

Skerries, 10th August. 

Balrothery, 12th Do. 


Grarristown, 15th August, 

Palmerstown, 2l8t Do. 

Ballyinore Eustace, . . . 26th Do. 

Donnybrook, 26th Do. 

Kilsallaghan, 8th Do. 

Swords, 10th Do. 

Balbriggan, 29th Do. 

Rush, . 29th Do. 

Bray, 20th September. 

Newcastle, 8th October. 

Rathmichael, 10th Do. 

Saggard, 10th Do. 

Carrickmines (two days), . 14th and 15th Do. 

Ballymore Eustace, . . . 29th Do. 

Grarristown, . . . . . 1st November. 

Swords, 5th Do. 

Saggard,. ...... 8th Do. 

Tallagh, 9th Do. 

Lusk, 25th Do. 

Mr. Arthur Younge, in 1779, fixed the average 
acreable rent in this county at £l 11^. 6d. making 
thereby the annual rental of the whole, according to 
his estimate of acres, £194,959- Double that total 
might perhaps now be more correctly set down as such 
rental, while the wages of the labourer varies from 
five to nine shillings per week. As both these sub- 
jects, however, formed substantive objects of local 
inquiry for this work, the reader will be able to draw 
his own conclusions from subsequent details. 

The various antiquities, which have been suffered 


to survive cover the face of the county, as churches^ 
abbeys, castle^ round towers, raths, cromlechs, crosses, 
&c., are referred to the localities where they occur ; 
and it here but remains to detail such records, as are 
not peculiarly applicable to any of these localities, but 
more or less co-extensive with the county at large. 

In the historic notices of this portion of Ireland, it is not in- 
tended to wander back to those dim periods when the merchants 
of Phoenicia and of Greece, passing through the Straita<]f Gades, 
braved the waters of a troubled ocean to traffic with the *' sacred 
isle;" not that the intercourse, in its highest antiquity, is discre- 
dited by the author of these pages, who has already, in his Essay 
on Ancient Ireland, published in the Sixteenth Volume of the 
Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy, solemnly certified his 
allegiance to the opinion; but, in truth, the fanaticism of modern 
charlatans and the lunacy of etymologists make e?en those most 
cherished retrospects unwelcome and unaccredited. 

The earliest accurate notice here cited, and that obviously^ de- 
signates this district, is happilv to be found in a source with which 
no scepticism in Irish antiquity can cavil, the not more elegant than 
faithful and instructive pages of Tacitus. It occurs in his *' Life 
of Agricola," whose observing eye, as he testifies, did not overlook 
the political phasis of this « little isle of the ocean." 

** Agricola," says the justly honoured historian, << passing over 
in the first ship, subdued in frequent victories nations hitherto 
unknown, and stationed troops along that part of Britain which 
looks to Ireland, more in hope than fear, since Ireland, from its 
situation between Britain and Spain, and opening to the Gallic 
sea, might well connect the most powerful parts of the empire 
with reciprocal advantages. Its extent, compared with Britain, is 
narrower, but exceeds that of any islands of our sea ; the soil and 
climate, as well as the genius and habits of the people, do not 
much differ from those of Britain. Its channels and harbours are 
better known to commerce and to merchants. Agricola gave his 
protection to one of its petty kings, who had been expelled by 
faction, and, with an affectation of friendship, retiuned him for his 



own purposes. I often heard him say that Irebtid could be con- 
quered and held with one legion and a small reserve, and such a 
measure would have its advantage even as regards Britain, « if Ro- 
man power were extended on every side, and liberty taken away, 
as it were, from the view of the latter island.*' 

Here then in the zenith of that power, and even by Agricola 
himself, Ireland was regarded with a deep and cautious policy, as 
the depot where the imperial resources might be best employed, 
and by whose possession, the chains not only of Britain, but like- 
wise of Spain and Gaul, might be most effectually riveted. Here, 
in the hope of realizing a wily speculation of its conquest, that 
very Agricola is discovered, with an assumed friendliness, alike in- 
jurious to his own honour and that of Rome, welcoming to his 
camp one of the petty princes of that country, whom domestic 
seditions had expatriated, insinuating himself into the confidence 
of this Themistocles of the west, questioning him as to the re- 
sources of the envied island, whose coasts and harbours he knew 
were the resorts of merchants, yet assured by his informant, with 
a cunning suited to his purpose, and which possibly might have 
been warranted by a similar state of faction and disunion to that 
which crowned Strongbow's incursion with success, that Ireland 
could be conquered with a single legion ; while the fears of that 
great commander are betrayed, lest the liberty, which was then 
(Enjoyed in that country, as it were in the very view of Britain, 
might {Prejudice the Roman tyranny in England, until, coerced by 
these apprehensions, though unwilling to confess them, he stu. 
diously fortified with peculiiar strength, and garrisoned with his 
choicest forces, that part of Britain that looked to this important 

It is a flattering, a classical tribute to the nation, but neither 
should the reproach of the record be overlooked ; — ^the remote 
prescription of disunion which it sadly testifies. Would that 
Irishmen, so long divided, could be taught the mutual errors that 
even from that distant period continued to estrange them, that 
threw them at the feet of every adventurer, who was encouraged 
to their subjugation, distracted them from the enjoyment and 
diffusion of those social atid political blessings which a gifted 
country and k fine people should otherwise have insured ; and that 


3(illy 88 bysom^ provoked dSspeiEis&ttoti of Providence^ l^ved them 
<< in thick darkness, even darkness which may be felt," while 
the children of the rest of the world have ^< light in thehr dwel« 

The justice of Agricola's apprehensionSj and the prudence of 
h^.policy, were fitted (obQ.ev.incpd in nfeiy ages after himself had 
quit the scene, and it was from this very district that the Irish 
chieftain Crimthan, mentioned hereafter at ^'Howthy^is said to huve 
led those hardy bands of Scots, (for Ireland was the. only country 
then called Scot ia*. and its people Scots,), whose efforts redut^ed the 
Britens and British Romans to the verge of destruction and an« 
nihi1a;tion, .as recorded by Ammianus Marcellinus^ CUiudian, 
Gildas^ Zosimus, and Bede. . . 

Nevertheless, tbe country of their succ^^ful opponents conti* 
nued, throughout this. interval, utterly unknown to the Romans, 
and it was only fh>m the Phoenicians, thobe merchants to whom 
the notice i>{. Tacitus refers, that Ptolemy was enabled to give.tQ 
the, world the accounts of the, situation and circumstances of Iror 
land, which, he published in his Geography at the close of .th0 
secoad.centiiiT. .^He. therein not oiily described, but deline^ed, 
the shores, lakes, rivers, promontories, hills, and cities of Ireland, 
with an accuracy *vbich bimaelf attributes to the discoveries con- 
$equent upon the Phoeniciaa commerce thither,, and especially to 
the information he received from Marinus of Tyre; and his lon- 
gitudes and latitudes, names tod desoriptions of Irish places, are 
accordingly more pure and correct than those of Strabo, or any 
other Roman writer. 

In reference to the district now defined as the county of 
DubHn, this eminent. geographer .places, the £blaoi north of a 
river, between th^ Ovoca and the Boyne (Buvinda), on which the 
metropolis,. Eblana, is marked as situated ; while at its southern 
side, and thence to the sea, the Cauci are allocated, a tribe whom 
Ware and oth^ cpnsider of German extraction. The native 
authorities, as collected in the Book of Lecan^ state in reference 
to the same period, that the maritime part of this county north of 
the Liffey, was ancient^ called Almain, and its inhabitants the 
AloHml, while the southeni portion of the county is, by Jthe same 
authorities, assigned to the Atadii. 



The Roman map of Ireland did, however, at length appear in 
the *fth century, for to this period Richard of Cirencester attri- 
butes that which he discovered in Italy, transcribed, as he says, 
<* ex fragmentis quibusdam a Duce quodam Romano consignatiset 
posteritati relictis." But even it, at such an advanced era, b by 
no means so accurate as Ptolemy's, although very valuable as an 
evidence of Roman ideas of Ireland. This, too, marks the Cauci 
as inhabiting the southern part of the county. 

Some few centuries after the establishment of Christianity in 
Ireland in the fifth century, those districts of the country, known 
by the name of CrocesB or Crosslands, were dedicated to the 
church, and most extensive jurisdiction was given to the abbots 
and bishops therein. Such were the Croce» of Ulster, Kilkenny, 
Meath, Kildare, Louth, Kerry, Navan, Ferns, Carlow, Wexford, 
Leighlin, &c., and such, more particularly as concerns this history, 
were the Croce» or liberties of the cross of the Archbishop of 
Dublin : and, as in England, the symbol of triumphant Christianity 
was frequently set up to mark the boundaries of civil districts, so 
in Ireland, but with more propriety, crosses, some of them very 
handsomely ornamented, were erected to distinguish the eccle- 
siastical possessions. 

The cross lands of Dublin appear to have been partly in the 
northern, and partly in the southern sections of the county, and 
indeed the names of two of its baronies, so respectively situated, 
Nether-Cross, and Upper-Cross, although not of course precisely 
commensurate with the ancient croceae,* do still designate large 
portions of their superficies, and exhibit, in the scattered and in- 
sulated state of their component parts, the natural consequence of 
uniting in one civil division tracts so adventitiously appropriated. 
The Northern Crocese retain some of the actual crosses as at St. 
Doulogh's and Finglas, while another, called pardon cross, is par- 
ticularly recorded as having been erected at Swords, Clondalkin, 
TuUagh, St. Anne's, the Kill of the Grange, Kiltuc, and Rath- 

• For example, Holmpatrick, Lambay, and Ireland's Eye, were in 
the Northern Croceae, though the first is now accounted in Balrothery, 
the two last in Coolock Barony ; and Tawney, now classed in Rath- 
down, was then in the Southern Croceae. 


michael by similar emblems seem to demarcate somewhat of the 
extent of the Southern CrocesB. 

Crosses were in truth the first objects to which k was sought, 
by various inducements and associations, to attach the reverence 
of the people, and were multiplied according to the facility of col- 
lecting Christian congregations. As they demonstrated ecclesi- 
astical retreats and possessions, so did they also assert the dignity 
jof ecclesiastical jurisdiction, and, when the guilty fugitive placed 
himself within the cbrcle of their authority, and sat down in sin 
and sorrow beneath their shadow, municipal punishment and pri^ 
vate revenge were alike disarmed. Such was the cross alluded te 
as having stood near the archiepiscopal palace at Swords, and 
which retained in the latest notice of its existence the epithet of 
** pardon cross ;" such also appear to have been those two remark- 
able specimens still visible inTullagh, as hereafter mentioned at that 
locality. The sanctuaries, it may be observed, extended south, 
east, and west of the adjacent churches, and accordingly, even te 
this day, popular superstition particularly points to these direc- 
tions, and never in any variation selects the unhallowed north for 
interments. Crosses were likewise set up in market places to inw 
dnce the attention of assembled worldlings to religious reflections, 
and check the violators of temperance, honesty, and social order, 
by the presence of that awful symbol of the Redeemer's sufferings. 
. During the two centuries and a half of tyranny and military 
despotism, in which the Danes and Norwegians were permitted 
to crush the spirit of Ireland, the vicinity of Dublin suffered in a 
particular degree by their harassing incursions, and even when 
their general authority as a dominant nation was broken down at 
the memorable battle of Clontarf, this county was especially ex- 
posed to their predatory and revengeful assaalts. Of these latter, 
the most remarkable occurred in the year 1070, when Godred 
Crovan, a general under Harold Hardradfi, King of Norway, 
having fled from England on the defeat and death of his royal 
master at Stainford Bridge, after some months' sojourn in the 
Hebrides, collected such a body of adherents as enabled him to 
possess himself at first of the Isle of Man, and subsequently (ac- 
cording to the Chronicon Mannia) of Dublin and the adjacent 


in iriie emuiiig^sentury, immediately after the eueoetaiid in- 
vasion of the Earl of Clare, those, his fbUowen, who, by* Toyal 
Kcense, were sufiered to carve out with their sword» the fature 
-inheritance of their posterity, eagerly contended for the allocation 
of that inheritance in the Yidnity of the metropolis of Ireland ; 
and when, aubtequently^ King Henry the Second held his oeuii 
4n the village ef Hegges, whidi, though now a poptdous street io 
the heart of the ohy, sttR retains the rural name of CoUege-Grei^ 
'the claims of his Cavountes for subinfeudations in thb dtstcicl, 
4uider the paiAmount Lord de Lacy^ were urged with "all the taeal 
«and importunity which theselection merited^ 

There, wilh royal munificence the monarch confirmed the 
grants of' Strongbow, adding new donations and endowments 
with a liberality that laid the foundations of the greatest families 
and religious houses in the county. There, while he sojourned, 
the native chieftains gladly crowded into the pageantciee that 
surrounded him^ the rights and wrongs of a natios were focgotten 
in the splendours of his court, and the sterner qualities of the 
Irish warriors melted away in the diffusion of sociid intercourse 
and friendly communication. To them, strangers as they were 
to the grandeur of feudal life, every thing wore an air of magaifr- 
cent novelty ; the pastimes and revelries, masking, mumming and 
strange shows, the << instruments of sound," the tih and tourna- 
ment, the gorgeous ornaments, the tables replenished with such 
varieties of viands, the wines and spices, the array of all the offi- 
cers, the gentlemen, esquires, knights, and barons, in their rich 
attire, glittering through the precincts of the court, or careering 
over the field with their horses barbed and mailed, the king him- 
self in all the attractions of condescension, and more than wonted 
pomp, all contributed to beguile and delude the simple spectur 
tors, they yielded to the spell of sumptuous indolence, and the 
strong man was lulled in the lap of luxury. 

The years that immediately succeeded carry a deep but me- 
lancholy ipterest ^ feudal principles and passions were introduced 
into the country, not with the magnificence and chivalry that are 
their usual associates, but debased by the wants and necessities 
with which they were mixed up, and stimulated into riotous deso- 
lation by the impunity with which they might be exercised in this 


then comparfiUveJy remote couatry. The epochs o| history hc^ 
e^me bec^coqs of guilt and oppression, and, like the crosses ih$/L 
.maei tho trA?eUer in southern din^ates, but point wbece gnult had 
done its wock* The oouotry, as far as ijt vas piecatioualy subr- 
jectedto fofeign pover, was cantoned among adventwren, vboae 
direct iotefest it was to exterminsle and debase the old iphabl- 
taats. Strong to oppress, but feeble to govern, they persuaded 
the Kjng of England that it i^ss uqfit to communicate the laws of 
^t country to their victims in this, that it was the best p<^cy !• 
hold them as aliens, aftd enemies, and to prosecute them wjlh. a 
'Continual war* The historian of the Crusades remarks, that Irck- 
ia«d was by -Hoary the Second connected with England, « sous 
le titre d'esclave, plutot que de sujette." Indeed, it would seem 
9» if nothing but the ueiressity of using the Irish as slaves and 
viUeius prevented their utter extirpation, until at length* 9^ 
Sir John Davis remarks, " these large scopes of land and gisat 
libertiesi with the absolMte power to make war ao4 peace, did 
raise the English lords to that height of pridd and ambition as 
that they cpuld not pndure one another/'* 
,, Thu^ AS well among the English adventurers as the Irish 
niLtiye^jffictioni^d civil ^ar had shed their baoeful seeds in a 
soil uuhappUy too apt for such a harvest ; feuds and rebellions 
sprai^ up lumiriautly in every province, the march of civiliution 
was interrupted, and even the scanty streams of justice, which tho 
betl^r^ p<4i(:y of government might from time to time have 
permitted to flaw» we^e clogged or corrupted in their gloomy 

Happily the times are come, when such scenes are but of 
retrospect, the rising generation can recall them with thefeellnga 
el the crew who had worked through the rocks and .survived the 
storm* The tossing of the waves may yet be viable even in their 
wake, but the prospect is clearing, and Religion, surrounded once 
again with all all her Christian charities, like the Spirit of God, 
is moving over the face of the waters.. 

It is confidently asserted, and does not seem improbable, that 
in consequence, and as an exposition of the grants of Henry the 

* Pavis*s Historical Relations, p. 64. 


Second, a rude survey of Ireland was commenced ; and, on its 
completion, under the direction of King John, was, as it is said, 
deposited in the Abbey of Graigtiemauagh. It was not, however, 
until the year 1210, that the latter monarch erected this district 
into a county ; about which time he granted to its commonalty, 
and to that of the county Meath, the remarkable privilege of 
common of turbary on the great bogs of Garristown and Bal- 
rothery, as more particularly noted hereafter. From that period, 
the county of Dublin always continued to be within the £ngUsh 
Pale, of which, in truth, it long constituted the greater portion. 
Its new character, however, did not extingubh the rights of the 
Croceae ; their bounds, privileges, and jurisdictions, were not suf* 
fered to merge in the civil division, and so absolutely was their 
separation recognized, that even sheriflb were appointed for their 
governinent, distinct from that of the surrounding portions of the 

In 1253, Prince Edward, the son of the English monarch, on 
being married to the Infanta of Spain, was invested by his father 
with the sovereignty of all that part of Ireland then under Eng- 
lish dominion. This county, however, was, with that of Limerick, 
and certam chief towns, excepted from the grant, while a remark* 
able proviso was added, that the territories so conceded should 
never be separated from the crown, but remain for ever to the 
kings of England. The lands which were claimed or possessed 
by the king's subjects in Ireland, were, thereupon, called the lands 
of Lord Edward, and all writs ran in that prince's name. 

In 1297, an ordinance of Parliament was passed, whereby, 
reciting that the county of Dublin was too much disordered and 
confused, and the parts of it too remote and scattered from each 
other, to wit, into Ulster and Meath, and afterwards into Leinster 
and the Vale of Dublin, &C., by which means it was less compe- 
tently serviceable to the king in the execution of his precepts 
and those of his courts, and also, his subjects were thereby not so 
sufficiently ruled without a governor ; it was therefore agreed, 
that for the time to come, there should be appointed a sheriff in 
Ulster, as well of its cross lands, as to make executions in the 
liberty of Ulster, when defect was found in the seneschal of that 
liberty, and that the sheriff of Dubhn should not thereafter inter- 


meddle in Ulster ; and it was also therebj agreed, that Meath 
should be a county of itself, as also Kildare, and each freed from 
the jurisdiction of the sheriff of Dublin.* Measures were hke- 
wise then taken for ascertaining the limits and bounds of eadi 
county respectively. 

Hence it appears what alterations time had already made in 
the counties established by King John in 1210, for, thoij^h that 
prince had, amongst others, constituted as well the counties of 
JKildare and Meath, as Dublin, yet, before the passing this ordi- 
nance, it is manifest that the sheriff of the county of Dubh*!! exer- 
cised his jurisdiction within both the others, as he did within some 
part of Ulster ; a circumstance which probably originated in the 
latter having been cantoned into palatinates, and governed by 
seneschals of the lords palatine, who executed their powers so 
loosely within their several jurisdictions, that the government, 
who had the superintendence of the whole, found it often neces- 
sary to interpose, and, by consent of the lords palatine, or by acts 
of parliament now lost, to enlarge the jurisdiction of the county 
of Dublin, and extend it into those parts where its sheriff had not 
originally any control. The example, thus legalized, was subse- 
quently of frequent adoption, and the jurisdictions of sheri£& 
i^pointed within the Pale, were enlarged or diminished as the 
extent of the English territory prevailed or declined. 

In 1300, at a parliament held in Dubhn before Sbr John 
Wogan, the commonalty of this county were assessed for the ser- 
vice of the state to the amount of £100, with a special exemption, 
however, of the cross lands, and the tenants of the clergy. 

In 1 810, by writ, reciting that the said commonalty complained 
of being prejudiced by pleas held according to the custom and law 
of England, otherwise than according to the custom and law of 
Ireland, Walter Cusack and his associates. Justices in Eyre of the 
county, were directed to hold and decide all pleas in Eyre, and of 
the bench, according to the law and custom of Ireland.f 

In 1347 the king appointed Robert Lawless and others guar- 
dians of the peace herein, with powers to assess and array its mili- 

♦ Ware*8 Antiquities of Ireland, p. 36. t Rot. Pat in cane Hib. 


^af y fof c^ a| req^ir^d, and to pr^foeed U» its worches lo resat 
.ih^ ho§UUty iK^d ipvasioo of the Ii^ish.* Mainy sioiflar appocni* 
jnppts oi^iHlr on the Roll» not necessary to detiuL 

In l^ .William de Bftrtoo had 4 liberatei or DKmey order on 
the treasury, for fortifying certain places on themafcherof Diib» 
Jtin Kg^uuast t^o- Q'Byrne^^ {mi4 for-fiiroiabiog food and prorender 
to the gairisooS't William de Corron was at this time qipcnnted 
pucveyof in ^Is tounty, im»4 in those ^f Kildare and Meaih, for 
Ihe army of the Lord Justice while warring against the Irish eno- 
iQm of Leinster4 And in the same year the king oommanded 
^e^guardi«n$ of the-pea^^ and coroners to convene twenty^fonr of 
ihe <* probiof es" at an early day, one of whom said guardians^ 
coroners and <<fM:obiores" werct directed to eleeA as sberiC This 
«Bode. of pop^lar nomiaaUon bad been abolisbed in England forty 
years previously by the Act 9 Edw. II. St^ 2. 

In 1359 Peter de Okebourn was appointed to purvey hake^ 
(<<aUepife") and other kinds of fi«h« wherever they coidd be fonnd 
inthis county, for the use of the Lord Deputy's hoMehold^pay* 
ing the reasonable value thereof.§ 

{n 137% on the occasion of convening the great council to b« 
held in Dublin, the sheriff of this division wa^ directed to summon 
Thomas Talbot Knight, John de la Field, 

Nicholas Howth, Michael Darcy, 

Reginald Talbot, John CrHiso» 

John Talbot>.9f Malahide, (.aurence Woo41ock# 

^p^f t White, of KiUester, Roger Uriel, 

&c. &C kc 

In 1374 this county return^4 its earhest recorded rqiresenta- 
tives on the elective principle ; and in 1376, on the occasion of the 
fnox^prf^l^ parliament which Edward the Third convened \o 
ettend bifn << wheresoever he should be in England ;" and to which 
ke^JC^^ired the sheriffs of the Irish counties to cause their respec? 
tive representatives to be sent, the return of the precept iroai 
tbis stated that Nichokis Howth, i. e. St. Laurence, and Richard 

* Rot Pat. in cane. Hib. t R^ Clausrin eanerllib^ 

X Rot. Claus. in cane Hib. § Rot. Pat in cane. Hib. 


AKIiit^ had hfim diiljr cdecUd io &tte^d h& nuQeaiyy as ira^uii^d 
bf hia writ, wkh f|iU power to tveat andcoujiadbafbrahimopibe 
stafe and goTerDment of Ireland ) but that the electois prettaC^ 
againat thecebj giving any pover to 9aid J^SchoUs and Richard to 
impose any biunlens or taxes upon the Commons of DMblin ; and 
ibat aaid repreieatatiyes eleet- had accordtngly pledged tt^em^jsi 
i0 . their copatit|ientS| that they should not vote for any ^uoh jmpor 
4tioi^.* In the aame year, by writ, reciting, that the Ipng^a U^ 
subjects of Yongbai h^ beea devastated by the Roches and .Qao*' 
gibbons, they were permitted to carry' thfee ship4oad8 of ooca 
from any harboiir in this couiity> or in tbos^ of Meath or Louth, 
for their jeljeftt' 

In 1883 Richard Talbot» Nicholas Howth» Willii^ FiUwiUiam> 
Thomas Marward, Johh Cruise, Reginald Talbot and Richard 
MetterviUe, were appointed Guaediana of the Peace in this eovnty^) 
. In 1386 Robert de Vere, Earl of Oxford, the £»oiirite of 
fikhard the Seoond> was created Marquis of Dublin s «nd by^th^ 
same patent, his weak-minded sovereign granted to bim and Ims 
heirs the- entire dominion of Ireland, lo be held of ihe crown by 
{iegaJiomage^ Th<^ lands and eiti^ fosmerly. jreservid to the 
crown, and those hereditary in the nobles and barons of Irelandi 
were indeed excepted ; and the Earl was bound, (^ as soon as he 
should complete the conquest of the kingdom," to pay into the 
English exchequer annually, during his life, the sum of 6000 
marks. In every other particular he had the entire govemipeot 
and dominion of the kingdom, was invested' with all the hinds he 
shoidd gun by his arms, and empowered to appoint all officers pf 
state and justioe, who were to act ia his name, and by his aMtho- 
rity. The English parliament, possibly not displ^as^d that this 
lord should be employed at a distance from the king, did not hesi- 
tate to saaetion even thb important grant ; and in furtherance of 

• This was not the first instance of such a convention. In 1S15, Ed. 
ward the Second commanded Richard de Burgo, and other Nobles of 
Ireland, to be at Westminster on the octave of the ensuing Hilary, 
there to treat with the peers of England on (he state of (his country. 
t Rot. in cane. Hib. X 11>»^- 


his dominion in the island, 500 men at arms and 1000 archers were I 

equipped for two years' service towards its conquest, while his own 
officers of state and council were at the same time employed upon 
the spot in making the best provision for the object, which an ex- > 

hausted treasury and a distracted government could peraut. The 
Marquis proceeded in a stately progress almost to the shores of the 
Irish Sea, accompanied by his royal patron ; but, at the crisb of | 

separation, King Richard felt unable to bear the privation, and, | 

recalling his favourite to London, the DMoagement of Ireland was 
committed to his deputies. \ 

By a subsequent patent De Vere was created Duke of Ireland, I 

with a new settlement of its sovereignty. This title, however, it ' 

did not seem politic to assume, and the acts of the favourite in this 
kingdom were still issued in the name of the Marquis of Dubhn. 
In that authority his deputies were appointed, and their salaries 
and retinues assigned with the assent of his council ; and by that 
title he renewed treaties with the Irish chiefs, and addressed let- 
ters to several lords of the English soil, forbidding them at their 
peril to maintain any private feuds or dissensions, and command- 
ing them to unite in the general defence agfunst all malefactors^ 
whether English or Irish. 

But this parade of sovereignty was short-lived. The princes 
of the blood and the chief nobility of England confederated against 
the king, and exacted a commission of the whole royal authority 
to fourteen lords. The judges in vain essayed to pronounce this 
delegation illegal ; the lords took up arms to support it ; and the 
judges were condemned to die for their extra-judicial opinion ; but 
as a favour and indulgence, some were banished with other ene- 
mies of the triumphant faction into Ireland. The Marquis of 
Dublin, after ineffectual efforts to rescue his royal master, was 
defeated by the Earl of Derby, and driven into the low countries ; 
whereupon the king was compelled to notify to his Irish ministers, 
in 1388, that the late Marquis of Dublin had forfeited all his 
grants ; that no acts of state were for the future to be executed 
under his signet ; but that the King^s great seal was to be re- 
assumed, and the whole administration of government conducted 
exclusively under his name and authority. 


In 1399, the Commonalty of the County of Bublin having 
elected Thomas Mareward for their sheriff, the king ratified the 
appointment during pleasure.* 

In 1402 Henry the Fourth renewed the commission of Thomas 
Mareward as Sheriff of Dublin ; and appointed John Owen and 
Robert Tyrrell to assess the military service, and array the men 
at arms of the county and the cross-lands, to lead them to the 
marches, when and where necessary ; as also to levy " smok-silver,'' 
a species of hearth money tax, for the expenses of watch and ward 
in said county.f In the following year a similar authority empow- 
ered Alexander Taylor, of Swords, John White, of Parnellstown, 
and Richard Barret, of Finglas, to collect twenty marks, which the 
Commonalty of the cross lands of Dublin had granted as a subsidy 
for the support of 240 foot soldiers, for three months.^ 

In 1403 the King appointed Thomas Plunket and others to 
superintend the collection of a subsidy, granted by the clergy of 
the dioceses of Armagh, Dublin, and Meath, the chapters of 
St. Patrick and the Holy Trinity, and the Commonalty of the 
Crosses of this county ;§ and in the following year he assigned 
Sir John Cruise, Christopher Hollywood, Thomas Sergeant, Tho* 
mas Howth. Robert White, and John Owen, to convene the 
** Magnates," " Piroceres,** and Commonalty of this county, as they 
might deem necessary .|| 

In 1408 Walter Tyrrel, Sheriff, Robert Tyrrel, and Henry 
Fitzwilliam,were,by royal mandate, directed to levy "smok-silvei*" 
over this county ;^ and in the same year the sheriff thereof wad 
ordered to institute inquiry as to all who exported corn or fish from 
Ireland, without license.** 

In 1414 the King appointed Matthew Lopping and ThomaH 
Hall, Esquires, to' ascertain on oath the chattels of felons fled and 
outlawed within this county, and the crosses of the same.ft In the' 
same year John Saundre and John Hanley were appointed guar- 
dians of its harbours, with the customary fees ; while Thomas 
Talbot and other justices were directed to inquire, on oath, as to 
certain offences committed in the county and the crosses thereof, 

• Rot. in cane. Hib. t lb. Jib. Jib. ||Ib. fib. 
•• lb. tt lb. 


as well in the times of EcHrafd the ThmJ, 'Ridutrd the Second, 
and Henry the Fourth,, as of the then King.* 

In 1417 a very remarkable menlortal issbed hence in behalf of 
Lord FurnivaS, who was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland 
in the first yeir of the reign of Hehry the Fifth. He was the 
Sir John Tidbot, of Hallamsbtre, afterwatds Earl of Shrewsbury, 
so conspicuous as a warrior in the reign of Henry the Sixth, arid 
received the title of Lord Furnival by courtly, in respect bf his 

" For so hiuch," (states the doeuthent) " as th^ hondmrbie 
Lord the LoVd of Furnival, yoiir faithful subject and lieutebant 
of this your land of Ireknd, was purposed to depart from yorar 
knd, and to repair to your high presence to sue for his payment, 
which to him is behind, for the safe keeping bi this your Umd^ 
<Mid w0| considering the great destruction and disetoe which bath 
come unto this land by his last absence from us, and eschewing 
greater that may cume^ and are likely to fall upon the samci if 
he should be absent at tins present time, we have requested him 
on the behalf of you, our Sovereign Lord, and have supplicated 
unto him in our own behalfs, to appear here, and hot to depart,' 
for the safety of this your land, and of your faithftil lieges in the 
same, and we to write for him to ypur gracious person for his 
recommendations for the great charges, !id>ours> and travels by 
him had and sustained in these p^s. 

** First, your said Lieutenant, taking unto him the advice 
of your council on this side, and of other Lords Temporal^ 
Knights, Esquires, and othe^ good Commoners, made mtoy great 
joumies and hostings upon one of the strongest Irish enemies of 
Leinster, called O'More of Leix, a great chieftain of this nation, 
by being in his country twice, which was not done before in ou^ 
time, arid taking his chief place aiid goods, burning, foraging, and 
destroying all his country, his coni^ asd his bther* goods, and 
burning and breaking certain of hb castles callkl the Castle of 
Colyndlragh, and the Castle of Shenneigh (Shean), and rescuing 

' Rot. in cane. Hib. 


divers English pnsoaers there being, without paying ransom, and 
womkUiig and kitting a great muUitnde of his people, and made 
nch war upon him that he was forced against his will to make 
petition to have your peace by indenture, and to put his son in 
pledge into the hands of your said Lieutenant, to keep the peace 
safely, and to «mend that wherein he had offiended against your 
fiuthful subjects, and moreover to serve and travel with your said 
Lieutenant, upon his warning, against all Irish enemies and English 
rebels, at his commandment, so that by means theteof the sud 
O'More came with two battalibns, one foot artd one horse, to serve 
upon a strong enemy, and a chieftain of his nation called Mae 
Maho;n, a distance of forty leagues from the parts of Leix, and 
iie being with the same your Lieutenant, and under hb safe con^ 
duct, and in aid of him iu the aforesaid country of Leix, two 
other great chieftains of their nations of Leinster, with their 
-people, thai is to say, O'Bryen and O'Raslly, overthrown iti 
i)var, do continue petitions to enjoy your peace* 

« And«ko he rode against Mac Mahon, a great Irish enemy, 
and a powerful chiefUdn of his nation, in the parts of Ulster ad« 
joining onto the comity of Louth, and him did strongly invade 
long time by divers laborious hosthigs and journeys, some on 
foot by sixteen leagues, and burnt and destroyed one of his chief 
places, with all his towns and corn about, and wounded and killed 
a great multitude of his people, until he must of force yield him« 
self to your peace, and deliver divers English prisoners without mat* 
tomi which he and his people have taken, and that he undertook 
to travel with the same your Lieutenant, against whateoever eneitiy 
or rebel, upon ins warning, in such sort that he sent Manus, his 
brother, ^th a great multitude of their people, to serve upon that 
said (yConor, which is fbrty miles and more from their country. 
And also be rode against O'Hanlon, a great chieftain of his mttioit, 
knd Irish enemyv in the same parts of Ulster, and warred so 
strongly upon him, that he was compelled by force to yield him* 
ielf to your peace, and undertook to ride against all Irish enemies 
and Ettglish rebels, at hb pleasure, in such sort that he did serv^ 
4Hlh three hundred men and more upon the aforesaid Mac Mahon^ 
and after I hat disloyally rose up again in wafs, and destt*oyed your 
fitithfkl lieges, and presently your said Lieutenant therein or- 


defed divers great journeys upon him in his country, where he 
burnt, foraged, and destroyed many thereof, and wounded and 
killed many of his people, and cut a great place through a long 
wood, in breadth of two leagues or more, through terror of which 
thing he daily made supplication to have peace, and put in his 
hostages for the safe keeping thereof. The great O'Neile pre- 
tending himself to be King of the Irish in Ulster, and O'Neile 
Buy, son to Mac Guinness, Mac Guire, O'Donnell, great and 
powerful chieftains of their nation, and divers other Irish enemies, 
hearing of the cutting of the same place, and of the damage and 
destruction done also to the said O'Hanlon, and doubting the like 
to be done to them by your Lieutenant, sent to him to have peace, 
and to do him service, and also to serve with him upon all other 
Irish enemies and English rebels. 

<< And also he caused in many places every Irish enemy to 
serve upon the other, which thing hath not been seen by long | 

time in these parts, until the coming of your Lieutenant aforesaid^ 
and he hath accomplished divers other journeys and labours for the 
said relief and comfort of your faithful lieges on thb side the sea ; 
and in especially at the making hereof in repairing and mending 
of a bridge called the bridge of Athy, set in the fronture of the 
borders of the Irish enemies of Leix, for the safe keeping whereof 
he hath erected a new tower upon the same for a ward to put there- 
with a great fortification about the same for resistance of the said 
enemies, to the great comfort of the English, and great overthrow 
of the Irish enemies, by which bridge your faithful lieges were 
oftentimes preyed and killed : but now your said lieges both there 
and elsewhere may suffer their goods and chattels to remain in the 
fields day and night, without being stolen, or sustaining any other 
loss, which hath not been seen here by the space of these thirty 
years past, God be thanked, and your gracious provision. — And 
moreover, we beseech your gracious Lordship, to have your said 
Lieutenant especially recommended unto you for his great con- 
tinual labours and costs which he hath borne and sustained about 
the deliverance of the Earl of Desmond, who was falsely and de- 
ceitfully taken and detained in prison by his uncle, to the great 
destruction of all the country of Munster, until now that he is 
gratuitously delivered by the good and gracious government of 
the same your Lieutenant." 


Thb singular picture of the state of Ireland, and the guilty 
nisfgovemment of those viceroys, who are most extolled, is pre- 
served in the Lansdowne Manuscripts, and printed in the Second 
Series of Mr. Ellb's Letters (vol. i. p. 54, &c.) It is signed by the 
Bishop of Kildare, sundry abbots and priors, Thomas Lenfant, 
Baron of Ardee ; Richard Nugent, Baron of Delvin ; Matthew 
Hussey, Baron of Galtrim ; Thomas Marward, Baron of Serine ; 
the mayor and bailiffs of the city of Dublin, and several other 
heads of corporations, the sheriff of Dublin, &c. ; Robert Burnell, 
Robert White of Killester, Thomas Talbot of Malahide, Walter 
Plunket, Richard Talbot of Meath, William Fitzwilliam, Morris 
Walsh, Walter Harold, William Walsh, John Eustace, Edward 
Eustace, Richard Fitz Eustace, William White of the county 
Dublin, Thomas Cusack, Lucas Dowdall, &c &c. &c« 

In 1422 the council in Dublin directed that on account of 
<< the notorious war, waged by the O'Tooles on the liege men of 
the counties of Dublin and Kildare, the same forces of men at 
arms and archers should be continued as theretofore, to oppose 
them, and the same subsidy raised.*** 

In 1429, by writ, reciting that Sir John Sutton, Lord Lieu* 
tenant of Ireland, had lately made a successful incursion on the 
O'Byrnes of the county Wicklow, at his own expense, for which 
the sheriff of this county and its crosses was ordered to provide 
100 « carts" of victuab, 800 men with axes and bundles of 
wood, 100 men with " iron tools," and 200 with " caltrops ;" toge- 
ther with victuals for six days, under certain penalties which 
had been incurred by his neglect in that behalf, all said penalties 
were by the king directed to be forthwith paid to the said Lord 

In 1431 his Majesty assigned Thomas Hanley and Thomas 
Bathe to take the prisage of wines to the king's use, in certain 
harbours within the counties of Dublin, Meath, and Louth.f 

In 1465 it was enacted that every Irishman, dwelling betwixt 
or amongst Englishmen, in this county, as well as in those of 
Meath, Uriel, (Louth,) and Kildare, " shall go like to one Eng- 

• Rot. in Cane. Hib. t Ibid. 



lishman in apparel, and shaving of his beard above the mou 
and shall be within one year sworn the liege man of the ki 
and shall take to Tiim an English surname of one town» as Sutt* 
Chester, Trim, Serine, Cork, Kinsale ; or colour, as white, bla 
brown ; or art or science, as smith, or carpenter ; or office, 
cook, butler, &c., and that he and his issue shall use this nai 
under pwn of forfeiting his goods yearly." 

In 1488, by an act of the parliament of Drogheda, the bounds 
" the four obedient shires," constituting the Pale ; (Dublin, Mea 
Kildare, and Uriel or Louth,) were thus traced. " From Merric 
inclusive, to the water of the Dodder, by the new ditch to St 
gard, Rathcoole, Kilhell, Rathmore, and Ballymore, &c. Then 
to the county of Kildare, into Ballycutlan, Harristown, and Na 
and so thence to Clane, Kilboyne, and Kilcock, in such manr 
that the towns of Dalkey, Carrickbrennan, Newtown, Roch< 
town, Clonken, Smethistown, Ballyboteer, (Booterstown), wi 
Thorncastle, and Bullock, were in Dublin shire." From Kilco 
the bounds appear to have run to the Rye water, thence by Bj 
lyfeghin to the parish of Laracor, thence to Bellewstown, by tl 
Boyne, " and so as the Blackwater runneth from Athboy, and 
to Blackcawsey by Rathmore, to the hill of Lyde, and then 
Muldahege and the parish of Tallen, and Donaghpatrick, Clonge 
and so to Syddan, and so down to Maundevillestown, by Wc 
Ardee, and so to the water of Dundugan, and so as that wat 
goeth to the sea."* 

In 1500 the king appointed Robert Burnell of BalgrifBn, sh 
riff of this county, committing the custody thereof to his care. 

A state paper of 1515 mentions that only half of the count 
of Dublin was then subject to the king's laws, and singularly add 
that all the common people of the said half, who exhibited sue 
marks of allegiance, were, " for the most part, of Irish birth, < 
Irish habit, and of Irish language ;" that the other half had ne 
ther justices nor sheriff. The document is eloquently indicativ 
of the impolicy so long pursued in the government of thb country 
of denying, or dispensing with a niggard hand, those measures ( 

• Liber Niger. 


justice, which the neighbouring, and what good taste would have 
styled, the sister island, so liberally enjoyed. Cimou is said to 
have levelled his fences that all might gather his fruit, but the 
EngUsh rulers of the Pale affected a diametrically contrary course. 
The benefit of English laws was extended only with English en- 
croachments. The writ ran not beyond the road that the sword 
had hewn for its " transmission ;** and Sir John Davis establishes 
without doubt, that this decided refusal of a general communica- 
tion of rights was the true cause why Ireland was not brought into 
subjection for centuries. If William the Conqueror had so cast 
all the English natives out of his protection, and held them as 
aliens and enemies to the crown, the Normans might, perhaps, 
have spent as many troubled generations in the acquisition of Eng- 

About the year 1520, the Earl of Surrey, then Lord Lieu- 
tenant of Ireland, acquainted the king with ** the imminent dan- 
gers that were Hkely to ensue to the four shires, being under the 
king's obedience, (DubUn, Meath, Kildare, and Louth,) as well 
by reason of such confederacies as be made betwixt (yNeill 
and others, the Irish rebels, as also with the Scots being deter- 
mined to enter that land this summer under the conducting of 
the Earl of Argyle, and to join with the said O'Neill and others, 
the king's disobedient subjects, for the destruction and final ex- 
termination of Englishry, which puissance, as he affirmeth, can- 
not be resbted with such small number as the said Lieutenant 
hath there." 

In 1524, by indentures entered into on the appointment of 
the Earl of Kildare to the Lord Lieutenancy of Ireland, the said 
Earl << granted" that he should cause sherifl&, escheators, coroners, 
and other officers, to be made yearly in the shires of Dublin, 
Meath, Louth, &c., and cause justices of peace to be appointed 
within the same shires, or in as many of them as he might conve- 
niently, and oblige them to keep quarter sessions yearly, and to 
hear and determine suits, with the accruing benefit of all fines 
and amerciaments.* 

• State Papers temp Hen. Vm. Part 3, p. 116. 



In 1534 the Lord Deputy and Council were directed to t 
order, '< that gaols for receiving and keeping of felons and ot 
malefactors, be ordamed within the counties of Dublin, Mei 
Kildare, &c., in Leinster, and elsewhere as they may bring 
same to purpose as well within franchises and liberties as otb 
^ise. « Item, that in every of the said shires, and in the pla 
aforesaid, and the marches of the same, there be quarter sessi 
kept, and the king's judges ride the circuit there twice by 
year, as shall be appointed in the commission by the Deputy i 
der the great seal. Item, that the Deputy do his best that 
king's writs and process may be obeyed, as well in the marc 
of the counties of Dublin, Meath, and Uriel, (Louth), as in 
other pUces aforesaid."* 

In 1536 the Lord Deputy and Council made a report to 
king in the following terms. " Without doubt, the inhabita 
of these your four shires of Dublin, Meath, Kildare, and Ur 
(Louth,) hath been so spoiled, oppressed, and robbed, as they 
not of ability to give to your Grace any notable thing others 
than they be charged already ; yea, and though they had never s 
tained such damages, the circuit of the same, where, and in efl 
no where else, the revenues that you have being now competent 
according to the time and place augmented, been levied, in co 
parison the residue is so small in compass and number of inha 
bitants, as if they should grant to your Highness the twentit 
part of their yearly rents, the same should not amount to any st 
sum as should be to your Highness' contentacion in this beha 
and your Majesty, having the same of them only, should, as 
think, be such a servitude and hindrance unto them, they also < 
ing service in their proper persons to all journeys without wag 
besides many other exceeding charges and impositions, as tb 
they should be the less able to do the like in time coming. 
Wherefore our advice shall be to your Grace, for to frame t 
Earl of Ossory and his son that your revenues may be levied in I 
shires of Kilkenny, Tipperary, Wexford, and Waterford likew 
as they be here, wherein to the contrary they have no reasonal 
excuse, other than your subjects in these parts have ; and tli 

• State P., temp., lien. VIIL Part 3, p. 210. 


beiDg conibrmable theretinto, as they iniist be, if it be yoar gra- 
cious pleasure the same may be leWed there ; and they then see* 
ing the parties under their rule diarged thereto, will the more 
willingly further the levying of your like revenues elsewhere, so 
^9 your Highness having the same levied but within the said eight 
or nine shires, together with the profits that may grow by the 
resumption of your customs and otherwise, shall amount to a good 
sum yearly ; and, considering that now the season of the year 
mpproacheth wherein Englishmen cannot well travel to do service^ 
that unless your Grace intend a further enterprise, we think five 
-or six hundred of your army may be discharged out of wages of 
the worst of them, and your Deputy to choose out of the whole of 
the best the number that shall remain* And, percase, your Grace 
be in purpose to make a further reformation, as we think it be ho* 
nourable, needful, and in the end profitable, at the least of these 
parts of Leinster betwixt Dublin and Waterford, which, as we think, 
might shortly be brought to a conformity and subjection if it were 
earnestly set to, it shall be good your Grace, resolving yon there* 
upon, appoint after what sort the same shall proceed; for the 
execution whereof, we think it necessary and expedient that, con* 
jsidering the most part of this army hath been so noseDed in rob- 
bery, disobedience, and other offences, and also, their horses for 
the most part consumed and spent, that others be appointed and 
sent hither in their steads, which shall be more meet to serve 
the purpose. Assuring your Highness, that having the said 
quarter between Dublin and Waterford reformed, your own sub- 
jects were able to resbt the residue of the land without exhaust- 
ing or disbursing of any part of your treasure from thence. So 
knoweth the blessed Trinity, who preserve your most royal estate 
in long life and prosperous health. From your City of Dublin, 
the 29th day of October. Your Highness^ humble and most 
obedient subjects^ 

Pour Leonard Gray. William Brabaxon. 

J. Lord Trimleston, Chancellor. Gerald Aylmer, Justice. 
George Dublin, " your Grace's Thomas Luttrell, Justice. 

Chaplain." Patrick Finglas, Baron. 

J. Rawson, Prior of Kilmainham. John Allen, Mr. of the Rolls.** 


In 1687, Justice Luttrell thus earnestly represented the rmnou! 
consequences of extorting coyne and livery in this county, and th< 
Pale generally. — " Item) all lords and gentlemen and farmers, i 
they be horsemen of the four shires, (very few excepted,) thai 
dwell without these limits hereafter mentioned, that is to say. 
from Dublin to Tallagh, and so by the mountain foot untc 
Oughterard, and thence unto St. Woolstans and to Leixlip, anc 
thence to the barony of Dunboyne, Rathergan, and as the high' 
way extendeth thence to Trim unto Athboy, and from Athboy tc 
Ardbraccan, and from Ardbraccan to Slane, and from Slane tc 
Mellifont and to Drogheda, and so as the sea extendeth to Dub- 
lin, taketh horse meat and man's meat for their horsekeepen, anc 
for all other horses and their keepers that resorteth to their houses 
upon their poor farmers continually, which little precinct is nol 
much above twenty miles in length nor in breadth : and yet, withit 
the same precinct, many times both some lords and gentlemen settetl: 
the charge of their horses and their keepers over their formers.'^ 
—-In the same year, Richard Savage was appointed Chief Serjeant 
of the baronies of the county of Dublin, and of the royal cantrec 
of Newcastle, near Lyons. 

In 1559, Christopher, the twentieth Lord of Howth, was joinec 
in commission with Hugh, Archbishop of Dublin and Lord ChaU' 
cellor, John Plunket, Esq., Chief Justice of the King's Bench 
James Bathe, Esq., Chief Baron of the Exchequer, the Lore 
Mayor of Dublin, Richard Finglas, Sergeant at Law, James Barne* 
wall. Attorney General, William Talbot, of Malahide, Esq. 
Christopher Barnewall, of Gracedieu, Esq., James Stanihurst 
Recorder, the Sheriff of the county of Dublin, &c., for mustering 
the military force of this county. — In the following year, Baroi 
Finglas and Thomas Fitz Williams were its representatives in ( 
parliament, to which only those of ten. counties were summoned 
the rest of the assembly, to the number of seventy-six, having beer 
citizens and burgesses of the towns in which the royal authority 
was predominant ; and in this parliament the Act of Uniformity 
was passed. 

In 1561, the Archbishop of Dublin, and the Deans of his twc 

♦ State Papers, temp. Hen. VIU. p. 504. 


cathedrals, were appointed with others to array the militia of this 
county, during the absence of the viceroy, the Earl of Sussex, 
who was at that time engaged in the North against O'Neill. 
And in 1563, Lord Howth was, during the absence of the Lord 
Lieutenant, who had marched into Ulster against Shane O'Neill, 
again joined in a commission for the civil government of the city 
and county of Dublin, the confines and marches thereof, as well 
within liberties as without, with power to pursue all rebels with 
fire and sword, and all who should attempt any mischief against 
the Queen's subjects within the English Pale. 

A manuscript of the same century, yet extant, defines this 
county as extending in length from Balrothery to Arklow, << a 
principal Castle of the Earl of Ormond," including all the King's 
lands, the mountains of the O'Byrnes, O'Tooles, and Rainilough, 
called Pheagh Mac Hugh's country, also Shilough Ferderough, 
and the rest of the country which is the Liberty of the Arch- 
bishop of Dublin^ also the islands of Lambay, << the Eye," and 
Dalkey. It enumerates the gentry of English descent therein, 

The Archbishop of Dublin. /^Malahide. 

St. Lawrence, Lord of Howth. ) Belgard. 

Sir Patrick Bamewall, of Turvey. ^^^^^ ^^1 Templeogue. 
Sir Thomas Fitc Williams. ^Fassaroe. 

William Bathe, junior.] — - Walsh, of Carrickmain. 

Richard Nelterville. Sir Henry Harrington. 

Allen of Palmerstown. Jacques Wingfield. 

Christopher Seagrave. Sir William Collier. 

Sergeant Fitz Simons. The Dean of St. Patrick's. 

Henry BumelL Gouldings. 

Finglas of Walmestown. Luttrels. 

Barnewalls of Dunbro. Delahoydes, and 

John Walsh, of Shanganagh. Archbolds. 

" The mere Irish," are thus stated, 

O'B^Tnes, O'Tooles, Pheagh Mac Hugh. 
" Mgst part of the Irish," it adds, " are worn away, their heads 
being removed, so as they now run wandering and straying about 
the country in companies, having no certadn abode." 


This curious record enumerates the following as " walled ai 
good towns :" Dublin, Swords, Balrothery, Howth, Newcastl 
Bray, Clondaikin, Wicklow, Fieldstown, and Ballymore. Ai 
the following as castles and garrisons : Dublin, Wicklow, Nei 
castle, Howth, Arklow, Douore, Monkstown, Holmpatrick, tl 
Wards, Belgard, Castleknock, Malahide, Dunbro, and Balgriffi 
It may be here remarked, that by a statute of the thirty-sixth ye 
of Henry the Sixth, (1458,) reciting that divers towns and villag 
in Ireland, on the highways, were made waste by the robbery 
thieves in the night by default of enclosure, stopping, and ditci 
ing, it was enacted, << that every inhabitant thereof might sto 
ditch, and enclose the said towns and villages in the strongc 
manner that they could, so as there should be a competent ai 
sufficient highway left and made for carts and carriages throu| 
or near the said towns or villages, so that people might not I 
interrupted in their passage from market to market, nor that tl 
highways be not made far about, not above forty perches." 

During the latter part of the reign of Elizabeth, a fine of oi 
shilling per week was levied on every person within this count 
who absented himself from the Protestant worship. 

In 1601, on occasion of the hosting for the Queen's servic 
the muster in the baronies of this county was as follows : Bj 
rothery 26 archers, Coolock 30, Newcastle 18, Castleknock 1 
and in Rathdown 10, besides 12 horsemen. 

By a statute of 1634, (10 Chas. 1, Sess. 2, c.24,) recitii 
that the trade of fishing for herrings, pilchards, and scan fish wit 
in the counties of Dublin, Wicklow, Wexford, Waterford, Cor 
Kerry, Clare, Galway, Mayo, Sligo, and other counties with 
this realm, had of late time been very great and profitable 
well to divers of the fishermen as other his Majesty's su 
jects, that for the necessary use of the taking of said fish, dive 
persons within the said counties called balkors, huors, condoi 
directors, or guidors, at the fishing time had used to watch 4 
the high hilb and grounds near adjoining to the sea coasts, to gi 
notice to the fishermen when such fish came near the coast, ai 
for guiding them on the sea coasts, and that divers persons, ha 
ing lands adjoining these coasts, threatened to sue not only su 
balkors, huors, &c., but also the fishermen for breaking tin 
closes and drawing their nets on their lauds, so as to deter sa 


balkors, huors, &c« and fishennen ; for remedy thereof and 
tbe maintenance of the said trade of fishing, such practices were 
declared lawful; and, if any suits so threatened should be brought, 
it was directed that the statute might be pleaded in defence with 
the consequential sanction of damages and costs. 

In 1640, proclamations issued to restrain hawking and hunting 
"within seven miles of the metropolis. 

In November 1641, when the lords justices and council 
affected a shew of confidence in the gentry of the Pale, and gave 
commissions of martial law, they directed one for this county to 
Henry Talbot, and a commission of government for the same to 
Nicholas BamewalL The latter warrant, after reciting that divers 
most disloyal and malignant persons within Ireland had trai- 
torously conspired against his Majesty, his peace, crown, and dig- 
nity, and in execution of their conspiracy had made destruction 
and devastation of the persons and estates of divers his Majesty's 
good and loyal subjects, empowered the person so commissioned 
to levy within the prescribed county all forces, horse and foot, to 
resist, kill and slay, << as well by battle or otherwise," all traitors 
and their adherents according to his discretion, to proceed against 
them by martial law by hanging them, according as it had been 
accustomed in times of open rebellion, to waste and spoil their 
castles, &C. or otherwise to receive their submissions and give 
them forbearance, to parley with them and grant protections, &c. 
And all his Msyesty's sheriflEi, oflBcers, &c. in the said county 
were thereby ordered to obey and be assisting in the premises. 

The vicissitudes and changes of property that " followed hard 
upon" the civil war of this period, shall be fully detailed in the 
progress of the work, at the respective localities affected by its 
visitation. The total amount of profitable land forfeited on that 
occasion in this county alone, was returned by Sir William Petty 
as 67,142a. 2r. 26p., the unprofitable as 1,666a.; the commons 
lying between forfeited and unforfeited lands as 706a., and the 
glebe and church lands as 4yd79A. In relation to these forfeitures 
it may be remarked, that the Down Survey, and the Books of Dis- 
tribution of the confiscations in this district, have escaped the fire 
that so much impaired the maps of other parts of Ireland, and are 
preserved in a perfect state. 


In June, 1654, Oliver Cromwell issued a writ to the sheriff 
this county, as he did to some other Irish sheriffs, stating thai 
parliament was to he held at Westminster in the ensuing Septei 
her, and commanding him to cause a fit person « to serve as knigl 
with his sword girt, for said county, so that the said knight mi 
have full and sufficient power for himself and the people of th 
county, to do and consent unto those things which then and the 
hy common council of the said commonwealth in parliament (I 
God's blessing) shall be ordained upon the weighty affairs afor 
said;" which writ was duly executed and returned in the Augu 
following, and ColonelJohn Hewson,*of Luttrellstown, was elect( 
accordingly. The indenture of certain freeholders, annexed i 
the return of the writ, after stating the election of Hewson, coi 
tains the curious proviso: <<provided> and it is hereby d< 
dared, that the person so chosen shall not have power to alt< 
the government as it is now settled in one single person and i 
a parliament." 

There are in the state ps^per room council office, baronial r< 
turns made in 1656 to the Protector's council for the affairs < 
Ireland, specifying the Roman Catholic proprietors of Und in th 
county. There is also its rental, taken in 1670, preserved in tb 
vice treasurer's office. The difficulty, however, and expense < 
access to these and other public offices, completely precludes in 
vestigation for literary purposes, while possibly such records woul 
be rather matter of legal and personal value, than suited for popula 
publication. The quantity of lands forfeited in this county in th 
civil war of 1688, was returned by the trustees as 34,536 acres 
then valued at the annual rental of £16,061 6s. OcL^ and the tot^ 
value of £208,796 18^. Od. The particulars of this transfer o 
property also shall be detailed at the localities affected, the map 
and abstracts of which are likewise of record, and mostly in goo< 
order, but not certified. 

There are some who would pronounce the publication of thes< 
forfeitures and attainders as futile, if not mischievous, as if thei 
recital and specification could be supposed to invite and guide th< 
landless heirs of thq old proprietors in the summary prosecution o 

• See of him, post, at "Luttrellstown." 



less civil ejectments ; while it might, with more probability, be ap- 
prehended, that unfriendly feelbgs would be thereby excited, 
and family feuds warmed into venomous resuscitation. The first 
grounds of objection were dismissed with little deference. Even if 
the heirs of the old proprietors could be now ascertained beyond 
the contention of kindred houses, they would be found commin- 
gled with the new in other relations of property and alliance, 

"That could not — would not be undone;** 

marriages, debts, devises, purchases and tenancies, settlements, 
mortgages, wills, conveyances and leases, operating over those 
estates for nearly two centuries in reference to the forfeitures of 
1641, and nearly a century and an half in reference to those of 
1688, have raised up such reactions of interest, such occupancies 
in the new superstructure, as it would be irr^itional to think its 
present possessors would combine for its dilapidation. 

The latter objection is unhappily too well justified by the long 
continued factions that have grown out of these civil wars. An 
Englishman cannot conceive how private passions could be incited 
into deadly operation in the nineteenth century by the suggestion 
pf those war-whoops that fired the yoong blood of the sixteenth. 
He would shrink from the maniac, who would seek to provoke him 
to hostility with his neighbour friend, because their long <<6heet- 
ed ancestors" had been pitted in the wars -of the Roses. The 
historian of Scottish events encounters political junctures, that in 
their time were equally productive of national disunion, but the 
Caledonian is no longer exasperated by their fullest details. They 
were the workings of a conflict gone by, and must be more old 
and obsolete than the cherished and harmonious associations of 
^< auld lang syne." The master spirit of their chronicles, he who 
has not left a line behind him that could reproach his memory, has 
fearlessly projected the most heart stirring conflicts of those feudal 
times, and his countrymen more than participate with the literary 
world in the chivalries of his narrative, and the classic interest he 
has shed over every scene he touched. 

Unfortunately it has not been so hitherto in Ireland. When 
national conflicts subsided, family factions sprang from their ashes, 
and 80^ with more than phoenix perpetuity, have protracted their ex- 


istence almost to the hours of yesterday. £ven the name of re 
gion was profanely advanced as a sanction for persecution : b 
the mask soon became the mould, and> to all but the wearer, exl^ 
bited with fiendish fidelity the lineaments it was intended to co 
ceal. The political mirror has, however, at length been held u 
and vice begins to see its own deformity. 

Confident, therefore, that the feelings adverted to shall, b 
fore those pages issue from the press, be confined to a class 
persons not likely to peruse them, suggestions of unwelcome co, 
tingencies have been overruled, in the paramount necessity 
leaving unbroken what may be called the most important lin! 
in the pedigree of Irish property. 

The gentry of the county at the close of the seventeeni 
century, as far as enumerated in the Act of Subsidies and Su] 
plies, (10 Will. III. c. 3,) were. Sir Richard Bulckley, Sir Thorn 
Domville, Sir Arthur Cole, baronets ; Sir Walter Plunket, S 
William Domville, Sir John Coghill, knights; Robert Mole 
worth, Henry Montgomery, Richard Foster, John Allen, Robe 
Echlin, Dixy Coddington, Agmondisham Vesey, Henry Coole 
Richard Bolton, John Smith, Robert Curtis, Philip Savag 
Henry Echlin, Doctor Patrick Grattan, Thomas Keightle 
Christian Bor, Marmaduke Coghill, James Grace, &c. &c. 

The last century presents scarcely any event of interest peci 
Harly applicable to the county at large. It may, however, I 
mentioned, that in 1729 it gave birth to Hugh Hamilton, wl^ 
became a fellow of Trinity College in 1751, was appointed Bishc 
of Gonfert in 1796, Bishop of Ossory in 1799, and was auth< 
of several works of divinity and natural philosophy. 

In 1736, the number of Protestant families in the count 
was calculated as 1928, and the Roman Catholic as 6336, beir 
in the proportion of nearly one to three. 

In 1763 the first act of importance was passed, authoriziii 
the peculiar assessment of this county, for the repairs of higl 
ways, &c, according to the ancient table by which it had froi 
time immemorial been assessed to subsidies and other land taxe 
The statute is the more worthy of notice here, as furnishing th; 
scale of parochial, baronial, and acreable contents, which has h 
therto been the only, but erroneous guide for statistical inquir 
A subsequent act, 26 Geo, III. c. 14, confirmed the provisions < 


y A 







■.cVf->'^>l> ""■■»" 



1699 Nicholas Barnewall, of Turvey, and Peter Barnewall, of 

Tyrebure, Esquires. 
1654 (Cromwell's parliament.) Colonel John Hewson. 
1661 Sir William Domville, Attorney General, and Sir William 

1689 (King James's parliament.) Simon Luttrell, of Luttrellstown, 

and Patrick Sarsfield, jun. of Lucan, Esquires. 
1692 John Allen and Chambre Brabazon, Esquires. 
1695 Robert Molesworth and Edward Deane, Esquires. 
1703 John Allen and Joseph Deane, Esquires. 
1713 Right Honourable Chambre Brabazon, commonly callec 

Lord Brabazon, and Joseph Deane, Esquire. 
1715 Honourable Edward Brabazon and the Right Honourabl< 

John Allen. 
1717 William Domville, Esquire, (on the Honourable Edwan 

Brabazon becoming Earl of Meath,) and the Right Ho 

nourable John Allen. 
1719 Honourable Edward Brabazon and Wm. Domville, Esquire 
1727 Honourable Edward Brabazon, and Sir Compton Domvilh 


1761 Right Honourable Sir Compton Domville, Bart, and Ai 

thony Brabazon, Elsquire. 

1762 Right Honourable Sir Compton Domville, Bart., and i\ 

Honourable Henry Brabazon, commonly called Lord Br 

1765 Right Honourable Sir Compton Domville, Bart., and t1 

Honourable Anthony Brabazon, commonly called Lo 

1767 Honourable Anthony Brabazon, commonly called Lord Br 

bazon, and Charles Domville, Esquire. 
1769 Honourable Anthony Brabazon, commonly called Lord Bi 

bazon, and Joseph Deane, Esquire. 
1773 Joseph Deane and Luke Gardiner, Esquires. 
1776 Luke Gardiner, Esquire, and Sir Edward Newenham, Kn 

1790 Right Honourable Luke Gardiner, and the Honoural 

William Brabazon; and on the latter becoming £arl 
Meath, John Finlay, Esquire, was elected in his place. 

1791 Sir Edward Newenham, Knt , and Richard Wogan Talb 




1792 Sir Edward Newenham, Knt., and John Finlay, Esquire* 
1797 Hand Hamilton and Frederick John Faulkinery Esquires^ 

both of whom voted against the Union. 
1807 Hans Hamilton and Richard Wogan Talbot, Esquires. 

1824 Richard Wogan Talbot and Thomas White, Esquires. 

1825 Richard Wogan Talbot and Henry White, Esquires. 
1880 Lord firabazon and Henry White, Esquire* 

1883 Christopher Fitzsimon and George Evans, Esquires. 


{As far at ascertained,) 

1302 John Woodlock. 
1826 John Brett. 
1336 Adam Talbot. 
1356 Robert Cadell. 
1872 William Fitz William. 

1380 Reginald Talbot. 

1381 Richard White. 

1382 William Fitz William. 
1388 Richard Talbot. 
1396 William Ardem. 
1403 Thomas Mareward. 
1406 John Fitz Maurice. 
1408 Walter TyrreL 
1425 Sir Walter Tyrrel. 
1427 Sir Robert Hollywood. 
1500 Robert Burnell. 

1545 Toole. 

1560 Sir Christr. Barnewall. 
1600 Sir Christopher Flunket. 
1613 Sir Thomas Williams, knt. 

1615 Perrott. 

1634 William Sarsfield. 
1639 PhiUp Here. 

1642 Thomas Bennett. 

1643 William BaU.' 

1647 Henry Roulls. 
1653 John Hewson. 
1661 John Baxter. 
1663 Richard Barret. 
1665 Sir William Dixon. 

1668 Chidley Cooie. 

1669 Nicholas Bolton. 

1670 Daniel Wybrants. 

1671 John Eastwood. 

1673 Robert Ball. 

1674 William Basil. 

1675 William Williams. 

1676 John Linegar. 

1677 Joseph Deane. 

1678 James Springham. 

1679 Edward Swan. 

1680 Thomas Stepney. 

1681 Robert Molesworth. 

1682 Sir Phillips Coote. 

1683 Daniel Reading. 

1684 Sir R. Bellingham. 

1685 Thomas Crowe. 

1686 Henry Fernley. - 

1687 Thomas Warren. 

1688 John Stanley. 



1689 Thomas Warren. 

1690 Richard Forster, July 10, 
by K. William, in the camp 
at Cnimlin. 

1691 John Allen. 

1692 Edward Deane. 

1693 Sir Anthony Piercy, 

1694 Richard Morris. 

1695 Dixie Coddington. 

1696 Thomas Stepney. 

1697 Bernard Browne. 

1698 Hugh Rowley. 

1699 Christian Bor. 

1700 Paul Davis. 

1701 Edward Swan. 

1702 William Usher. 

1703 Charles Wallis. 

1 704 Henry Percy. 

1705 John Sale. 

1 706 John Linegar. 

1707 Sir John Rogerson, knt. 
1708 Plunket, of Rath- 


1709 Sir Rich. Kennedy, Bart. 

1710 Richard Bolton. 

1711 Robert Stubbers. 

1712 FoUiott Sherigley. 

1713 Clement Barry, of Sag- 

1714 William Thornton. 

1715 Francis Harrison. 

1716 Richard Tighe. 

1717 David Chaigneau. 

1718 Robert Peppard. 

1719 Samuel Hill. 

1720 John Nevill. 

1721 John Falkiner. 

1722 Thomas Grace. 

1723 Edward Bolton. 

1724 Sir Compton Domville, of 
Templeogue, Bart. 

1725 Richard Forster. 

1726 Richard Elsington. 

1727 John Baker. 

1728 William Smith, of Lissen- 

1729 Benedict Arthur, of Ca- 

1730 William Swan. 

1731 Robert Percy. 

1732 Allen Johnston, of Kil- 

1733 William Usher, of Usher's 

1734 Jeremiah Donovan, of 
Little Bray. 

1735 John Sherigley. 

1736 John Vernon of Clontarf. 

1737 Thomas Granger. 

1738 John Cusack of Rathgar. 

1739 John Bonham. 

1740 Robert Dalway. 

1741 Arthur Mervyn of Bald« 

1742 Mark Synnot of Drum- 

1743 Allen Johnson of Kilter- 
nan, jun. 

1744 Thomas Dance of Bally- 

1745 Charles Davys of Hamp- 

1746 John Gore Booth. 

1747 Lewis Jones. 



1748 John PuUaod. 

1749 HamUtoQ Gorges of Ratli- 

1750 Thomas Jones. 

1751 Mason Gerard. 

1752 Isaac Dmry. 

1753 Joseph Deane of Tyre- 

1754 John Adair of Kilteman. 

1755 Edward Maunsell of 

1756 WUliam Busk. 

1757 William Fairbrother. 

1758 Thomas Cobbe of New- 

1759 Robert Tynte of Old 

1760 SirSimonBradstreet, BmH. 

1761 John Onge. 

1762 Sir Henry Echhn. 

1763 Edward Newenham. 

1765 Richard Robins of Old 

1766 Abel Onge. 

1767 Wflliam Jones. 

1768 Edward Vernon. 

1 769 Isaac Espinasse. 

1770 John Malpas. 

1771 Joseph Sirr. 

1772 Richard Anderson. 

1773 Sir George Ribton. 

1774 Thomas Baker. 

1775 Thomas Kennan. 

1784 W'dliam Holt. 
1786 Nathaniel Warren. 

1787 Smith Steele. 

1788 John Venioii. 

1789 Charles Stanley Monk. 

1791 Edward Kennedy. 

1792 Joseph AtkioHMi. 

1793 Jooeph Paul Meredith. 

1794 Sir George aKeDy. 

1795 George Vesey. 

1796 DaTid Latoadie. 

1797 Christopher Clindu 

1798 Alexander Kirkpatridu 

1799 John Gamett. 

1800 John White. 

1801 John Faolkner. 

1802 Right Hon. R. Annesley. 

1803 Hans Hamilton. 

1804 Lake White. 

1805 Robert Alexander. 

1806 Robert Shaw. 

1807 John Hamilton. 

1808 Andrew Savage. 
Richard Manvers. 

1809 Alexander Hamilton. 
Hon. Hans Blackwood. 

1810 John Arthur. 

1811 John CampbelL 

1812 William Rathbonme. 

1813 Sir H. Wilkinson. 

1814 John Hamilton. 

1815 William James Alexander. 

1816 Sir Compton Domville. 

1817 James John Hamilton. 

1818 Hon. Eyre Coote. 

1819 Richard Verschoyle. 

1820 Sir Richard Steele. 




1821 Charles CoUbe. 

1822 George Woods. 

1823 John Kennedy. 

1824 Sir John Bibton. 

1825 John Dsvid Lstouche. 

1826 Joshua Spenser. 

1827 Thomas R. Needhaaa. 

1828 Hon. Edward Wmgfield. 

1829 George Bfans. 

18d0 Hon. Thoutt Bamewall. 

1831 Sir JosiahCCogbilL 

1832 James Hans Hamilton. 

1833 Richard Bfanders« 

1834 Fenton Hort. 

1835 Lord Brabazon. 
1886 Sir William Pahner. 



With which this History commences, enters at once 


a district immediately adjoining the liberties of the 
metropolis at their northern boundary, washed on 
the east by the Irish Sea, into which it projects the 
fine promontory of Howth, bounded at the north by 
the baronies of Balrothery and Nethercross, and on the 
west by that of Castleknock. According to the be- 
fore-mentioned return of 1824, this barony contains 
twenty parishes and one part of a parish, subdivided 
into eighty-two townlands or 20,940 acres, of which 
2,398 are therein set down as waste. 

The parislies enumerated are, St. George's, (in 
connexion with the city,) Grangegorman, Artane, 
Beldoyle, BalgrifEn, St. Doulogh's, Cloghran, Clon- 
tarf, Clonturk, Coolock, Glasnevin, Howth, Killeigh, 
Killester, Killossery, (part,) Kinsaly, Malahide, St. 
Margaret's, Portmamock, Ratheny, and Santry, to 
which the Down Survey adds parts of Finglas and 
Swords. Such of these as are maritime gently slope 
to the water, occasionally undulated, but, with the 
exception of Howth and Carrickhill on the sea, Fel- 


trim in the interior, and the islands of Lambay and 
Ireland's Eye, the barony does not exhibit any emi- 
nence of importance. The whole district, exclusive 
only of Howth, may be said to rest upon limestone, 
and appears to derive its name from the woods which 
formerly shadowed its surface. 

In reference to its annals, it would appear that this was a por- 
tion of the earliest barony erected by that title in Ireland, King 
John having granted the archiepiscopal estates, and particularly the 
lands of Coillagh, comprising, it would seem, not only large tracts 
in Coolock, but also portions of district in the southern parts of 
this county to the Archbishop of Dublin and his successors, to 
hold in barony tenure, whereby the prelates of this see became 
lords of parliament ; and in a subsequent royal charter to the said 
Archbishop occur the confirmatory words, " and for this grant, 
and for thelandof CoiUach, the said Archbishop gave me sixty marks 
of silver." Thb latter charter was followed immediately by grants to 
the see of liberties and free customs, courts, and jurisdictions, all 
which King John further confirmed in the fifteenth year of his reign, 
and particularly the district of Coillach with all its appurtenances, 
** in baroniam,'' with the reservation, however, that on the king's 
going into Ireland he might resume these lands on assigning others 
in a safe and suitable situation. 

Under these patents the archbishops continued to hold courts 
by their seneschals, as well within this barony, at Swords, Finglas, 
&c., as in other places within the Croces ; enjoyed all the privi- 
leges of sok and sak, toll and them, infangthef, outfangthef, all 
pleas of the crown save four, the return of writs, assize of bread, 
wine, ale, views of frankpledge, with liberty of pillory, tumbrel, 
and thewe, &c Like other feudal lords, they likewise established 
boroughs, or corporate towns, with certain liberties and free com- 
monage in particular parts of their seigniories. They had their 
coroners and officers ; and even these, as well as their clerks, and 
men residing in and about the city, had peculiar privileges, it being, 
however, on the other hand provided, in favour of the charter of 
Dublin, that the citizens should not sue in the court of (he Arch- 


bishop or of his officers, where redress might be obtained in the 
court of the city. 

Id this plenitude of prerogative, however, the archbishops 
were not exenapted from contributing to the service of the state, in 
right of such their baronial territory; and in those chivakous times, 
irhen every man fit to bear arms held his character in a manner 
by the tenure of military service, they too were required to repre-^ 
sent their fee in the field, and to maintain their << warriors for the 
working day." Accordingly, in 1532, when King Henry notified 
that for certain arduous causes, with the consent of his lieutenant, 
and the lords spiritual and temporal and council, he had determined 
to unfurl and display hb banner at the hill of Owenstown, and 
therefore ordered his treasurer and barons to issue summonses and 
distringases against all those absent who were bound to render 
scutage on such an occasion, a notice of that nature issued to the 
Archbishop of Dublin, as one bound to appear in right of his barony 
of Coillach. 

The lands forfeited in 1641, in this barony, were returned as 
as 8,455a. profitable, while the church and glebe lands therein were 
sUted as 120a. Sr. 

In 1667 a further grant was made, in augmentation of the re- 
venues of the see of Dublin and in pursuance of the Act of Settle- 
ment, of several denominations of land in this barony, as also in 
those of NethercrosB and Uppercross. 

The tourist may, in this his first route, and, as it 
were, on the threshold of his excursions, eiyoy, from a 
bridge over the Royal Canal, called Newcomen Bridge, 
a truly delightful view of the bay and its shores, and 
the woods of Marino, haply when waving in their 
summer verdure, and basking, as they may oftentimes 
be seen, in such a delicious cheerfulness of sunshine, 
as Claude Lorraine himself would have delighted to 

Presently the road reaches 



where was once a white flint glass manufactory, the 
jbuildiDgs and offices of which have been latterly con- 
verted to the nses of vitriol works. They stand at 
the city side of the little river of Tolka, that here 
empties itself into the sea under one ancient bridge, 
of five rude, unomamented arches, (from which the 
whole locality is more usually called Ballybough- 
Bridge,) and another modem one, nearer to the sea 
by a short interval* 

The village is almost entirely on the opposite side 
pf the river, comprising a few insignificant houses, ' 
some of which present, in their pointed roofs, the evi- 
dences of ancient villas ; but situated as it is on the 
bank of an area, that, at the good will and pleasure of 
the tide, is alternately a pool of muddy brine, or a 
surface of oozy strand, it certainly offers no inviting 
auspice to the tourist. The Tolka, which flows through 
it, is an unassuming stream; it forms, however, the 
boundary of Coolock Barony, from the sea to Fin- 
glas Bridge, and, between Ballybough and the sea, is 
traversed by Annesley Bridge, the modem one be- 
fore alluded to, a handsome erection of granite, con- 
sisting of three semicircular arches, and exhibiting in 
the centre of the parapet the Annesley arms. 

In the centre of the village is, perhaps, the only 
Jewish cemetery in Ireland, containing about a rood of 
ground enclosed with a high wall and thinly planted 
with trees and shrubs, among which are a few head- 
stones with Hebrew inscriptions. It is remarkable 


^i this people never inter a second body in the same 
grave, an act of veneisation which eould not be practi- 
cable in extensive commimities. Thisi however^ and 
all the other Jewish Htes of sqsrultare, are said to be 
observedihcases of interm^ithere. Under thehead 
of each corpse is placed a. bag of earth^ihe face is stu- 
didnsly tamed tovwrds the Eaat, and the mourners, 
retkiriiiiig from the grave, pluck the grass and strew 
it behind them* 

He who looks npon this Hebrew grave-yard, can- 
not but bethink himiBelf of the devoticm with which 
that nation is represented in the sacred writings, as 
•regarding the burial places of their families, and the 
last wish of that affection, expi'essed with such par 
thetic simplicity in the entreaty of Jacob; '^ Bury 
me not, I pray thee, in Egypt, but I will lie ^^ith my 
fathers, and thou shalt carry me out of Egypt ;'' and 
afterwards he charges his sons, ^^ Bury me with my 
fathers in the cave that is in the field of Machpelah, 
which is before Mamre in the land of Canaan, which 
Abraham bought with the field of Ephron, the Hit- 
tite, for a possession of a burying place ; there they 
buried Isaac, and Rebecca his wife, and there 1 bu- 
ried Leah/' 

'* It is not very certain when the first Jews esta- 
blished themselves in Dublin. There is reason to 
suppose, however^ that they were among the Dissen- 
ters who came to Ireland after Cromweirs conquests. 
He wished to encourage a people, whose supposed 
wealth and industry, would be likely to advance the 
commercial interests of the country, and form, with 
the rest, a barrier against the Catholic populatipn. On 


his invitation some Portuguese Jews settled in Dub- 
lin, where they became opulent merchants, and esta- 
blished a synagogue in Crane-Lane/'^ 

The Israelites were, indeed, so prepossessed by 
the Protector of England becoming also theirs, that 
it is asserted a deputation of the Asiatic Jews about 
this time arrived in London, with the celebrated 
Rabbi Jacob Ben Azabel at their head, and that it 
was their object to make private inquiries, in order 
to ascertain whether Cromwell was not the expected 
Messiah. The historian adds, that they accordingly 
embraced an opportunity to interrogate his relatives, 
where he was bom, and whether any of his ancestors 
in the male line could not be proved of Jewish origin. 
But their object transpired, and Cromwell was so 
incensed at their impiety, that he commanded the 
deputation to leave the kingdom. He, however, 
continued license and toleration to Jewish settlers. 

Those in Ireland, in time, became so numerous 
as to engage the attention of the legislature. In the 
year 1746, a bill was passed in the House of Com- 
mons for naturalizing persons professing the Jewish 
religion in Ireland, and in the year following it was 
again introduced, agreed to without any amendment, 
and presented to the Lord Lieutenant to be trans- 
mitted to England. It did not, however, receive the 
royal assent, but miscarried, as a similar bill had done 
in England, in consequence, as it would appear, of the 
popular clamour raised in that country against such 
a measure. There were, at this time, about forty 

• VVhilclaw and Walsh's Hist, of Dublin, p. 845. 


Jewish families settled in Dublin, comprising 200 
individuals, who had removed their synagogue to 
Marlborough-Green, and had purchased the above- 
mentioned burying-ground. Since that period, they 
gradually declined, and, at the commencement of the 
present century, there not being ten males of the 
body, which is necessary to constitute a synagogue, 
it was therefore discontinued, and the temple con- 
verted into a glass-house." * The children of Israel 
have, however, at present a synagogue in Mary's 

Passing the cemetery, and continuing through the 
village^ a narrow lane branches off at left into the 
once pretty suburb of Annadale. 

Thou/^h Balljbough sounds not quite so ** tuneable as lark to 
shepherd's ear," jet are there some records associated with it, not 
perhaps unworthy of being rescued from oblivion. 

The Cbtercianf monastery of the Blessed Virgin was entitled 
from the earliest period to the tithes of the whole townland.:t 

In the commencement of the fourteenth century, the boundary 
of the dty of Dublin, in thb direction, was defined as " running 
through the middle of the road of the village of Ballybough, unto an 
ancient path of an old mill ;" and the White Book of Christchurch, 
in describing the course of riding the franchises in 1488, thus details 
this portion of the route :^<< Leaving the stone well on the left 
hand, they proceeded southward, until they came into the highway 
going into Ballybough ; and from the gate of Ballybough they 
came to the water of Tolka, by the bridge of Ballybough, there 
passing over the water, keeping by the water side southward as far 
as they might ride, until they came unto St. Mary's Abbey, leav- 
ing the abbey on the right hand. On the west of the abbey, on 

• Whitelaw and Walsli's Hist of Dublin, p. 845. 
t See an account of this Order, pos/, at ** Clonliffe." 
J Inquis. 17 Car. I. in Cane. Hib. 


ihe wi4er «id9» tbere lieth a gtone where tbe abbot and his monks 
^t them again, and the abbot told them that they should have 
ridden west of the abbey, and so forth to the sea ; but the mayor 
and. his brethren said <<Nay; for, by our book, when we did 
fetom back firom the Tolka, we should hare rid to our Lady's 
church of Ostmanby. And so they departed, every man repaittng 
homeward Jbo his lading ; and thus the mayor and his brethren 
made an end of the riding their franchises.'' 

The ancient gate, alluded to in the above account, has been 
long since replaced by an undignified one of the turnpike order ; 
but the bridge, though recently repured, still exhibits evidences 
of .anltquity* The mill is repeesented hj tfro mod^n woiks, 
which are rented for about £100 per annum ; one for grinding 
patmealy the other for flour. There are good stores and suitable 
machinery on the premises, a capital mill-race, pond, and weir. It 
is subject, however, to the ordinary inconveniences of the Tolka 
supply— in summer scanty, and in winter superabundant. 

In 1313, John Decer, then a private citizen, but formerly 
mayor of Dublin, built a bridge, extending from this town to << the 
causeway of the mill-pool of Clontarf, which before was a dange- 
rous charge ;" but, after a considerable sum was expended upon 
the work, it was carried away by an inundation.* 

* Harris's Dublin. — ^The extensive liberality^ of this charitable 
Mayor should not be forgotten. It was well worthy of more than 
corporate imitation. He ** builded at his own diarges the high pipe 
in iDublin," a bridge over the river Liffey towards St. Wolstan's, a 
chapel InThomas-streety and another in Francis-street, erected a large 
stone pillar in the church of St. Saviour in Oxmantown, and gave ^e 
great stone for the high altar with all (he church ornaments. On every 
Friday he entertained the brethren of the latter l^ouse at his table, 
and, in a time of general scarcity, imported from France three ships 
ladan with com, one of which he presented to the Lord Justice and 
militia, another to the Dominican and Augustinian seminaries, and 
the third he reserved for the liberal exercise of his own hospitality and 
bounty. On this occasion, the Prior of Christ Church, being also in 
want of corn and of money to purchase it, sent to this worthy Mayor 
a pledge of plate to the value of forty pounds, but he returned the plate 
with a present of twenty barreb of com. All these beneficent actions 


hk 1376 it WM found on fawyiJAion thai the corporation of 
Dublin had exeeeded their »ith<n^jy by holding pleis of IrcipMi 
in the teneaie9i of QonliffiBy being vithout the bounds, of the city 
handuaes, against the King^% chaiter granted to the Abbot and 
Convent of Stv Mary'^ Dublin ; and that the mayor and his bai- 
liflb usurped a prartofian authority^ without the dtyfibertiesy upon 
John Stoad, at Ballyiyoogh in the tenement of Clonlifie. 

In 1510^ John Netterville and John Penqneyt, haiing perpe- 
trated a mnrdery stolen from William Dardis a sheep of the Talue 
of eight pence^and oommitted other enormities^ that etinced they 
were not bom in those times 

** When Erin*s sons were so good or so eold. 
As not to betenqiCed by woman or gold,** 
sought sanctuary in St. Mary's Abbey, whither, when the co ff o ner 
despatched the officers of Ballyboagfa, to take charge of the snd 
feions until dehTered by due course of law, the abbot, Richard 
Begg, and his monks rented tins intefference with th«r l^gal 
prifilcgesy and succeeded in establishing the inviolability of theur 

At the dissolution of the monasteries, the said abbot wasfoand 
seised {inUraiia) of twa meisuages, one hundred acres of arable, 
seven acres of meadow, and four of pasture in this townbnd ; 
annual value^ £7 12$. M. ; while John Bath, of Drumcondrm, was 
then the proprietor of some houses, and eighty acres' here, as also 
of the mill ; aH wlneh he held (rf the king, m eapiU^ by knight- 
service.* For it notice in 1603, see at «« Dalkey." 

In the confiscations consequent upon the war of 1641, Sir 
James Weinys, the eldest son of Sir PatridL Wemys, (whowas a 
native of Scotland, the confidential friend and Captain-Lieutenant 
to the Earl of Ormond in the army of King Charles the First, 

induoed the Dominieans to insert a pngper in their litany for the pros- 
peri^ of the Mayor and City of Dabhn. ^ Orate pro salute Majoris 
BaHivoram et conmranitalia de onni civitate Dublin, optimorum 
benefiu^torum huic ordini tno none et in hork mortis.** On bis death, 
in 1332; he was buried in the monastery of his own foundation in 

* Inquis. 1624, in Cane Hib. 


and from whom, through the said Sir James, the family, settled at 
Dunfert in the county Kilkenny, is lineally descended,) obtained 
a grant of a messuage, or brick tenement, and several parks near 
Ballybough Bridge, containing forty acres. About the same time 
Bath's eighty acres were granted to James Duke of York, on whose 
attainder the principal portion thereof was sold by the trustees of 
the forfeited estates to Alderman Eccles of the city of Dublin.* 

In 1787, the Dublin ChronicU speaks of the iron milk of 
Ballybough, as furnising spades, shovels, and other implements 
of husbandry, likewise a variety of kitchen utensils, 8cc*y equal to 
any heretofore imported. The same authority mentions how 
successfully the manufacture of white flint glass was carried on 
here by an opulent company ; while plate glass for coaches was 
made and polished near the North Strand, and another glass- 
house on a very extensive scale was erecting near the North Wall, 
all in the immediate vicinity. The newspapers of the following 
year also state the export of glass services ftrom this to Cadiz. 

As Ballybough was the chief furnace of this manufacture, a 
brief notice of its introduction into thb country may not be irre- 

Captain Philip Roche, an Irishman of good family and pos- 
sessed of some property, had accepted a commission from James 
the Second, and by being included in the Articles of Limerick^ 
preserved his estate. He preferred, however, for a time to follow 
the fortunes of his master, but .taking some umbrage, quitted 
France, and, after visiting a great part of the continent, returned 
to hb native country. Being there inci^acitated, as a Roman 
Catholic, from seeking a military or civil employment, he turned 
hb attention to trade ; and, having, while on the continent, ac- 
quired a considerable insight into the mystery of making flint 
glass, conceived it might be advantageously pursued here. He 
made the attempt, and, after many failures and much loss, even- 
tually succeeded to his wbh. After enjoying for some years 
the fruits of his spirited exertions, he died very opulent, and still 
more beloved and regretted. He bequeathed legacies to almost 
every one of his customers, who, indeed, were mostly hawkers, 

♦ Pat. in Rolls* Office. 


«s the poverty of the country threw this brmnch into the hmads of 
itinerant traders. A conaderable share of his fortune devolved 
to his brother-in-law, who, in endeavouring to fulfil a charitable 
trust reposed in him, by securing a perpetuity of relief for poor 
widows, imprudently purchased long and valuable leases, whidi 
the severity and injustice of the penal laws (he being also a Roman 
Catholic) transferred to a Protestant discoverer. A Mr. Fitz Simons 
succeeded to the business, which, having been carried on for some 
time, devolved to hb son ; but, proving iDJurious to his health, 
it declined in his hands, and at length he discontinued the works, 
and became himself an importer of English glass. It may be 
Added, that, soon after Mr. Roche's establishment, a similar one 
was set up in Parsonstown, (alias Birr,) which Doctor Boate says 
supplied Dublin with all sorts of window and drinking glasses. 
" One part of the materials,'' he adds, " viz. the sand, they had 
out of England, the ashes they made in the place, of ash tree, 
and used no other, while the clay, for pots to melt the materiab 
in, was procured firom the North." * 

The botanistf will find here on the road sides, 
hordeum murinum^ wall barley, and senehiera corch 
nopuSf swine^s cress. — On the strand, gfyceria distans^ 
reflexed sweet grass, torilis nodosa^ knotted hedge 
parsley, and arenaria rubra^ purple sandwort.— On 
the muddy shores, cochlearia Danica^ Danish scurvy 
grass ; and on the adjacent North wall, ruppia mari- 
timoj tassel pond weed, sedum acre^ wall pepper, se- 
rastium semidecandrumj little mouse ear chickweed, 
trifolium scabrufn, rough rigid trefoil, flowering so 

* Boate*8 Natural History, p. 89. 

t In the botanic department of this work, and the dasn6cation as- 
signed to the respective localities. Miss Bayley's ** Irish Flora,** and 
Mr. Mackay*8 have been necessarily the chief authorities, with some 
additions from Mr. Wade*8 little treatises. 


early as May ; apargia hirta^ deficient hawkbit^ cni- 
cus arvensis, creeping plume thistle, erigeron acre, 
blue flea bane, pyrethrum maritimumy sea feverfew, 
jpoa distans, reflexed meadow grass, flowering about 
August, a plant chiefly, though not exclusively cent 
fined to maritime situations, and deemed the most 
inferior of grasses for agricultural purposes ; riccia 
fiuUanSy floating branched riccia, and lepidium rude- 
rale, narrow-leaved pepperwort, flowering in Septem* 
ber, and deriving its English name from its leaves 
having a taste like pepper, and being consequently often 
substituted for that spice by the country people, to 
give a relish to their viands. 

Pursuing the road hence by the sea side a Catholic 
chapel presents itself at the left, an edifice originally 
constructed by an humble individual of the name of 
Younge,as a Dominican monastery, but subsequently, 
with the sanction of the Most Rev. Doctor Murray, 
taken on lease from the Dominicans, and now appro- 
priated as the parochial chapel of Clonturk or Drum- 
condra, Mr. Younge also intended by his will tq 
endow a school here, but his funds did not prove ade~ 
quate to its maintenance. 

Passing thence, a very interesting view opens at 
right, especially when the tide is " at home," at which 
times the Pigeon-House and Light-House stand out 
as if insulated in the bay, while the Wicklow and 
Dublin mountains, in summer traversed by the fleet 
sunshine, in winter whitened in broad lines by the 
snow, appear to connect with Howth, and complete- 


ly to environ a space, that, but for the intrusion of 
the sails and the steam funnels, might be deemed a 
noble lake* At left is seen the classic villa of 


once the favourite retreat of that honest and dignified 
Irish patriot, the celebrated Lord Charlemont, where, 
in a mansion of his own erection, he collected around 
him the works of ancient and modem art, andpassed» 
in literary amusement and refined society, the meri- 
dian and close of his life. 

A gateway, modem and neat, with a centre and 
wings of hewn granite, of the Doric order^ surmount- 
ed'by his lordship's supporters, dragons couchant, in 
Portland stone> supporting an escutcheon with the 
fiunily arms, and relieved with the chivalrous motto^ 
^* Deo juvante, ferro comitante,'' 

^ Widi Qod «fl mjr ginde^ 
And mgr sword by my nde,** 

announces to the tourist that he has reached the de*- 
mesne. It comprises about 200 acres, laid out and 
improved with an elegance suitable to the taste of 
its first resident proprietor* 

^ The house presents a square of Portland stone^ 
sixty feet to each side, and has, in it& day, bete the 
shrine of some of the richest treawren of ^ulpture an4 
painting that the most critical ^research over Europe 
could select The gardens, though not extensive, 
were then tastefully ornamented ; and the Temple, 
a Casino from the design of Sir Richard Chambers, 


though it might be thought too laboured in its em* 
bellishments, presented an image of what Lord Char- 
lemont had seen in the edifices of the accomplished 
Pericles. It is of the Doric order, constructed of a 
stone dazzlingly white, and raised on a squar.e plat- 
form) ascended on the north and south by broad and 
expansive flights of steps. The superstructure has a 
portico in each front. " Those to the north and south 
are finished by an entablature and blockings, sup- 
porting statues at the angles, while the east and west 
porticoes are pedimented and finished by a balustrade 
over the wings ; an enriched medallion cornice and 
elaborately sculptured frieze surround the entire.-* 
An attic rises above the porticoes, extending longi- 
tudinally from north to south, the ends of which 
are ornamented with panels and festoons, and finish- 
ed by antique urns, that crown the whole erection. 
A deep area, surrounded by a beautiful base and ba- 
lustrade, protects the building, at each angle of which, 
reposing on pedestals, like watchful sentinels, are co- 
lossal figures of lions."* The inside of this edifice 
contains a vestibule, saloon, study and boudoir, the 
floors of which are beautifully framed of inlaid wood, 
of various colours, in geometrical figures. The doors 
are composed of mahogany at one side and cedar at 
the other, both empanelled, and the mouldings round 
the panels richly carved. In the boudoir is a most 
exquisite marble chimney-piece, small, but highly 
sculptured with fruits, flowers, and shells. 

* Armstrong's FiDgaL 


** I was sensible/' said the noble founder of this structure, 
<< that it was my indispensable duty to live in Ireland, and I deter- 
mined by some means or other to attach myself to my native land, 
and principally with this view I began those improvements at Ma- 
rino, as, without some attractive employment, I doubted whether 
I should have resolution to become a resident." 

In 1786, this nobleman, writing from Marino to the illustrious 
Henry Flood, thus reiterates his sentiments of attachment for his 
native land : — *< Do not be afraid, my dearest Flood, nor do me 
the injustice to harbour the least doubt of my being capable of 
preferring any country whatsoever to that which you inhabit. As 
long as the younger sister can boast of such children as you and 
one or two more, selected out of her numerous offspring, there is 
no sort of chance that the elder should ever prevail over her in 
my affectionate and dutiful regard ; and, though I may like well 
enough to pass some of my time with my rich and magnificent 
aunt, yet, I shall ever esteem my poor mother's humble cottage as 
my real home, and as the natural hearth, to which both my duty 
and my inclination will ever recall me." 

The Earl, it will be remembered, was one of the first honoured 
with the Order of St. Patrick, the principal of the committee of 
Dilettanti, the first President of the Royal Irish Academy, and, 
above all, the temperate commander of the Irish Volunteers. 

Here, in this his hospitable villa, the consistent Lucas — 
** Lucas, for whose unwearied care 
To heaven ascends the general prayer : 
Whose patriot heart, with honest pride. 
For years had stemmed corruption's tide j 

here Lucas conceived and was encouraged in the efforts of his ar- 
dent and disinterested patriotism. Here Grattan, who first entered 
parliament in 1775 under the auspices of the Earl of Charlemont, 
and as representative of the borough from which that peer derived 
his title ; here, in the Tusculan villa of his patron, Grattan, after 
astounding the senate with the splendour of his eloquence, delighted 
the literary circle with the attainmenU of his genius, or the play 
of his fancy. Here Curran has flashed over the convivial board 
the dazzling coruscations of his wit. Here Flood was seen in all 
the verdure of his leafy honours, that " tree of the forest that was 



too great to be transplanted." This, in a word, was the resort of 
every native or stranger, whom taste and talent could make wor- 
thy of its enjoyment. 

Sir Jon^Ji Barrington, in reference to the political character of 
its venerable proprietor, says, " Though he was not devoid of am- 
bition, and was proud of his popularity, his principles were calm, and 
his moderation predominant. For some years at the head of a 
great army, in the heart of a powerful people, in the hand of an 
injured nation, during the most critical epocha that a kingdom ever 
experienced, he conducted the Irish with incredible temperance, 
and, in the midst of tempests, flowed on in an unruffled stream, 
fertilizing the plain of liberty, and enlarging the channel of inde- 
pendence, but too smooth and too gentle to turn the vast machi- 
nery of revolution."* His indisposition to the emancipation of his 
Catholic countrymen is perhaps the only cloud that posterity re- 
cognises upon hb character. 

About the beginning of the year 1791, when the health of this 
great man was declining, and the Bath waters recommended as 
likely to prove beneficial, he leR Marino for that object ; on which 
occasion he writes, << It is not pleasant for me to give up Marino, 
it is still less pleasant to me to give up my library, but it is least of 
all pleasant to me to absent myself from that sphere of public life, 
where my endeavours may possibly be of some small utility to my 

His life, but it can scarcely be said his health, was prolonged 
to August, 1799, when he expired at his city residence, in Palace 
Row, Dublin, and was buried in the family vault, in the cathedral 
of Armagh. 

In 1807 a fire broke out here that destroyed the 
northern wing of the family mansion, in which was a 
very beautiful drawing-room, with windows orna- 
mented by some of the most masterly productions, in 
stained glass, of the celebrated Jervis. 

The demesne and its appendages were much ne- 

• Bise and Fall of the Irish Nation, p. 73. 


glected during the long but necessitated absence of 
the present Earl. He is now, however, rapidly reno* 
vating its beauties ; and, by the employment of labour- 
ers and artists, diffusing comfort bnce more in tim 

The surrounding meadows abound with the ira- 
gopogon prateruis, yellow goats' beard, and the old 
walls with the red valerian. 

At the Crescent, (a range of houses erected in 
that form in 1792,) the great road, by which the Eng- 
lish miftil was formerly conveyed, diverges to Howth, 
passing by the Tomantic little spot at left, called the 
Black Quariy,thenl)y HoUybrook, an ancient denomi- 
nation, with a small assemblage of houses at right; after 
which, at the same side, occurs Furry Park, formerly 
the seat of the Earl of Shannon, the descendant of 
the celebrated Sir Richard Boyle; Sybil Hill^ the 
handsome demesne of Mr. Barlow, succeeds at right; 
the pretty cottage and well enclosed parks of Mr. 
D'Arcy at left ; and on the same side, in a sweet 
sitnationi, a little removed from this roadi overhanging 
the glen and river off Ratheny, "is the seat of Mr, 
M'Conchy, fohnerly that of Mr. Dick, whose comme- 
moration IS perpetuated In the endowed school of 
Ratheny, hereafter alluded to. Along the sides of this 
road the epilobium tetragamArif sqtxeLve'StsXked willow 
herb, grows frequent. • • i. 

Traversihg,* however, the sea-shore from the afore- 
said Crescent, an establishment for bathers is seen at 
left, erected On the ruins of that charter schooU of 
which' Lord-Harrington laid the first stone in 1748. 

F 2 


On the recent suppression of this establishment the 
Board of the Incorporated Society have let the ground 
and premises for the annual rent of £100, which is 
applied by them to the maintenance of the surviving 
charter schools. 

On the wayside hence to Clontarf, the botanist 
will find the chenopodium mwrafe, nettle leaved goose- 
foot, senebiera corinopus^ swine's cress, and, accord- 
ing to Thelkeld, the geranium moschatumi musked 
crane's bill; while along the sea-shore ^^cma mari" 
tima, creeping sea sweet grass, flourishes abundantly. 

Continuing the latter course about half a mile, to 
where a le^d mine was discovered and abandoned, a 
turn of the road leads into the town of 


the Marathon of Ireland ; buW althougli invested 
with such historic associations, it has little remaining 
to interest the eye. The church, which is built on 
the site of an ancient monastery, is a small, unim- 
portant edifice. It contains, however, some monu- 
ments worthy of note, one of black and white marble 
to Charles Bourchier of Northamptonshire, who died 
in 1716, and to Barbara his wife, daughter of Ri- 
chard Harrison, Esq., of Balls, in Hertfordshire, who 
died in 1719- The inscription states that their eld- 
est son was for some time governor of Bombay, and 
that their other children were one son and five 
daughters, whose marriages, &c., it details. It also 
mentions that the above Mr. Bourchier came to this 


country with the Honourable General Villiers, father 
of the Earl of Grandison and uncle of said Barbara 
Harrison. In the wall, near the entrance, is a mural 
slab, to Sarah Hadsor, who died in 1751; in the 
floor of the aisle, a stone to the memory of John Ca- 
vanagh, who died in 1767, and in the wall, near the 
communion table, a marble slab, to Archibald Douglas, 
eldest son of General Douglas, who died in 1787, 

In the grave-yard is the family vault of the 
Vemons, some tombs of the Rochforts, Dawsons of 
Dawson Grove in the County of Moni^han, Mac 
Causlands of Omagh ; and at the eastern gable of 
the church, a monument to John JCilpatrick, who 
represented the borough of Granard in the Irish 
parliament, and subsequently distinguished himself at 
Plassey in Bengal. 

At one side of the church, in the demesne of Mr. 
Vernon, a specimen of castellated architecture has 
been recently erected ; at the other, are seen the 
house and beautiful gardens of Mr. Colville, (for- 
merly Lord Southwell's). 

The parish, in which this town is situated, bears 
its name, and according to the Trigonometrical Sur- 
vey* contains 1189a. 3r. Op. 

In the Protestant establishment, Clontarf ranks 
as a single benefice, an undivided rectory in the 

* The acreable contents, stated here, and in the ensuing parisbesy 
as from the Trigonometrical Surveyors, are, of course, according to 
the present statutable measurement, and must be understood as kindly 
furnished for this work, on the best present calculation, but subject to 
more close revision before their invaluable maps are laid open to the 


deanery of Finglas^ and patronagiB of the x)rowny and 
has. compounded foi;£220 .peir anoum^ 
In the CatholiO) it is united with those of Ratheny, 
Coolock, vSantry, -Glasnevin, Killester, and Drum- 
condra, aZ/^^^.Clonturk, there being four- Roman 
Catholic churches in the union, at Clontarf, at Bally- 
mun (in San try parish), at Coolock, and at Aiinesley 
Bridge, as heibre. mentioned. > The population. of 
this parish, exqlusive of the town, .was returned in 
1821 as 1^53 persons, and in 183L as 2,014, while 
that of the town wa$, on the- latter occasion, stated 
at 1)309) the ^Catholics bearing, in tliis aggregate, 
a proportion to those of other persuasions^ somewhat 
greater than as-two to one. JMr* Vernon is the pro- 
prietor- of the fee.. His lands ^re chiefly let in oma- 
namented or building lots, with the ];esenration of an 
acreable rent of £10 per annum; inferior portions, 
or such as do not suit for building, at about £7j 
while cabins without land produce from £4 to. £5. 

* Thfe history of this locality, under the more ancient name of 
Moynealta, connects itself with the highest legends of the hardic 
age, which allege that Partholanus, one of the earliest invaders of 
Ireland, dosed his adventurous life on this barren shore. Other 
authorities assign Howth as the place where he and all his follow- 
ers fell victims to the plague. It subsequently obtaiued the Irish 
name of Cloutarf, i. e., the plain of the bull, from the fanciful ap- 
pearance of the large sand-bank in front of it, and which still re- 
tains the appellation in the English tongue. 

In 650 & church was founded here, and dedicated to St. Con- 
gall the Abbot, founder of the noble monastery of Bangor, and 
other religious houses, having, according to his biographers, 3000 
monks under his care. He died about the year 600, and his fes- 
tival is kept on the 10th of May. From this time nothing very 


'worthy of insertion occurred here, until the memorable period 
before alluded to, when Brian Boroimhe, the justly celebrated 
monarch of Ireland^ was compelled to abandon his pacific plans 
for the improvement of a country miserably wasted by internal 
dissensions and foreign spoliation, and again reluctantly obliged 
to lead his countrymen to the field in the eightieth year of his 
age. He repressed their fears, kindled their enthusiasm, united 
their energies, gathered them to defend their country, their li- 
berty, their religion, and, under his practised direction, they 
achieved over the Danes, upon the plains of Clontarf, the proudest 
victory that the chronicles of Ireland record. The glories of their 
triumph were, however, deeply darkened by the fall of this good 
old king, the most splendid ornament of the O'Brien dynasty, 
the lawgiver and the hero, the Alfred and Epaminondas of his 
country. At the close of the engagement he was sacrificed by 
a flying party of Danes to the manes of their fallen comrades. 
John Wilson has included this illustrious individual amongst the 
martyrs, as has Fitz Simons in the catalogue of Irish saints, each 
following Marianus Scotus; and, undoubtedly, if the founding 
and rebuilding of churches, the sheltering and maintaining persecu- 
ted ecclesiastics, the directing every effort of men, money, genius, 
and power, to restore Christianity, the ardent prosecution of a war, 
perhaps more holy than a crusade, from battle to battle, to arrest 
the sacrilegious arms of the infidel invaders of his country, gave 
a claim to canonization, he was eminently entitled to it. 

The details of the engagement are given, at much length, in 
the various Irish annals. The Book of Howth, naturalizing the 
story of Lucretia, attributes the whole catastrophe to the revenge 
of an injured husband. The Antiquitates Celt. Scand. are also 
very full in its recital, and the Leabhar Oiris, cited in 0'Conor*s 
Dissertation, (s. 18), is most diffuse, particularly in the account of 
the death of Brian ; and, certainly, it seems that the influence of 
this battle on the fortunes of Ireland well justifies a relation of 
the circumstances under which it was fought, and the particulars 
of the engagement, for which purpose the following has been se- 
lected, as translated by Mr. John O'Donovan chiefly from an an- 
cient Irish MS. entitled Calh Chluana Tarbh ; corrected, how- 
ever, in many parts, firom the Annalr of Innisfallen and Ulster, 


especially in the list of the chieftains who fell in that remarkable 
combat ; while the account of the deaths of Brian and Morogh is 
translated literally from the original Irish, as given by Mr. Hardi* 
man in his Irish Minstrelsy, vol. ii. p. 361. It must be confessed, 
however, that in some of the detsdls there i^pears an evident dis- 
position to exaggerate. 

<* It is said that towards the end of Brian Boroihme's rdgn 
Ireland flourished in all earthly blessings; and that so strictly were 
the laws obeyed, that, as we are informed by Mac Liag, chief an- 
tiquary of Ireland in Brian's time, a lady might travel unattended 
from one extremity of Ireland to the other, with a gold ring on 
the top of a wand, without being robbed or molested. No Danes 
were left in the kingdom, but such a number of artisans and mer- 
chants in Dublin, Waterford, Wexford, Cork, and Limerick, as he 
knew could be easily mastered at any time, should they dare to 
rebel ; and these he very wisely (as he thought) permitted to re- 
miun in those seaport towns, for the purpose of encouraging trade 
and traffic, as they possessed many ships, and were experienced 

" But such prosperity was of short continuance : Maelmordha, 
who usurped the crown of Leinster in 999, by the assistance of the 
Danes, being at an entertainment at Kincora, saw Morogh, 
Brian's eldest son, at a game of chess, and advised his antagonist 
to a movement which lost Morogh the game ; whereupon Morogh 
observed to him with a sneer, that if he had given as good advice 
at the battle of Glen-mama, the Danes would not have received so 
great an ovei*throw. 

" To which Maelmordha replied, " My instructions the next 
time shall guide them to victory ;" and Morogh, with contempt, 
bade defiance. Maelmordha became enraged, retired to his bed- 
chamber, and did not appear at the banquet, but passed the night 
in restless anger, and ruminating his country's ruin. Early next 
morning he set out for Leinster, without taking his leave of the 
monarch, or any of his household, to shew that he was bent upon 
desperate revenge. The good monarch, on hearing of his depar- 
ture, sent one of his servants after him, to request his reconcilia- 
tion with Morogh. The servant overtook him east of the Shannon, 
not far from Killaloe, and delivered his message from the monarch. 


Maelmordha, viho all the while listened with indignation, as soon 
as the servant was done speaking, raised the rod of yew which he 
had in his hand, and with three furious blows thereof, fractured 
the servant's skull, to make known to Brian how he rejected such 
reconciliation. He pursued his way on horseback to Leinster, 
vrhere, the next day, he assembled his nobles, represented to them 
the insult he received at Kincorai and inflamed them to so great a 
degree, that they renounced their allegiance to Brian, confederated 
M^ith the Danes, and sent the monarch defiance. 

<< Emissaries were sent to Denmark and Norway. The Danes 
of Normandy, Britain, and the Isles, joyfully entered into the con- 
federacy, pleased at the prospect of once more gaining possessions 
in this landj^oirtii^ with milk and honey.* The King of Den- 
mark sent his two sons, Carolus Kanvtus and Andreas, at the 
head of twelve thousand men, who landed safely in Dublin, and 
were kindly received and refreshed by Maelmordha. Troq)s now 
daily poured into the different ports of Leinster, from Sweden^ 
Norway, Normandy, Britain, the Orkneys, and every other nor- 
thern settlement. The King of Leinster was also indefatigable^ 
not only in raising new levies, but in labouring to detach different 
princes from the interest of their country. Never were such efforts 
made by the Danes as upon this occasion ; the best men were 
every where pitched upon for this service. Among others, Broder 
and Anrud, two Norwegian princes, landed at the head of one thou- 
sand choice troops, covered with coats of mail. 

<* The King of Leinster, being now animated by the number of 

* *' In the Chronicle of Ademar, Monk of Epharchius of Angoulesme, 
there is a curious passage relative to the views of the Northmen at 
that time, in which it is stated that they came with an immense fleet, 
meaning to extinguish the Irish, and to get possession of that most 
wealthy country which had twelve cities, great bishoprics, &c. * His 
temponbus Normanni 8upradic(t\ cum innumerd classe Hibemiam insit- 
lavty qucs Irlanda dicilur, ingressi sunt una cum uxoribus et liberis^ 8fc. 
ut, Hirlandis extinctis, ipsipro ipsis inhabitarent opulentissimam terram 
quee xii cimtales cum amplissimis Episcopatibus et unum regem habet^ 
ac propriam linguam sed Latinos literas, quam Sanctus Pairieius Ro- 
manus ad /idem convertit: Labbe thinks that this Chroiiicle was writtea 
before 1031. 


his auxiliaries, without longer delay, bid defiance by a herald to the 
monarch Brian, and challenged him to fight at Clontarf. 

« Brian Boroihme, with all possible speed, mustered (he forces 
of Munster and Connaught, and marched directly to the place ap^ 
pointed, and there saw the enemy prepared to oppose him, viz. 
sixteen thousand Danes, together with all the power of Leinster, 
under the command of their king, Maelmordha, the sole author of 
this battle. Then the power of Meath came in to aid their mo- 
narch Brian, under the conduct of Maelseachluin, their king, who, 
however, intended to betray Brian. For this purpose he sent to 
the King of Leinster to inform him, that Brian had despatched his 
son, Donogh, at the head of a third part of the Eugenian forces, 
to ravage Leinster, and that he himself, with his 1000 Meathmen, 
would desert Brian on the day of battle. Accordingly, It was de- 
termined to attack Brian before Donogh could come up. He was 
then encamped on the plain near Dublin, with a smaller army than 
he otherwise should have had. His opponents formed themselves 
into three divisions; the first, consisting of 1000 Northmen, covered 
with coats of mail from head to foot, and commanded by Carolus 
and Anrud, two Norwegian princes, and of the Danes of Dublin 
under Dolat and Conmael. The second divbion consisted of La- 
genians, about 9000 strong, commanded by their king, Maelmor- 
dha Mac Morogh, and under him by several minor princes, such as 
Mac Tuathal, or Toole, of the Liffey territory, the prince of Hy- 
Falgy, (Ophaly,) together with a large body of the Danes. The 
third division was formed of the Northmen, collected from the 
islands, from Scotland, &c. It was commanded by Loder, Earl of 
the Orkneys, and Broder, Admiral of the fleet, which had brought 
the auxiliary Northmen to Ireland. Brian was not dismayed by this 
mighty force ; and, depending on Providence and the bravery of 
his troops, prepared for battle, dividing his army likewise into three 
divisions ; one to oppose the enemy's first division, under his son 
Morogh, who had along with him his son Torlogh, and a select 
body of the brave Dalcassians, besides four other sons of Brian, 
Teige, Donald, Connor, and Flan, and various chieftains, Don- 
chuan, Lonargan, Celiocar, Fiongallach, and Jonracbtach, and the 
three chiefe of Teffia, &c,, together with a body of men from 
Conmaicne-mara, a western part of Connaught, under Carnan, 


their chief. To this division Maelseachluin was ordered to joiii 

his followers. Over the division which was to fight'the second of 

ilio enemy, Brian placed Kian and Donald, two princes of the Eu- 

genian line, under whom were the forces of Desmond and other 

parts of the south of Ireland, viz. Mothia, son of Faelaii, King of 

the Desies ; Murtogh, son of Anmchadha, Lord of Hy-Liathian ; 

Scanlan, son of Cathal, Chief of Eoganacht, of Lough Lein ; Ca<* 

thai, the son of Donovan, Lord of Hy-Cairbre Eabha, and Loing* 

seach O'Dowling, Chief bfHy-Conall Gaura ; the son of Beothach, 

King of Kerry- Luachra; Geibbionach, the son of Dubhagan, Chief 

of Fermoy. To this division also belonged (VCarroll, and hu 

troops of Ely O'Carrdl, and it was joined by another 0*Carroll, 

Prince of Uriel, in Ulster, and Maguire, Prince of Fermanagh* 

The division opposed to the third of their antagonists, consisted 

chiefly of Connacians, commanded by Teige O'Conor, as chief,- 

under whom were Mulroney CyHeyne, Chief of Aidhne ; Teige 

O'Kelly, King of Hy-maine ; O'Flaherty, King of Muinter Mur- 

chadha ; Connor O'MuIroney, Chief of Moylurg ; Hugh Guineagli 

O'Doyle, and Fogartagh, the son of Donall, two Chiefe of Ely ; 

Murtogh, the son of Core, Chief of Muscraighe-Cuirc ; and Hugh,' 

the son of Loughlin, Chief of Hy-Cuanach ; Donall, the son of 

Dermod, Chief of Cdrca-Baisgin ; Donogh, the son of CathaT, 

Chief of Muscraigh^ Aedha ; Ectigema, the son of Donegan, King 

of Ara. The Northmen, who had arrived under Broder at Dub* 

lin, on Palm Sunday, A. D. 1014, inasted on the battle being 

fought on Good Friday, which fell on the 28rd of April, a day, on 

whidi, by reason of its sanctity, Brian would have wished to avoid 

fighting.* Yet he was determined to defend himself even on that 

day ; and, holding the crucifix in his left hand, and his sword in 

the right, rode with his son Morogh through the ranks, and ad-' 

dressed them as follows, as we read in the Annals of Innisfallen, 

under the year 101 4« < Be not dismayed because that my son 

Donoghy with the third part of the Momonian firceSf is absent 

from you^for they are plundering Leinster and the Danish terri- 

• The Niala Saga states that Broder had been informed by a sort 
of pagan oracle, that should the batUe be fought on Good Friday, the 
Northmen would be victorious. 


toiies. lAmg have the men of Ireland groaned under the tyranny 
of these seafaring pirates I the murderers of your kings and 
chieftainsy plunderers of your fortresses ! profane destroyers of the 
churches and monasteries of God ! who have trampled ujyon, and 
committed to the fames the relics of his saints ! (and raising his 
voice,) May the Almighty Gody through his great mercy^ give you 
strength and courage this dayy to put an end for ever to their tyran' 
nyin Ireland^ and to revenge upon them their many per/ldiesy and 
their profanations of the sacred edifices dedicated to his worshipy 
this dayy on trAtcA Jesus Christ himself suffered deaih for your re- 
demption* So saying, (continue the Annals) < He shewed them the 
symbol of the bloody sacrifice in his left hand, and his golden hilted 
sword in his right, declaring that he was willing to lose his life in 
so just and honourable a cause.' And he proceeded towards the 
centre to lead on his troops to action ; but the chiefs of the army, 
with one voice, requested he would retire from the field of battle, 
on account of his great age, and ' leave to hb eldest son Morogh 
the chief command. 

*< At sunrise in the morning the signal for battle was given ; 
but at this very critical moment, Maelseacbluin, finding an oppor- 
tunity of being in some measure revenged of Brian, retired sud- 
denly from the scene of action with his 1000 Meathmen, and 
remained an inactive spectator during the whole time of the battle, 
without joining either side. This defection certainly rendered the 
division of the monarch's army very unequal in numbers to that of 
the enemy's which they were appointed to engage with. But 
Morogh, with great presence of mind, cried out to his brave Dal- 
cassians, < that this was the time to distinguish themselves, as they 
alone would have the unrivalled glory of cutting off that formida- 
ble body of the enemy.' And now, whilst the Dalcassians were 
closely engaged with battle-axe, sword, and dagger, the second 
division, under the command of the King of Con naught, hastened 
to engage the Danes of Leinster and their insular levies, whilst the 
troops of South Munster attacked Maelmordha and his degenerate 
Lagenians. Never was greater intrepidity, perseverance, or 
animosity displayed in any other battle than in this ; as every 
thing depended on open force and courage. The situation of the 
ground admitted of no ambuscades, and none were used ; they 


fought roan to man, and breast to breast ; and the victors in ono 
rank fell victims in the next. The commanders on both sides per- 
formed prodigies of valour. Morogh, his son Torlogh, his brethren 
and kindred, (lew from place to place, and every where left the 
sanguinary traces of their courage. The slaughter committed by 
Morogh excited the fury of Carolus and Conmael, two Danes of 
distinction ; they attacked him in conjunction, and both fell by his 
sword. Sitric, the son of Loder, observed that Morogh and other 
chiefs retired from the battle more than twice, and after each re- 
turn seemed to be possessed of double vigour. It was to quench 
their thirst, and cool their hands, swelled from the violent use of 
the sword and battle-axe, in an adjoining well, over which a guard 
of twelve men was placed; this the Danes soon destroyed. On 
rejoining his troops the last time, Sitric, the son of Loder, with a 
body of Danes, was making a fresh attack on the Dalcassians, and 
him Morogh singled out, and with a blow of his battle-axe divided 
bis body in two through his armour !* The other Irish com- 
manders in like manner distinguished themselves, though their 
exploits are not so particularly narrated ; and it would seem from 
the number of rank that fell on both sides, that the chiefs every 
where attacked each other in single combat. 

<< The issue of the day remained doubtful, until near four 
o'clock in the afternoon, and then it was that the Irish made so 
general an attack on the enemy, that its force was not to be 
resisted. Destitute of leaders, and consequently in disorder, 
the Danes gave way on every side. Morogh, at this time, through 
the violent exertion of his right arm, had both hand and arm so swel- 
led and pained as to be unable to lift them up. In this condition 

• "Annals of Innisfallen. — Of the great havoc which the Irish com- 
mitted with the battle-axe, Giraldus Cambrensis thus speaks in the 
reign of King John : — * They hold the axe with one hand not with 
both, the thumb being stretched along the handle and directing the 
blow, from which neither the helmet erected into a cone can defend 
the head, nor the iron mail the rest of the body. Whence it happens 
in our times that the whole thigh (coxa) of a soldier, though ever so 
well cased in iron mail, is cut off by one blow of the axe, the thigh and 
the leg falling on one side of the horse, and the dying body on the 


he was attacked by Anrudh, the son of Ebhric, but Morogh 
closing in upon him^ seized him with the left hand, shook him 
out of his coat of mail, and prostrating him, pierced him with 
hb sword by leaning with hb breast upon it, and pressing upon 
it with the weight of his body. In this dying situation of Anrudh, 
he nevertheless seized the skeine (scimitar) which hung by Mo- 
rogh's side, and with it gave him at the same instant a mortal wound ! 
The Dane expired on the spot ; but Morogh lived until next morn- 
ing. The confusion became general through the Danish army, 
and they fled on every side. Laidin, the servant of Brian, ob- 
serving the confusion, feared that the imperial army was defeated. 
He hastily entered the tent of Brian, who was on his knees before 
a crucifix, and requested that he would immediately take a horse 
and fly. * No,' says Brian ; < it was to conquer or die I came 
here; but do you and my other attendants take my horses to Ar- 
magh, and communicate my will to the successor of St. Patrick — 
that I bequeath my soul to God, my body to Armagh, and my 
blessing to my son Donogh ; give two hundred cows to Armagh, 
along with my body; and go directly to Swords of Columbkille, 
and order them to come for my body to-morrow, and conduct it 
to Duleek of St. Kianan, and let them convey it to Louth, whither 
let Maelmurry, the son of Eochy, coniorb of St. Patrick, come 
with the family of Armagh, and convey it to their Cathedral.* 
* People are coming towards us,' says the servant. * What sort 
of people are they^' says Brian ? « Green, naked people,* says 
the servant* < They are the Danes in armour,* says Brian ; and 
he rose from his pillow, seized his sword, and stood to await the 
approach of Broder and some of hb followers; and he saw no part 
of him without armour except his eyes and his feet. Brian raised 
his hand and gave him a blow with which he cut off his left leg 
from the knee, and the right from the ankle, but Broder's axe 
met the head of Brian, and fractured it; Brian, however, with all 
the fury of a dying warrior, beheaded Broder, and killed a second 
Dane by whom he was attacked; and then gave up the ghost. 
From the vast number of chiefs who fell, we may form some 
idea of the carnage of Brian's army. Besides himself, were slain 
Morogh, with two of his brothers, and his grandson Turlogh ; his 
nephew Conang; the chiefs of Corca Baisgin, of Fermoy, of Coo- 


naghy of Kerry- Luachra, of Eoganacbt Locha Lein, of Hy-Conaill- 
Gabhra, of Hy.Neachach Mumhan> of the Desies, &c. fell in this 
battle; as did the Connaught princes O'Kelly of Hy-maine, 
O'Heyne, and many others. The Great Stewards of Leamhna 
(Lennox) and Mar, with other brave Albanian Scots, the de- 
scendants of Core, king of Munster, died in the same cause. On 
tbe side of the enemy there fell Maelmordha, the cause of all this 
blood, with the princes of Hy-Failge (Offaly), of Magh-Liffe, and 
almost all the chiefs of Leinster, with 3000 of their bravest troops. 
Of the Danes, besides their principal officers, there fell 14,000 
men. The 1,000 men that wore coats of mail are said to have 
been all cut to pieces. The Danes were routed and pursued to 
their ships, and as far as the gates of Dublin. The surviving fo- 
reigners took an eternal farewell of the country ; and the Irish 
Danes returned to Dublin. 

<< That this was a real and great victory is attested in the Annals 
of Innisfallen under the year 1014, as also in the Annals of the 
Four Masters and of Ulster. Yet Sir James Ware, in his Anti- 
quities of Ireland, chap. 24, has some doubts on this pointy as if 
towards the end the Danes became uppermost. But the Scan- 
dinavian account of this sanguinary battle (which was long after 
famous throughout Europe) b sufficient to remove this doubt. 
The Niala Saga^ in Johnstone's Ant, CellO'Scand.y represents the 
Northmen as flying in all directions, and large parties of them 
totally destroyed. And in the Chronicle of Ademar, Monk of St. 
Eparchius of Angoulesme, tliis battle is represented as even greater 
than it really wajs, for it is said that all the Northmen were killed, 
and it is added that crowds of their women threw themselves into 
the sea. Yet it is true, that of some of their divisions not a man 
was left alive. Ademar makes the battle last for three days, but 
this does not agree with other accounts. 

« The body of Brian, according to his will, was conveyed to 
Armagh. First, the clergy of Swords, in solemn procession brought 
it to their abbey, from thence, the next morning, the clergy of 
bamhliag (Duleek) conducted it to the church of S. Kianan ; 
here the clergy of Louth (Lughmagh) attended the corpse to their 
own monastery. The Archbishop of Armagh, with hb suflfragans 
and clergy, received the body at Louth, whence it was conveyed 


to their cathedral. For twelve days and nights it was watched by 
the clergy, during which time there was a continued scene of 
prayers and devotions ; and then it was interred with great funeral 
pomp at the north side of the altar of the great church. The body 
of Morogh, with the heads of Conang and Faelan, prince of the De- 
sies, were deposited in the south aisle of that church ; but his 
grandson Turlogh, and most of the other chiefs, were interred at 
the monastery of Kilmainham. 

" Donogh, after having plundered Leinster, arrived at Kilmain- 
ham, on the evening of Easter Sunday, with the great spoil of 
Leinster, where he met bis brother Teige, Kian, the son of Mol- 
loy, and all that survived the battle : and he sent many presents 
and offerings to the comorb of St. Patrick. 

** Malachy (who resumed the monarchy of Ireland after the 
fall of Brian,) having been requested by the Clan Colman to give a 
narrative of the action, said : — < It is impossible for human lan- 
guage to describe it, an angel from heaven only could give a cor- 
rect idea of the terrors of that day ! We retired to the distance 
of a fallow field from the combatants, the high wind of the spring 
blowing from them towards us. And we were no longer than half 
an hour there, when neither of the two armies could discern each 
other, nor could one know his father or brother, even though he 
were the next to him, unless he could recognise his voice, or know 
the spot on which he stood, and we were covered all over, both 
faces, arms, heads, hair, and clothes with red drops of blood, borne 
from them on the wings of the wind ! And should we attempt to 
assist them we could not, for our arms were entangled with the locks 
of their hair, which were cut off by the swords, and blown towards 
us by the wind, so that we were all the time engaged in disentang- 
ling our arms. It was wonderful that those who were in the battle 
could endure such horror without becoming distracted. And they 
fought from sunrise until the dusk of the evening, when the full 
tide carried the ships away.' " 

In the museum of Trinity College a harp richly ornamented is 
exhibited as having belonged to Brian ; but, although its antiquity 
be evidently great, it is somewhat apocryphal that its music ever 
touched the heart of that monarch. 

This battle was the subject of a fine poem, preserved in the 


Orcades of Thermodus Torfsus, and also in Bartholinusi of which 
Graj has given a paraphrase, but certainly far inferior to the 
original, in his ode entitled << The Fatal Sisters." It also, as might 
well be expected, supplied the theme of various native effusions. 
That man, it has been observed, is little to be envied, whose patri- 
otism would not gain force upon the plains of Marathon, or whose 
piety would not grow warmer among the ruins of lona : and surely, 
he were not worthy of the name of Irishman, who would not feel 
electrified by the moral sublimity of this scene ; 

** Whose heart within him never burned,'* 

as he traversed the historic scene, where, by one magnificent effort 
of national retribution, the oppressors of his country were for over 
crushed, and, although some few of their race were allowed to 
remain as merchants in the towns which they had << builded with 
blood and established by iniquity," and where, on the English 
invauon, the rights of their descendants continued to be saved by 
special reservations down to the fourteenth century, yet never 
again were they a dominant people in this country. 

In 1171, when Roderic O'Conor invested the city of Dublin 
with his auxiliaries, Mac Dunleve, the petty prince of Ulster, had 
his station here, as had (VRourke of Breffny, (the abduction of 
whose wife was the alleged cause of the English invasion,) in the 
subsequent memorable attack upon Milo de Cogan. Immediately 
afterwards, the great Palatine of Meath, Hugh de Lacy, conferred 
upon his favourite, Adam de Phepoe, one knight's fee in the vid- 
nage of Dublin, comprising Clontarf, upon which de Phepoe is said 
to have built a castle ; while, in the service of religion, a commaud- 
ery (as religious houses, attached to military orders, were more 
commonly called) was founded here for Knights Templars, de- 
pendant upon Strongbow's splendid establishment of that order 
at Kilmainham. It was liberally endowed by private munificence, 
and a grant by Nicholas Taaffe of all his lands of Killergy, to the 
master of the Tempkrs here, is yet of record. 

The religious order of Templars was instituted at Jerusalem, 
about the year 1118; some individuals, who placed themselves un- 
der the government of the Patriarch, renounced property, made 



the TOW of celibacy and obedience, and lived like Canons Regii* 
lar. King Baldwin assigned to them apartments in his palace^ 
and they h*d, likewise^ lands conferred upon them by the Patriarch 
and the nobility, for their maintenance. About nine years after 
their inttitation a rule was drawn up for their conduct, and a 
white habit assigned to them by Pope Honorius the Second, In 
twenty years afterwards they were allowed to wear red crosses, 
sewed npon their cloak% as a mark of distinction, and, in a sborl 
time, were increased to about 800 in their conrent at Jerusalem, 
'J*hey took the name of Knights Templars, because their first 
house stood near the temple dedicated to our Saviour. 

This order, after having performed many great achievements 
against the infidels, became so rich and powerful, that they were 
possessed of 9000 Dumors in Christendom, and, certainly, no other 
fraternity could so well suit the taste of an age inspired with all 
the excitements of romance, and yet more elevated by every spe- 
cies of religious enthusiasm. Their amazing accession of pro* 
perty, however, soon induced the jealousy of the crowned heads 
of England and France, whereupon, charges, frivolous or feebly 
supported, were corruptly admitted by avaricious judges, and the 
order was universally suppressed* being, at the time of its extinc- 
tion, possessed of 16,000 lordships. Their grand master, James 
de Mola, was burned at Paris, asserting, to the Ust moment of hit 
life, their orthodoxy and innocence. In 1312, the Pope, by hia 
Bull, given in the Council of Vienna, pronounced the exUnctioQ 
of the order, but united their estates to that of St. John of Jeru« 
salem, a grant which the king of England confirmed in bis domi- 
nions^ protesting, however, againat any assumption of temporal 
power by the Pope, on this occasion. — In Ireland, besides Kil- 
mainham and Clontarf, this order was seised of the preceptoriea 
of Kilelogan, Killergy^ Kilsaran, Killure, Crock, Clonaul and 
Teach- Temple. 

Edward the Second, immediately on his accession to the 
throne, transmitted to John Wogan, then justiciary of Ireland^ 
a mandate for their suppression and the confiscation of their es- 
tates there, which was accordingly obeyed, and still further en- 
forced in 1309, by the imprisonment of the Templars in the 


cttUe of Dublin. In 131 1 their manors of Clontarf and Kilsa- 
ran were granted to Richard De Burgo, Earl of Ulster ;* but the 
religious edifices continued to be upheld as royal houses, and nu-r 
merous records occur of salaries and liberates paid from the trea** 
aury to the janitor, the butlerif kc^ of ** our Royal House of 
Clontarf.^ A large^ venerable mulberry tree, in a garden in the 
towiiy is thought to mark the vicinity of this commaadery* even 
yet surviving, by upwards of five centuries, the pious hands that 
planted it. 

In Idld a causeway was constructed, as before mentioned, 
from Ballybough Bridge to this town. 

In 1826 Roger Le Ken had a grant of all the premises in Cloa. 
larf, which he had theretofore occupied at will, to hold thenceforth 
to hka and the heirs of his body. 

In 1328 a petition was presented to king Edward the Thirds 
praying, in behalf of the Irish people, that the revenues of the 
Knights Templars should, in the hands of the king's justices and 
grimtee^ be made to contribute to pay the ^' debts, burdens, pensionsi 
alms, and hospitality whicH it could be proved the Templars used to 
pay, and were bound so to do firom the time of their foundation." 
To which the king replied, that relief should be given according 
to the statute of the 1 7th of Edward the Second, an act which 
had previously ordained, that all the possessions of the dissolved 
Templars should continue subject to the same burdens to which 
they had been liable in the hands of that community, as, relieving 
the poor, &c. Saving the rights of all persons to prosecute their 
claims for pensions, corodies, alms, &c., as they might have done 
against the said Templars, if their order had not been dissolved. 

In 1377 the king ordered that several books, the property of 
certain clergymen, who were deemed hostile to his crown, should 
be seised in this harbour, where they had been shipped. About 
this time this manor, according to the Pope's decree of 1312, 
passed into the possession of the knights of St. John of Jerusa- 
lem, an order which was instituted on the following occasion. 

* Roll in Exch. England. 

t It is remarkable that in these accounts, credit is taken for shoes 
fiimiriied at the uniform price of 6«. 9d. per pair. 



In the year 1048 some Neapolitan merchants founded a Latin 
church at Jerusalem, and also a monastery of religious, after the 
order of St. Bennet, for the reception of pilgrims. Near this 
they likewise established an hospital for the diseased, and a cha- 
pel in honour of St. John the Baptist. In 1099 the celebrated 
Godfrey de Bouillon, having taken Jerusalem, endowed this hos- 
pital with some demesnes which he had in France ; and, others 
imitating his liberality, its revenues became considerably augment- 
ed, whereupon their rector, in concert with his fraternity, resolved 
to separate from the Latin house and form a distinct congregation 
under the name and protection of St. John the Baptist, tfnd on 
so doing assumed their appellation of Hospitallers or brothers of 
St. John of Jerusalem. Their habit was black, and they wore 
on their breasts a white cross of eight points, emblematic of the 
eight beatitudes. Pope Pascal, in 1 1 13, confirmed their endow- 
ments, and established them under the special protection of the 
Holy See. A succeeding rector took the title of Master, and 
gave a rule to the Hospitallers, which was approved of by Pope 
Calixtus the Second, in 1120. 

Their first grand master, finding that the revenues of the 
Hospital vastly exceeded what was necessary for the entertain- 
ment of poor pilgrims and diseased persons, resolved to employ 
the surplus against the infidels ; and accordingly offered himself 
and the resources of his fraternity to the King of Jerusalem. On 
this occasion the order was divided into three classes, the first 
consisting of nobles for the profession of arms, defence of the 
faith, and protection of pilgrims ; the second for the service of 
religion, and the third, who were not noble, were also appointed for 
the war. He likewise regulated the manner of admitting knights 
brothers, and had the whole arrangement confirmed in 1130 by 
Pope Innocent the Second, who commanded that the standard 
of the knights should be << gules a full cross argent." 

After the loss of Jerusalem, they retired first to Margath, 
then to Agre, which they defended very \igorously in 1290 ; 
thence they withdrew to Cyprus, where they continued until, hav- 
ing taken Rhodes from the Saracens, they settled and sojourned 
there ; but, after a possession of 213 years, Solyman the Second, 
in 1522, attacked and took the island, with an army of 300,000 


men. After this discomfiture the grand master, and his knights^ 
retired first to Candia and subsequently to Malta. 

A branch of the order settled in Ireland immediately after the 
English invasion, and established their grand priory at Wexford, 
which continued to be their chief house until they received Kil- 
mainham on the suppression of the Templars. At the time of the 
dissolution, this order had twenty-two preceptories in thb country. 
In 1395 a state warrant issued in aid of the laws against ab- 
senteeism, to arrest and detain all ships << in the water of Clon- 
tarfy" destined for the conveyance of passengers to England.* 

Some readers may be surprised to find absenteeism an object 
of such early legislative interference, but the << census emigrati- 
onis" of the Romans was introduced in the system of Irish taxation, 
almost a century previous to the above date ; from which period 
it has been the paramount and, it might be said, the peculiar evil 
of Ireland, alike destructive of the strength — the rank — the re- 
venues of the island— the industry and comforts of its peasantry-* 
the influence of its great proprietors, and above all, the patriar- 
chal, friendly, and social relations that should flow from the re- 
currence of mutual benefits amongst all classes of the people ; yet, 
although there has thus been, from 1310 to 1753, a series of legal 
enactments to prevent its ruinous prevalence here, and no less 
popular remonstrances from that period to the present, all have 
been successively more ineffective, as the following comparative 
table of the amount of absentee rentals, at various periods, on the 
most approved authorities, may evince : 

1691, amount of annual absentee rental, . £136,018 
1729, do. do. . . 627,799 

1782, do. do. . . 2,223,222 

1783^] do. do. . . 1,608,932 

1804^ do. do. . 3,000,000 

1830, do. do. . . 4,000,000 

And it is now estimated as nearer . . 5,000,000 
In 1413 Sir John Stanley landed in the harbour of Clontarf, 
delegated for the prosecution of a rapacious and oppressive go- 
vernment, which terminated in a few months with his life. 

• Rot Pat 18 Ric II. in Cane. Hib. 


In 1440 Will'tttin tnd James FitEgerald, the brothers of Tho* 
mas Fitzgerald, then Grand Master of the Hospitallers, haYing 
waylaid the Lord Deputy on the marches or borders c^ the Pale, 
near Kilcock, slain several of his suite, and imprisoned himself, the 
King directed that the manors of said Thomas^ and amongst them 
Clontarf, should be sequestered until he eiculpated himself from 
having been accessary to the offence, which he immediat^y did.* 

An inquisition of 1527 finds that this commandery was of the 
annual value of £20. 

Ih 1534 Lord Thomas Fit^erahl, <<the silken lord," h^re de- 
nted the first detachment of the royal fcnrces that was sent against 

Immediately previous to its dissolutioni the priory of Kllmain*' 
ham was seised of the raanor> rectory, tithes, and altarages of 
Clontarf, subject, however, to a lease made by the IVior in 1538^ 
to Matthew King, of all the town and lordship, with the appurtd- 
nances^ and also the pool of Clontarf, and the island lying to the 
west side ther^f^ and all the said rectory^ tithes, &c. to enure fot* 
ninety ^nine years* from 1542.. In this deihise it was provided, that 
the lessee^ &c. should repair the manor house of Qontarf, and main-* 
tain a sufficient person to minister all sacraments to the parishioners 
at their proper charges. The Prior also thereby granted to said 
Matthew King, and to the inhabitants of the town of Clontarf>licen9e» 
with their boats to fish within the liberty and bounds of Carling- 
ford, without any payment to the vicar of Oirlingford, or his suc- 

On the suppression of Uiat splendid religious establishment, its 
last Prior, Sir John Rawson, who had been at different periods 
Lord Treasurer of Ireland, was, in 1541, on surrendering the pos- 
session of his house, created Viscount of Clontarf, with a pension 
of 500 marks,f in right of which dignity he sat in the parliament 
of that year. The following representation preceded, and appears 
to have influenced those marks of royal favour. 

« May it further please your Majesty," writes the Lord Deputy 
St. Leger , in 1540, to King Henry the Eighth, << according to 

• i ■ II I ■ i I I I I ■. I I i ■■ ■ 

• Rot. Clam, 19 Hen. VI. in Cane. Hib. 
t Archdairs Mon. Hib. p. 425. 

CLONTAir. 87 

jonr high comisMiciincDt, I, at tnj repair to ikete p^ts^ aov«d 
the Ltd KUauunhmm, Lvrd of Soiai John's hefe» cooccmiqg 
the surrender of his n«Be tnd buHi% umI bow good nod grtcaeus 
jour M^esly is to him, assigning unto him for i^nk of his life five 
hundred mat-ks bj the year. The said Lord Kihnainhini is not 
only ghid and willing to ohej yow said coounaAdaieftt and pleop 
«ure, but also desifed me to render nolo yowk* EkceUeol Majesty 
bis most humbU thanks far yonr said god<knfts towards hiflfe And 
jdso he^ perceifi^g youf said pleasnre^ hath not only given to mc^ 
your poor servant* certain impfeosenls very necsaisry for the bonso 
tberoi with cortn bay^ and other things whereof I bad great need, 
but also hath caused the principal house there to be well and sub* 
steotiaUy reposed in all places needfuli which assuredly h a good 
bousei and great pity that it should decay. And forasa»ycb> as by 
the report of the most part of the counsel her% the ssid Lord 
Kilmaidham bath, for the long time of hia abode bere^ been the 
person which, neat your Majesty's Deputy, hath always kept tb# 
best house, and £tigiish sort, ted at all timc% whea strm^ftie of 
other countries hath repaired thither, foisted abd eatertaiiied tbem 
to your Higfaness's hobour ; and also for that H is thought by thoee 
of your £ngliah counsellors here^ that it shall be a gieal ksk to 
diiss bisi out of council, and also out of the parlianent, (whenaey 
shall be,) as well for his honesty as for bis long elperieAce, they 
htve yi desired me to write unto ^olir most EaeeUent hUietij in 
£lvouf of the said Lord Kilmaitiham, that forasaMwb as your Ma- 
jesty hath aligned him so honourable penstoli, and that he intesd^ 
eth here to remain for term of his life, that yourMi^esty woOld bo 
so good and gradoUs as to give him the dameof honour dfVjstOunt 
of Ckmtarf, which is apbKO where he idteudelh with your Majei^e 
fovour ta make hia ebode^ and to be a lo#d of the parfiamtat ted 
of your oovDcd^ asngidog to bin such ammity with the aiid tenn 
of honour, as shall stand with your Highness's pleasure. Whero' 
fofOi in aoComplishment of thdr said requests, I BMSt humbly be- 
seech your Ma}esty to be good unto him in this their bumble suit» 
and mine* The man b very aged, and not like to charge your 
Mi^esty very long."* This request was further urged by a m^mo^ 
rial from the Privy Council to the king, signed by the Master of the 

• State Papers, temp. Hen. Vlll. 


Rolls, (John Alen,)theArchbiflhopofDublin, the Bishop ofMeath, 
Dean BasnetjLordGonnanstoB, Justices Aylmer andLuttrel, Tho- 
mas Eustace, aftenrards created Lord Baltinglas, and three others. 

The principal part of the possessions, which the priory of Kil- 
mainham had enjoyed here, as above stated, was in 1600 granted 
to Sir Geoffrey Fenton ; the rectory baring been then calculated 
as of the annual value of forty shillings.* In 1608 these premises 
were further assured to William, the son of Sir Geoffrey, and are 
in both patents enumerated as <*the lordship, manor, orprecep- 
tory, town and lands, islands and customs, &c of Gontarf, a wood, 
called the Prior's wood, near Coelock, lying east of Coolock wood, 
the rectory and tithes, great and small, oblations, &c. of Qontarf,*' 
parcel of the estate of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem, with 
wrecks, royalties, liberty of fishing for the inhabitants and mariners 
of Clontarf, within the parish, strand, and bay of Carlingford, with- 
out paying tithes or other profits to the crown or vicar of Carling- 
ford, or to any other person save the said grantee. It was this Sur 
Geoffrey Fenton, who, in the office of Irish Secretary of State, 
was employed by Queen Elizabeth, as English council, to watch 
over the actions of the Viceroy, Sir John Perrot, a station which 
he continued to fill during her reign and that of her successor for 
twenty-seven years. His only daughter was married to Richard, 
the first Earl of Cork. 

In 1609 the parish church here was rebuilt. The regal visi- 
tation of 1616 states the rectory to be impropriate, that Thel- 

wall was the resident incumbent, and that the church and chancel 
were in good repur. 

In 1687 the afpresaid Sir WHliam Fenton had a confirmation 
to him of the manor of Clontarf, under the commission for the re- 
medy of defective titles, but, on the failure of his male line imme- 
diately afterwards, the manor passed through a female to the King 

In the commencement of the war of 1641, Luke Netterville 
and his adherents having seized a vessel which lay here and plun- 
dered it of all its cargo, the Earl of Ormond was directed to avenge 
the offence. Sir CharlesCoote was thereupon privately despatched 

* Inquis. in Chief Rememb. Office. 


by him with some forces to Clontarf, where he humed a conside- 
rahle portion of the town, especially Mr. George King's house, 
destroyed the boats, and afterwards dispersed the insurgents at 
Finglas and Santry. This wanton outrage which, as Borlase 
^mrites, was ** excellently well executed,'' was attempted to be jus- 
tified on the allegation that Mr. King, then the proprietor of the 
town and manor, had been one of the gentlemen of the Pale, 
who previously assembled at Sword s, and had further abetted the 
pillaging of the ship. Mr. Carte comments* in no measured terms 
on the atrocity of the outrage, particularly as, according to his 
account, Mr. King was invited into Dublin by the Lords of the 
Council on the day preceding the expedition, with an assurance 
that he might safely repair thither, << without danger of any trou- 
ble or stay whatsoever." On the other side, it is further alleged, 
that the principal part of the vessel's cargo, which Netterville had 
plundered, was found in King's house. King was immediately af- 
terwards attainted, a reward of £400 was offered for his head, and 
his estates, comprising this manor, Hollybrooks, and the Island 
of Clontarf, stated as containing 9(^1 a. statute measure, were 
granted to John Blackwell, a particular favourite of Oliver Crom- 
well, who assigned his interest therein to John Vernon. 

In 1660, Colonel Edward Vernon, son of said John, passed 
patent for this manor in fee, together with all anchorages, fisheries, 
creeks, sands, and seashores, wrecks of the sea, &c., which right 
was saved in subsequent acts of parliament, and still remains in hb 
descendant. This Colonel Edward had faithfully served Kings 
Charles the First and Second in the wars of England and Ireland, 
and been a considerable sufferer thereby in his person and fortune. 
In the parliament of 1661 he was one of the representatives for 
the borough of Carlingford. 

In 1670 the king presented Henry Brereton to the rectories 
of Clontarf and Ratheny. 

In 1675, although the manor of Clontarf was of such high 
antiquity, the king further enlarged its jurisdiction, tenures, and 
courts with a grant of royalties (royal mines excepted), power to 
empark three hundred acres, with free warren, privilege of holding 

• Life of Ormond, Vol. I, p. 254. 


twt> fairs, ono on the 10th of April, and the other on4he 6th of 
October, with customs, &c. 

In 1660 Adam Usher, clerk, had a grant of the impropnato 
tithes and altarages of this rectory (to which he was then promoted) 
at the annual rent of £6 2s, 6d. 

In 1686 the before mentioned Colonel Edward Vetmon died, 
^ised in free and common socage of this manor, and bf several 
estiLtes in the counties of Dethj and Stafford. H^ had also the 
honour pf Tutbury, thd raugership of the forest of Needwood, &c 
(id left two daughtersi Elisa and Maria Vernon } the former died 
without issue. 

In 1605 a petition was preferred to the Irish legislature by Mr. 
John Vernon of Dublin, merchant, and cousin german of the Co- 
Idnelf settiiig forth th^t he had an equitable title to the manor 
and lands of Clontarf and Holiybrooks, with the islands and ap- 
purtenances, out of which he was unjustly kept under colour of 
iMteri patent granted to Colonel Edward Vernon, but as the peti- 
tioner alleged, in trust for him, and requiring, that as an act was 
preparing to confirm the Act of Settlement, he might have a sav>- 
iog of his right thereto, and a further saving was subsequently 
prayed in behalf of Charles Melville, Esq.^ as having considerably 
improved the lands of Clontarf. The rights of said John Vernon 
in the premises, described as lying and being in the county of 
Dublin and county of the city of Dublin, were accordingly after- 
wards decreed by the House of Lords against the heiress of said 
Colonel Vernon^ and confirmed by act of parliament in 1698. 

For a notice of Clontarf in 1697, see << Artane," in that year. 

In 1712 the king presented Frederick Usher to this rectory , 
sQon after which considerable controversy and litigation arose be- 
tween the Vernon family and the Corporation of Dublin, the Utter 
claiming title, as within their franchises, to a portion Of the btrUnd, 
called Crab-lough, between the shore of Clontarf Und the North 
BlilJ, while the former maintained that the said tract of strAnd, 
comprising 195 acres, which they called the pool and island of 
Clontarf, was parcel of their manor ; ftnd certainly^ in the later 
perambulations, the authorities did cross from Ballybough Bridge 
to Clontarf, and so to the Sheds of Clontarf, thenceforward to 
the mill of Ratheny, from which they proceeded northward 130 


perches to a little brook, which they asserted was the termination 
of the city liberties in thftt direction. In 1731, however. Captain 
John Vernon, on hb obtaining the estate, opposed the Corporation 
in any further atteikipt to enter on his manor, in a speech yet ex- 
tanty from the press of George Faulkner, and of which a portion 
may appear interesting ; — 

" My Lord Mayor, Shcriflfe, Commons^ and Citizens of the City 
of Dublin — The residence of Mrs. Mafy Vernon, deceased, late 
Lady of this Manor of QontArf, for ieverid years out of this king. 
dom, being only a bare tenant for Ufe, therefore careless of the 
rights and Hberties of said manor, hath given you for somo time an 
opportunity of riding, with yoUr several corporations, along this 
common high road, parcel of the said manor lying in the barony of 
Coolock and county of Dublin at large, and not within the libef- 
ties or jurisdiction of the county of the city, which arises merely 
from, and is the limited creature of charter and matter of record* 
This encroachment not being warranted by your charters, and par- 
ticuUrly bj your charter de Kb^rkUibus of tke second of King 
John, being the very essence and foundation of your liberties, ia 
which not only the lands granted to the Knights Templars and 
Hospitallers are expressly exempted^ though within the bounds of 
the city, not to be in the city's jurisdiction, but with a further sav** 
\ug of the lands and tenures granted by previous charter to others, 
by which means the several religious houses and their possessions 
were exempted from the city's jurisdictioB, and remain in the 
county of Dublia to this day, as it appears by the many extant 
records relating thereto. 

<< The liberties of your city in the nOrth, lying most ContigUOtif 
to my manor of Clontar^ are bounded (by your sitid obarter ifr 
UbertaUbus) by the lands of Qonliffe, by the Tolki^ and by th« 
church of St. Msajf Oxmantown. * * ♦ ♦ # 

<< It perhaps has been thought a pidce of prudence in your pre- 
decessors to annihilate your original chartersi that you, thbir sue- 
cessorsy might be the more ignorant of your real liberties^ and 
take upon you> by riding these pretended franchises, to prescribe 
for imaginary and greater liberties than are by yOur charter war- 
ranted, and so as by confounding the estates of the city with the 
liberties of the city as not to know which is which, otherwise than 


as your Lordship's sword cuts them out, or as the last Lord Mayor's 
horse informs you how far he was rode the last day ; hut the law 
makes a wide difference between lands within the limits of a corpo- 
ration and lands granted to a corporation, and makes this further 
distinction, that the liberties of a corporation, limited and created 
by charter, during the existence thereof no prescription can be 
pleaded for the enlarging the bounds thereof contrary to the limi- 
tation of the said charter, being the very essence and foundation, 
not only of the corporation, but of the liberties thereof. And it 
would be a manifest absurdity to imagine, that the estates or liber- 
ties of any single person could be safe, however guarded by law, 
if your Lordship, as to day, attended with so many thousands of 
mobility, so unnaturally arrayed with military equipage, was by 
that dreadful force to take counties and enlarge your liberties, and 
to plead such tumultuous and forcible riding of your pretended 
franchises in evidence, against the face of your charters and matter 
of record. If these were or could be stifled in a court of justice, 
indeed then your Lordship's sword might be brought in evidence 
at the bar, of what estates or limits of an exterior county it has cut 
off, and the horses of your warlike myrmidons summoned for the 
same purpose, to show how far they have carried the extent of 
your swelling city on their backs. • ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ • 

" This being the first time of your attempting to ride these 
your pretended franchises since my being seised and possessed of 
this my manor of Clontarf, I therefore oppose your entrance, as 
Colonel Edward Vernon did, on my said manor, and discharge you 
therefrom, of which this road is parcel lying in the county at lai^ ; 
and though as a single and private person I am not able to repel 
such multitudes, yet do I thus put forward my claim to preserve 
my rights against such force and tumult."— This very individual 
was so soon afterwards as 1736 high sheriff of the county. 

For a notice of Clontarf in 1732, see « Santry" at that year. 

In 1749, the charter-school, before alluded to, was opened for 
one hundred boys, the king's representative having laid the first 
stone of the edifice ; but this, and other establishments of the 
same class having excited national hostility, and consequently 
prolonged anU-religious differences in Ireland, were, within the 
last few years, wisely suppressed. 


In 1756 the lead mine on the adjacent strand was discovered 
and worked, but the overflowings of the tide prevented the pro- 
secution of the undertaking. 

In 1759 Mr. P. Ramsay bequeathed the interest of £200 to 
the support of the charter-school. In 1766, John Usher was 
presented by the crown to this rectory, on the resignation of 
Frederick Usher. In 1771, the Rev. John Johnson, then rector 
of the parish of HoUymount in the County Mayo, bequeathed 
£200 to the governors of the before-mentioned charter-school, 
<< in trust and towards the support of sidd school." He also left 
£350 to the governors of the Hibernian School in the Phoenix 
Park, << for the use of said establishment ;" a hke sum of £350 
to the governors of the Marine School for its use, and £200 to 
erect a room or ward in the hospital at Castlebar in the County 

For a notice in 1786, see at the " Liflfey." 

In 1811, on the resignation of John Usher, the king presented 
Charles MuUoy to this rectory, who has been succeeded by Mr. 
Handcock, the present incumbent. |n 1829, Mr. Michael Keary 
of this town bequeathed £500 for the education of the Catholic 
children thereof, and the sum of £50 for its poor, while he further 
directed that £1000 should be applied towards building a chapel 
here, and £200 for the erection of a school-room. In 1833 a 
Loan Fund Society was established here for lending money on 
security, at five per cent., to such industrious poor within the 
parishes of Qontarf and Killester, as produced certificates of cha- 
racter, signed by two parbhioners of known respectability. Such 
loans to be repaid by weekly instalments of Is. in every pound* 

In reference to its botany, Clontarf exhibits the 
covrsli^i primula veris, smyrnium olusatrumy Alexan- 
ders, a plant of a warm aromatic quality, and used, 
when blanched, as a substitute for celery ; arenaria 
rubra, purple sandwort ; papaver duhium, long 
smooth-headed poppy ; Jumaria officinalis, common 
fumitory ; Jumaria capreolata, climbing fumitory ; 


to which Threlkcld adds narcissus sylvestris^ wild 
daffodil. — In the neighbouring salt-marshes are 
found scirpus maritimusy salt-marsh club rush ; 
glaiur maritimay sea milk, otherwise called black 
saltwort; this last flowers in summer, is found every* 
where from Lapland to the Archipelago, and is 
often used as a pickle ; chenopodium maritimum:, 
sea-goose foot ; apium graveolens^ wild celery ; tri- 
glochen marttimumj sea arrow-grass ; lychnis dioica^ 
red or white campion, commonly 'called bachelor's 
button ; sctrpus glaucus, club rush. — On the old 
walls, Valeriana rubra, red valerian; antirrhinum 
cymbalariaj ivy-leaved snap-dragon ; — and on the 
hedges, ligustrum vulgare, privet, 

Thb Family op Vbbnon. 

It is difficult to pass unnoticed a name of such high antiquity 
and respectahility, when connected with a locality even by so mo- 
dern a link as that which attaches it to this. 

The Vernons deduce their pedigree from William de Vernon, 
who, in 1052, assumed that surname from the town and district of 
which he was proprietor. The former, situated in a most delight- 
ful valley on the banks of the River Seine, within the diocese of 
Evreux, and bailiwick of Gisors. In the same year this individual 
adorned his native town by the erection of the noble collegiate 
and parochial church of Notre Dame, which he endowed with one- 
fourth part of the forest of Vernon, and other possessions ; that 
fourth alone being defined as four leagues in circumference. The 
founder was afterwards buried in the middle of its choir, as were 
also many of his descendants. The cemetery is further remarka- 
ble, as that in which repose the remains of the celebrated Marechal 
de Belleisle. 

This William de Vernon had two sons, Richard and Walter, 
who both came into England with the Conqueror, as suggested in 
Bromton's verses : 


" Voiu qc desyrez assaver 
Les nous des grauntz dela la mer 
Qui vindrent od le Conquerour, 
William Bastard de graunt vigour, 

• • • • ♦ 

Vere et Vernoun, 
Verdyers et Verdoun," 

&c &c. &c. 

Bichard, the elder of these warriors, was by Hugh Lupus, Earl of 
the County Palatine of Chester, created Baron of Shipbroke, 
and became, before Domesday Survey, the proprietor of fifteen 
manors within that county, Shipbroke being the " caput baroniae." 
Walter had lands granted to him in Cheshire and Buckingham* 
shire, and was a considerable benefactor to the ancient monastery 
of St. Werburgh's, in Chester, from which some of the Irish reli- 
gious houses were filled. He appears to have died without issue, 
while William, the eldest son of the before-mentioned Richard, on 
his decease, succeeded to his estates, and acquired others in Staf-^ 
fordshire, from Petronilla^ the daughter of Simon le Sage, for 
which he gave to her two marks, and his wife one scarlet robe. 

In 1 152, Lewis, King of France, besieged Vernon Castle in 
Normandy, with a great army, for fifteen days ; and, being unable 
to take it, entered into a secret negoctation with << Richard Ver- 
non,** to raise the king's banner on the tower. This Richard was 
a lineal descendant of William of 1052, and confirmed his endow- 
ment to the church of Vernon, in the presence of his sons Bald- 
win and Richard. In 1191, Cardinal Allard de Vernon was sent 
by the Pope as legate to Antioch, to bring the Patriarch of An- 
tioch to agree to the canons. In 1195, in pursuance of an agree- 
ment entered into between Richard the First, King of England, 
and Philip Augustus, King of France, Vernon was, with its castle 
and other dependencies, granted to the latter by its then owner, 
Richard de Vernon and his son Richard, in exchange for other 
lands, rated at five knights' fees, since which time Vernon was 
honoured with a royal palace, and frequently made part of the ap- 
panage of the French queens. Parts of this palace and of the an- 
cient castle yet remain. 

In 1209, and subsequent years, a Richard de Vernon was she-t 


riff of Lancashire. In 1214, William de Vernon was one of the 
Justices in Eyre, and in 1230, Chief Justice of Chester. He is 
considered the ancestor of the Vemons of Harlesdon, Haddon, 
Sudbury, Hilton, and, in a word, of all the legitimate lines of this 
family and name now existing. His immediate descendants extend- 
ed their possessions in that century into Berkshire, Yorkshire, 
Cumberland, and Wiltshire ; and one of them, by marriage with 
the daughter of William Peverel, became proprietor of the Peak. 
Vemons are also found in this century in Oxfordshire, Cambridge- 
shire, Lincolnshire, Essex, Hampshire, Buckinghamshire, North- 
amptonshire, Derbyshire, and Surrey. 

In 1265 the king granted to Eleanor, the consort of Prince 
Edward, amongst other manors, that of Haddon, as forfeited by 
Richard de Vernon. An inquisition of 1288 finds that Richard 
de Vernon holds MerphuU and Wibreslegh, by service of free fo- 
restry, and was to attend the king on summons, and follow his 
standard with the same arms with which he kept his bailiwick of 
the forest of Macclesfield. In 1293, King Edward the First, on 
the marriage of Richard, the son of the last mentioned Richard de 
Vernon, with Eleanor de Frenas, granted to them the manor of 
Rochelive in special tail, with remainder to Richard, the father. 
Other members of the family had then extended themselves into 
Devonshire, Gloucestershire, Huntingdonshire, Kent^ Stafford- 
shire, and Leicestershire. 

In 1294, Robert de Vernon, of Wiltshire, was summoned to 
attend a muster and military council at Worcester for service 
against the Welch ; and again, in 1297, to the muster at Sand* 
wich, for the war in Flanders ; and at Newcastle for that in Scot- 
land. In the latter year Ralph de Vernon was summoned, as a 
landed proprietor in Oxford, to perform military service in parts 
beyond the seas ; while his son was appointed to raise the levies 
in Cheshire ; and Richard de Vernon, as a landed proprietor in the 
counties of Oxford and Derby, had similar summons against the 
Scotch. In 1300 Robert de Vernon was one of the Justices of 
Oyer and Terminer, assigned in the county of Wilts, and in 1301, 
Richard de Vernon was summoned, as a landed proprietor in 
Staffordshire, to perform military service in person against the 
Scots. In 1314, Ralph de Vernon, lord of the townships of Han- 


welly Drayton, and MolHngton, in the county of Oxford, was sum- 
moned to perform military service against the Scots. In 1322, 
Hamo de Vernon was required, as a landed proprietor in Cam- 
bridgeshire, to do service against the Scots ; while in 1824 Ri- 
chard de Vernon, of Staffordshire, was summoned to attend a great 

In 1329, Richard de Vernon was found seised of Harleston, 
in Staffordshire, with free warren, market and fair, little Appleby, 
in Leicestershire, Adstock and Pitchcote in Buckinghamshire, &c. ; 
and in 1338 was seised, in right of his wife Matilda, one of the 
heiresses of her father William de Campville, of a moiety of the 
manor of Lanstephen, in Caermarthenshire. 

In the reign of Edward the Third, Sir William de Vernon, 
a lineal ancestor of the present Lord Vernon, was chief justice of 
Chester. A descendant of his. Sir Richard Vernon, was, in 1403, 
speaker of the parliament held at Leicester, and afterwards con- 
stituted treasurer of Calais. 

In 1403» Sir Richard Vernon, Baron of Shipbroke, was one of 
the chieftains of the army of the Percys at Shrewsbury. He 
was taken prisoner, and, on the Monday following, with the Earl 
of Worcester and the Baron of Kinderton, condemned and be- 
headed. This Sir Richard, besides the other ordinarily enume- 
rated possessions of the family, was seised of considerable estates 
and manors in Glamorganshire. The Vernons were also landed 
proprietors, to a large extent, in Lancashire at this time^ and 
long subsequently. 

Sir William Vernon, of Lord Vernon's lineal ancestry, was 
also treasurer of Calais and constable of England for life, being 
the last who was permitted to hold that great dignity, it being 
looked upon as too important for a subject. He died in 1467, 
and was buried in the before-mentioned church of Notre Dame 
at Vernon. In 1500, Sir Henry Vernon, who had been pre- 
viously governor and treasurer to Prince Arthur, eldest son and 
heir apparent of Henry the S^enth, and afterwards his counsellor 
for the management of Wales, officially signed the marriage arti- 
cles between that Prince and the Prmcess Catherine of Spain, and 
thel-e b a tradition that the prince frequently lived with Sir Henry, 
at hb noble seat of Haddon in Derbyshire, where there is a cham. 



i>er denominated his apartment, and, in which, his arms are carved 
in several places. 

In 1524, and again in 1535 and 1546, Thomas Vernon of 
-Stoke-Say Castle v?a8 high sheriff of Shropsliire. He was a 
younger son of the great family of the Vernons of Haddon, and 
ancestor of the present Lord Scarsdale. In 1528 Sir John Ver- 
non of Sudbury was of the king*s council for Wales, custos ro- 
4uloTam of Derbyshire and sheriff of that county and of Notting- 

In 1565 died Sir George Vernon of Haddon, celebrated by 
Camden <<for his magnificent manner of living, his house open to 
all men of worth, and his commendable hospitality, whence he 
acquired, among the common people, the name of King of the 
Peak.** By his daughters and heiresses his noble estate, consist- 
ing of thirty lordships, came to John Manners of the family of 
the Earl of Rutland, and Thomas Stanley of that of the Earls of 
Derby. The male line of the Vernons was, however, continued 
by the younger sons of Sir Henry Vernon, from the fourth of 
ivhom, Humphrey Vernon of Hodnet, the present Lord Vernon 
is descended, who also represents the Vernons of Haslington, and 
those of Sudbury in the female line. About the year 1588 was 
born of the Haddon line, William Vernon, the historian of War- 
wickshire, justly celebrated for his skill, zeal, and systematic in- 
dustry. In 1622 Sir George Vernon was one of the judges of the 
Common Pleas in England, and afterwards a 6aron of the Ex-* 
chequer. In 1653 died John Vernon of Little Bileigh in Essex, 
who, having been for many years of his life a Greek or Turkey 
merdiant, brought from the ruins of Smyrna a tombstone, under 
which he and his wife lie buried in the chancel of the Abbey of 
Bileigh. Amongst the English gentlemen, who compounded 
for their estates during the Commonwealth, were Henry Vernon 
of Haslington in Cheshire, and Edward Vernon of Hanbury in 

In the year 1669 Mr. Francis Vernon, of the Worcestershire 
family, was secretary to Mr. Ralph Montagu, afterwards Duke of 
Montagu, ambassador extraordinary to Lewis the 14th of Prance. 
This gentleman was a great traveller over various parts of Europe 
and Asia, and has left behind him several tracts and a journal of 


'hb travds ; he perisiied about tbe year 1677 in t'erlsia, having 
been literally backed to pieces by sortie of (he Atabs* In 1670 
George Vernon was appointed ranger of that magnificent tract^ 
Needwood forest, an office which has long continued in the fa- 
mily. It was he who built the noble seat of the family at Sud* 
bury, after the style of Inigo Jones. 

In 1697 Mr. James Vemoni of the Hasliiigton )ine, wa3 ap-* 
pointed secretary of state^ and filled that high station during the 
remainder of the reign of King William. It is said of him, << that 
never any secretary of state wrote so many letters with his own 
hand as he, nor in a better style.'' He died in 1726, and was bu- 
ried at Watford, where is a fine mural monument to his memory. 
In 1709 died Sir Thomas Vernon, who had for many years been 
one of the representatives of the city of London in parliament. 

In 1710, and subsequent years, flourished Thomas Vemenof 
the Worcestershire line, a lawyer whom Lord Kenyon character- 
ized as << the ablest man in his profession.'^ He was secretary to the 
Ainfortunate Duke of Monmouth, and compiler of the << Reports of 
Cases in Chancery, from 83 Car. 2 to 6 Geo. 1." In 1739 the 
illustrious Admiral Edward Vernon achieved the capture of Porto 
Bello ; for which daring exploit he received the thanks of both 
houses of parliament. He was the second son of James, the se- 
cretary, and of the Staffordshire line of this family. He died in 
1757, in the 73rd year of his age, and has a noble monument to 
his memory in Westminster Abbey. 

In 1762 George Venables Vernon, of Sudbury, was created a 
peer of Great Britain, by the style and title of Lord Vernon, 
Baron of Kinderton, in the county of Chester, and has transmit- 
ted the dignities to the present lord. All that appears worthy 
of notice, respecting. the Irish h'ne, has been stoted in the above 

From the before mentioned castle, recently erect- 
fed at the extremity of the village of Clontarf, a very 
pretty winding road, intersected by green lanes, enli- 
vened with houses and villas for the accommodation 
of bathers in the better days of this suburb, and com- 




manding delightful vistas of the bay and opposite 
mountains, leads to the Sheds of Clontarf, a place so 
denominated from several sheds or pent-houses, origi- 
nally constructed there for persons employed in pre- 
serving fish. A few houses, once of fashionable re- 
sort, still maintain the name, though the Sheds have 
long since vanished with the good days of the fish- 
ermen. A commodious rectangular chapel has been 
built here, principally upon the bequest of Mr. Keary, 
before alluded to. A handsome porch projects seven- 
teen feet from the building. 

Continuing along the beach a pier is seen at the 
right, erected as a breakwater for the service of the 
harbour, and extending a considerable distance into 
the bay ; the space between the shore and the sand 
bank of the North Bull, which the mole traverses, 
being connected by a wooden bridge on piles, that 
admit the ingress and egress of the tide. " The 
mole," remarks Mr. Armstrong, in his little work on 
Fingal, " is firmly constructed of rough rock, and for 
about two miles of its extent is topped by square 
masses or blocks, and the glacis next the current faced 
with cut stone, but the remaining part is merely com- 
posed of rock and shingle thrown in promiscuously, 
constituting, however, a strong and effective break- 
water. It was constructed between the years 1820 
and 1823, and from the shore to its termination ex- 
tends a mile and three-fifths, or 3,200 feet ; the inten- 
tion principally was to accelerate the current of the 
retiring tide waters of the Liffey, and, by confining 
them at the outlet, consequently augmenting their 


force SO as to free the channel of impediments from 
sediment or other obstructions. The works are appa- 
rently yet in an unfinished state, and the completion 
of the original design seems to be given up, but the 
intention is perfectly fulfilled, a strong current ia 
created which has forced a straight pi»sage through 
the bar, and the harbour is not now so difficult of 
access as formerly." 

The broad strip of wavy sand, alluded to as comr 
monly called the North Bull, is covered with a sickly 
verdure, and occupies all the line between this shord 
and the regular bay of Dublin, into which, diooting 
its tail athwart the entrance of the Li£Pey, it form^ 
the bar, on the shoal part of which there are from six 
to seven feet at low water of ordinary springs. This 
insulated sand bank abounds with en/nghim mariti* 
munii sea holly, and sedum acre, stone crop, while the 
conchologist, who visits it after particular tides, will 
be rewarded with a choice variety of shells. The 
shores of Clontarf abound with the muscle, of whosQ 
digestive services Horace is so laudatory — 

** Si dcura morabitar alvus, 
Mitylus et viles pellent obstantia ccmdiae." 

A wild, high-banked skirt of shore, fringed with 
some neat cottages and villas, leads from ^^ the Sheds" 
to Blackbush, the seat of Mr. Guinness, and thence 
to Killbarrock. On the shore side of this road the 
botanist ynW&nd /edia olitoriay lamb's lettuce, salvia 
verbenaca, wild clary, festuca elatior, great fescue 
grass, arundo phragmitesy common reed, useful in 
screens, for gardens, also as a foundation for plaster 


in ceilings, thatch! for barns^ cottages^ and outhousesy 
and for yarlow joiher pqrposes^ In the eastern coun- 
ties of England it is considered so valuable, that the 
fanner feels necessitated to send out boats and men 
With fire-arms to scare away the birds from its welcome* 
shelter. As the Evening begins to close, howeverr 
clouds of starlings approadi from various quarters, in 
numbers exceeding belief, to pass the night in the 
reeds, and lighting in myriads, like the locusts of the 
epst, upon this flexible plants (bey crush it to the water, 
lodging and beating it down as grain after a storm ; 
tod, though the guns of the boatmen sw^ep them away 
by hundreds, the survivors are so drowsy that they 
remain stationary, or move only a few yards from the 
bodies of their slaughtered companions, and return oiv 
the ensuing evening in numbers not apparently dimi- 
nished, and with a total oblivion of the carnage of th& 
preceding night. Tritkum loliaceumy dwarf sea wheat 
grass, also abounds here; dipsacits sHvestris, wild tesL* 
sel ; plantago maritima, sea plantain, of which speciea 
Darwin writes — 

" With strange deforq^ty Pkmtago ti^eads 
A tnoiiBter birth, and lifU his huncfared beads'* — 

lUkospermum officinale, common groundsel; beta mari- 
ilma sea beet; scdsola kali, prickly saltwort, which is 
frequently substituted for ckenopodium markimum, 
and as such used in glass manufactories, although the 
soda obtained from it is not equal to that of some 
other species of salsola; coi^ndrum sativum^ cori- 
ander, flowering in July ; silene maritima^ sea cam- 
pion, pr catchfly, of which Darwin writes — 


" The fell Silene and her sisters &ir» 
Skilled in destruction, spread the viscous snare j" — 

arenaria peploidesy sea sandwort } ghucum luteum^ 
yellow horned poppy ; thalicirum minuSj lesser mea- 
dow rue; cocAZeor/aq^ino/ii^, common scurvy-grass; 
cocfUearia Danica^ Danish scurvy-grass ; cakUe tnch 
ritimaj sea rocket ; brasica napiis, rape ; geranium 
dmet^nif jogged leaved crane's-bill; malva sylves- 
triSf common mallow^ abounding with a pure muci-' 
lage, and possessing, though in a milder degree^ thq 
emollient qualities of the marsh-mallow. In Horace's 
time it was an article of diet, 

** Me patcont oUvae, 
Me cichorea levesque malvae/^ 

The Chinese eat the leaves of mallow either raw as 
salad, or boiled as spinach ; aster tripoKum^ sea star- 
wort ; pyrethrum marittmum, sea feverfew ; juncus 
idigindmSi little bulbous rush ; juncus acutuSi great 
aharp rudh ; juncus hulbosus^ round fruited rush, and 
terastium armnsei field duckweed ; scirpus glaucusj 
glaucous club-rush, flowering in August On the high 
banks at the land side of this route, are found sambucus 
nigra^ common elder; thymus serpyllum, wild thyme; 
vicia lot hy r aides i spring vetch; trifdium arvense^ 
hareVfoot trefoil ; trifoUum scabrum, rough rigid 
trefoil; fonchus arvensis^ com sow thistle; linum 
angustifoliunh narrow-leaved pale flax.— In the fields 
between Clontarf and Ratheny grow the Narcissus 
biflorus, pale Narcissus, or primrose peerless, much 
valued for its beauty and scents though the latter 
soon becomes oppressive in a room ; also, the juncus 


compressuSi round fruited rush; bromus secalmusj 
smooth rye brome-grass. — While the ditches between 
Clontarf and Beldoyle present the scrophtdaria no- 
dasa, knotty-rooted figwort, &c. 

In the geological department, it is to be remarked, 
that near Clontarf is a bed of cimolitey of a greyish 
white and pearl grey colour, friable, and intimately 
allied with fullers' earth; galena is also met with 
here in calp, as is blende, partly of a brown, partly 
of a hyacinth red colour, and beautifully crystalized 
in octohedrons and dodekahedrons. 

Immediately beyond Blackbush, a turn at left 
conducts, by Mr. Papworth's cottage ornie , to the 
picturesquely situated little village of 


so denominated from the rath, the remains of which 
are still traceable opposite its church. Antiquarians, 
however, may regret that this, like others, is vastly 
curtailed of its fair proportions, the soil of such tu- 
muli being found an excellent refreshment for tillage 

Of these raths or duns, as they are indifferently 
called in the Irish language, several are seen dispersed 
through different parts of Ireland, but, as in outward 
appearance they have much in common with the 
moats or funeral mounds, it is, sometimes, difficult to 
distinguish them. The latter, are, however, all artificial 
erections, smaller and more precipitate, and conse- 
quently wear the appearance of greater height, wjiile 


the former are a work of art, grafted, as it were, on 
nature, exercised in commanding situations, cut out 
of the hill, not raised from the plain, and in fosses, 
ramparts, and entrenchments, even still presenting the 
similitude of ** grim-visaged war.** In these raths, 
at the era of their origin, the habitations of the chief 
of the district and his family were constantly placed, 
consisting in general only of small buildings cour 
structed of earth and hurdles. They are popularly 
called Danish structures, but are recorded as existing 
before the Danes had settled in this island, and in 
localities to which their incursions cannot be traced ; 
while some of them bear evidence on their summits, 
in cromlechs and stone circles, of that heathen reli- 
gion which had wholly ceased before the period of 
Danish tyranny. Their dimensions are various, but 
their forms almost always round or oval, and some 
have caves of considerable extent hollowed within 
them.* One of this description shall be spoken of 
hereafter at " Lucan." 

A pretty but nameless little rivulet, which rises 
near St. Margaret's, after passing by Harristown, 
Sillock, Ballymun, Santry demesne and CoolocI^ 
winds through the valley near which this towp has 
been built, and, rippling by what is called the manor 
bouse, formerly celebrated for the valuable flowers of 
its garden when in the occupation of the late Mr. 

* See D*Alton*8 Essay on the Ancient History, &c. of Irel&acl» 
p. 126, &c. in the 1st Part of the XVLth vol. of the Royal Irish Acade- 
my*8 Transactions. 


Cave, empties itself into tbe sea near Mr. Papworth*s 
cottage, where the parish mill formerly stood. 

The church of Ratheny is a plain structure in 
good repair, standing on a rising ground. It was 
rebuilt in 1712, as a stone inserted in the wall indi* 
cates, and was originally dedicated to St. Assan. 
The interior is well preserved, but entirely destitute 
of embellishment. It has two mural slabs of black 
and white marble, commemorating respectively mem- 
bers of the Harriscm and Finn families. At the west 
fitd is. an elevaied pier, perforated with niches, in 
one of which is placed the belL The churchyard 
is bordered by several very ancient trees. In it are 
monuments to Edmund Arcfabold, who died in 1711^ 
on^ to Robert Harrison of the city of Dublin, who 
died in 1769, a monument for the relatives of Mr. 
Law, formerly a banker in Dublin, another for the 
Grogan family, &c. 

. The parish takes its, name from the village, bor- 
ders on the sea, and, according to the Trigonometrical 
Survey, comprises 920a. 1r. 19p. In the IVotestant 
establishment it is a single benefice, an undivided 
rectory, in the deanery of Finglas, and patronage of 
the crown, and has an excellent glebe-house near 
the village, with a glebe* of fifty-six acres. In the 
Roman Catholic arrangement, it is, as before men- 
tioned, included in the union of Clontarf. — The po- 
pulation of this parish, together with the village, was 
returned in 1821 as 505 persons, and in 1831 as 608. 
Lord Howth is the chief proprietor of the fee herein; 
the average, rent of land, on modem lettings, varies 


from £4 to £5; and a cabin without land is hired at 
fi?om 2s. to Ss. per week, the wages* of labour being 

Ratheny has been already mentioned as the boun- 
dary of the city jurisdiction in this direction^ and 
there is a stone built into the angle of Mr. Pap*' 
worth's cottage here, which was evidently intended 
to denote that circumstance. It has carved upon it 
the arms of the Howth family, with a tower in the 
dexter chief of the field, possibly the ancient arms of 
the city of Dublin, the date 1572, the initials C. E. 
denoting (it is to be presumed) Civitas Eblana. 

A great portion of the townland originally appertained to the 
Priory of the .Holy Trinity, in Publin, i. e. Christ Chorch> while 
king Henry the Second granted, or it would rather appear con- 
^nned ,iq the abbey of the Blessed Virgin, (inter alia) other lands 
in JKatheny, with all their appurtenances, and all shipwrecks, toge* 
ther with sac and soc, toll and them, infangthef, outfangthef, and 
aH liberties and free customs.t The former religious house there- 
upon exchanged the principal part of their estates here with the 
Utter for other possessions.^ 

A section of Ratheny was, about the same time, granted by 
Earl Strongbow <<as fully as Grilcolm had previously held the 
^ame,** to John de Courcy, the celebrated chieftain, who had re- 
ceived from King Henry, while in Ireland, a grant of the province 
of Ulster, with the very necessary proviso, that he should first re- 
duce it by the force of his arms. And here, in the vicinity of 
his sworn comrade, Sir Armoricus St. Lawrence, in the very view 
of those mountains of Mourne, which overlooked his future pos- 
sessions, this rugged soldier assembled around him the fiery spirits 

♦ It may be here observed^ that all statements of the wages of 
labour in this work» imply wages without food, 
t Dugdale*8 Monasticon AngUcanum. 
.. X Repcrtorlum Viridc. 


Hodgestown, greater Tyrrelstown, lesser Tyrrelstown, Milwards- 
town, Colcot, and Calliaghton, SOOa. ; Kittagbstown, Liough- 
bran, and Moyne, 100a. ; Raibeny being tbere stated as so 
bcld by him under tbe dean and chapter of Christ Church, 
Stapolin from the king, in capite, by knight's service, and 
the remainder from Peter Bamewall, as of his manor of Bal- 
rothery. In 1625 Peter Delahoyde of Punchestown in the County 
Kildare, died seised of two messuages and 120 acres here, which 
he held of the king by knight's service.* For a notice in 1639*, 
see at « Coolock." 

In 1641 the Earl of Ormond was directed to disperse the in- 
surgents who had assembled here and at Killbarrock. (See post, 
at « Killbarrock.") 

In the forfeitures incident to the civil wars of that period, 
Charles Viscount Fitz Harding had a grant of 106 acres in 
Ratheny, (with certain savings of rights under decrees to John 
Delahoyde and James Grace,)t of which said Charles died seised 
in 1672. J Lord Fitz Harding's portion appears to have been 
theretofore the estate of John Talbot of Robertstown in the 
County Meath, and forfeited by him in 164U§ 

Part of the village and a few acres adjacent came subsequently 
into the possession of a member of the Grace family, who is said 
to have rebuilt the house now in the occupation of Mr. Sweetman. 
For a record of Ratheny in 1670, see " Clontarf" at that year. 

In 1680 the king presented Patrick Grattan to this rectory, 
who was succeeded in 1703 by John Grattan, he in 1731 by 
Marmaduke Phillips, and he in 1735 by Ralph Cocking, all on 
similar presentation. For a notice in 1732, see at " Santry." 

In 1774 William Shaw succeeded Cocking as rector of Ratheny, 
and was himself succeeded by George Stevenson in 1796; Latham 
Coddington was next presented to this benefice in 1802, Doctor 
Richard Graves in 1809, Francis Fox in 1814, and the Hon. 
George Gore in 1821, all by royal presentation. 

In latter times, in perambulating the franchises as before al- 
luded to, the city officers assumed to shape their course from 

• Inquis. in Cane. Hib. 
- - t Pat 19 Char; 2. in RoUs Office. 
} Inquis. in Cane. Hib. § lb. 

ilATHENY. Ill 

Ballybough Bridge along the strand to Clontarf, thenceforward 
to the mill of Ratheny, and from the mill northward 130 perches 
to a little brook, which, they set up as the extent of their Hberties. 
The claim was, however, res'isted as an intrusion by the Vernon 
family, as before mentioned at " Clontarf.'* 

In 1802 Mr, Dick left £30 of the Irish currency of that time 
per annum, (erroneously stated as £40 British in the £ducation 
Report of 1835,) as an endowment for a school here for poor 
children of all religious persuasions. This grant is paid out of the 
rental of a crescent of eight small cottages in the village, and, if 
at any time that rental should fall short of the specified annuity, 
it is to be made good out of other properties of the testator. la 
1818 Mrs. Anne Preston bequeathed, amongst other charitable 
legacies, £100 to be laid out at interest, and such Interest to b« 
applied for the poor of this parish.. 

In the neighbourhood of Ratheny is Violet Hill, 
the handsome seat of Mr. Mac Conchy, from whose 
groves, when visited for the purpose of this work, 
the first cuckoo of the season, with hollow and appa* 
rently distant voice, was summoning its silent mate 
from the remoter copse of the valley. 

The botany of this vicinity may be thus classified. 
Common about it grow hordeum pratense^ meadow 
barley ; a variety of the primula verts, with scarlet 
flowers, thlaspi arvense, penny cress, Jumaria officii 
natis, common fumitory,^maria capreolata, climbing 
fumitory, polygala vulgaris, milkwort, ulear Muro- 
p6Bus, common furze, lathyrus pratensts, meadow 
v6tchling, picris echioid^s, bristly ox-tongue, apargia 
hirta, deficient hawk*bit, senecio tenuifoliis, hoary 
ragwort, and Ustera ovata, common tway blade. — In 
the fields and on the banks are found orchis pyramid 
dalis, pyramidal orchis, orchis morio, green-winged 
orchis, orchis maciUata, spotted palmate orchis — 


** With blushes bright as mora fiiir orchis charms'* — 

poterium sangvisorba^ salad bumet, a choice salad 
herb for winter and spring use, it being of a warm 
nature ; the young leaves are the useful parts. The 
chief property that gives value to this plant is its 
hardy nature, keeping green all the winter, and its 
early growth. If left uncut (says Sinclair) in au- 
tumn, it will afford green food from October till 
April. — In the adjacent wet ditches the callitriche 
verna^ vernal water-starwort, exhibits " its starry eye 
and radiant hair." Epilohium parvifloruniy small 
flowered willow herb, is also found in the same situa- 
tion. — The corn-fields shew specimens of chn/san- 
themum segeturrty com marigold ; the gravel pits 
papaver hybridumi round rough-headed poppy. In 
the waste grounds is found anthemis cotula^ fetid cha- 
momile ; in the hedges clematis vitalba^ common tra- 
veller's joy ; and near the church, unatricharia chor 
momillaj wild chamomile, flourishes abundantly; while 
between Ratheny and the sea, near the late residence 
of Mr. Cave, are found myrrhis temulentaj rough 
cow parsley, sium angmtifoUum^ narrow-leaved water 
parsnip, ranunculus lingua^ great spearwort crowfoot, 
draba vema^ common whitlow grass, and rosa spino- 
Bissima, the burnet rose. 

From Ratheny to Howth, the road passes over the 
dreary sandy isthmus which connects that hill with the 
mainland, uncultivated, and, it would seem, incapable 
of cultivation. About midway on the road side, and 
close to the sea-shore, appear the not uninteresting 
remains of the church of 



a townland, deriving its name, like all those of Irish 
topography, from the presence of such an edifice, 
« Kill." 

Unretarded by wall, or ditch, or fence, the visiter, 
gilding amongst a few sodded and slippery graves, 
and firming his steps by the headstones and crosses 
that distinguish them, finds himself in the once votive 
chapel of the mariners who frequented the bay, and at 
whose altar, on their arrival, they had prayers offered 
up for the souls of those of their messmates who had 
perished at sea; a dutiful comemmoration, which, how- 
ever some may deem superstition, is the sublimest 
link in the religion of the Roman Catholic — the link 
that prolongs communion with the parent, the rela- 
tive, and the friend, on whom this world has closed 
for ever. 

The architectural appearance of this chapel is not 
imposing, only exhibiting some circular and pointed 
arches, without any visible remains of a steeple or 
belfry ; the vistas and sections of prospect, how- 
ever, as framed by the arches and windows of the 
ruins, afford a series of views which cannot fail to gra- 
tify the commonest observer, and even well to recom- 
pense the draughtsman. A broken tombstone in the 
grave-yard has now ceased to record the once cele- 
brated Higgins, the first establisher of the Freeman's 
Journal^ and well known by the soubriquet of the 
sham Squire ;' nor are there any other monuments 
here to reward inquiry ; but there were some living 



adventitious charms in the scene, deeply emblematic of 
its more solemn associations. The butterflies were 
flitting over the narrow homes of the departed, the 
waves were breaking in sullen murmurs along the 
shore, " fretting their hour" ere the ebb, while 

" From the green waving corn 
The lark spreads his wings, 
And hails as he sings 
The fresh glow of the morn ; 
With pinions replenished he hovers on high. 
And so far sends his song from the blue vaulted sky, 
You would think the shrill note, as he soars from your view, 
To his dear native earth bade for ever adieu ; 

But his eye is still fixed where his wing shall repose, 
And, though heavenward his flight 
He upholds with delight. 
Yet with rapture he darts to the spot whence he rose.'* 

The maritime parish of Killbarrock contains, ac- 
cording to the Trigonometrical Survey, 740a. Or. 
13p. and ranks as a chapelry without glebe or glebe- 
house, in the union of Howth, both in the Protestant 
and Catholic dispensations. Its population is consi- 
dered as about 190 persons, of whom 145 are stated 
to be Catholics. This, together with the parish of 
Howth, has compounded for tithes to the incumbent, 
at £231 per annum. Lord Howth is the proprietor 
of the fee, but the parish is accounted within the ma- 
nor and jurisdiction of Grange Gorman. 

The chapel here, more anciently called Mone, originally be- 
longed to the monastery of the Blessed Virgin, but was by its 
fraternity exchanged for the tithes of Ballyboghil, whereupon Kill- 
barrock was annexed to the Prebend of Howth.* 

At the commencement of the thirteenth century, Sir John d« 

• Alan Reg. 


Courcy, mentioned before at Ratheny, bore tbe title of Lord of 
Killbarrock ; the lands, however, and manor appear at this early 
period to have passed from the Tuite family, who had a grant of 
them immediately after the English invasion, to the Lords of 
Howth, who held by the tenure of rendering a pair of furred 
gloves to the King, being the service theretofore reserved and 
paid by the Tuites,* while other inquisitions state the fee to be 
in the Dean and Chapter of Christ Church. 

In 1538 Christopher Lord St. Lawrence had license to con- 
vey to trustees " the manor of Howth, with the appurtenances in 
Stapolin, Killbarrock, and KiUester," the three Ronans, Whites- 
town, Parnellstown, Kittaghstown, the Ward, ficcf and levied fines 
thereof in 1541. 

At the time of the dissolution it was found on inquisition thai 
the tithes of Killbarrock were payable out of the townlands of 
Killbarrock and Little Main, worth annually £6 15^., besides the 
altarages, which were assigned for the curate, while the farmer of 
the tithe was bound to repair the chancel4 It was also found that 
the priory of All Hallows was possessed of fourteen acres here.§ 

In 1606 Nicholas Lord Howth died, seised of six messuages 
and eighty acres here, twenty-five in Gigmalin, two messuages 
and fifty-nine acres in Boranstown, &c. 

In 1641 a special proclamation issued from the Castle, an- 
nouncing that " divers of the inhabitanU of Clontarf, Ratheny, 
and Killbarrock, had declared themselves rebels, and that, having 
robbed and spoiled some of his Majesty's good subjects, they had 
assembled thereabouts in arms in great numbers, mustering and 
training of their rebellious multitudes, as well at land as at sea ;" it 
was therefore ordered tliat a party of soldiers should be sent out to 
endeavour to cut them off, and to bum and spoil their houses and 
goods, and further to cause their boats and vesseb there to be 
brought up " to the new crane at Dublin, and to burn or sink such 
as they could not so bring up." 

Of the extent of this parish on survey in 1734, see ** Howth" 
at that year. 

• Charter Roll 9 John. Tur. Lond. t Roll, in Cane Hib. 

X Inquis. in Cane. Hib. § lb. 



About Killbarrock the botanist will find cynoglos- 
sum officmahy common hound's tongue ; lycopsis ar- 
vensisj small bugloss; hyoscyamus niger^ common 
henbane, whose seeds, leaves, and roots are poisonous ; 
neither horses, cows, sheep, nor swine will eat of it ; 
fowl picking it in quantity die, whence its name of 
henbane ; and it is asserted that the leaves scattered 
about a house will even banish mice. There are also 
found here erythrcea centaurium^ common centaury; 
cerastlum arvense^ field mouse ear chickweed ; sper- 
giUa arvensisycom spurrey ; papaver hybridumy round 
rough headed poppy; erodium cicutarium, hemlock 
stocks bill ; sonchus arvensis, corn sow thistle ; apar- 
gia hirta, deficient hawkbit; apargia autumncUisy 
autumnal hawkbit; trifolium scabrum, rough rigid 
trefoil. In the fields near it myosotis versicolor^ yel- 
and blue scorpion grass, viola tricolor^ the pansy violet, 
or heart's ease ; fumaria capreolata, climbing fumi- 
tory; viola lutea, yellow pansy; saa:ifraga granulata, 
white meadow saxifrage ; vicia sativaj common vetch, 
an excellent fodder for horses, it is also remarked 
that pigeons are very fond of the seeds, which in some 
parts of Sweden enter into the composition of bread, 
either alone or mixed with the flower of rye ; crepis 
Uennis^roM^ hawk's beard ; chrysanthemum segetum, 
com marigold; orchis jn/ramidalis^ pyramidal orchis ; 
papaver Rhwas^ common red poppy, of which the so 
much admired double French poppy of the gardens is 
a species ; papaver somni/erum.^ white poppy ; lychnis 
dioicay red or white campion, of which the double 
red French campion of the gardens is a species; agros- 


tema githago, corn cockle, flowering in June and 
July ; trifolium maritimum^ sea trefoil, flowering in 
June. — In the marshes behind Kilbarrock church, 
arundo phragmiteSj common reed; and gnapluzlium 
tdiginosumy marsh everlasting. On the walls or 
about the ruins of the church, euphorbia Portlan- 
dicQj Portland spurge, flowering late in August; 
carduus marianus^ milk thistle, which here attains 
a height of five or six feet. The young stalks, says 
Rutty, are eaten raw, and the heads are used as arti- 
chokes ; cerastium semidecandrum, little mouse ear 
chickweed ; papaver argemonet long prickly headed 
poppy ; Jimuma capreolatay ramping fumitory. — On 
the hedges, trifolium officinale^ melilot, and picris 
echioides, bristly ox tongue. — On the sea shore, lepi- 
dium ruderaley narrow-leaved pepperwort, and viola 
hirtOy hairy violet. While between this and Beldoyle 
grows orchis mascula^ early purple orchis ; and in the 
waste grounds on the way to Howth, gnaphalium 
Germanicum^ common cudweed, and arctium lappa, 
common burdock or clott burr, the outer scales of 
whose calyx so constantly adhere to animals, clothes, 
or any soft substances with which they come in con- 

Continuing along the shore from Killbarrock to 
Sutton, the barnacles were seen in dusky groups 
floating over the shallow waters, and occasionally div- 
ing for their favourite food, the roots of aquatic plants. 
This strand, however, does not afford much of their 
genial diet, and accordingly the flesh of the bird is 
here rank and unsavoury. Occasionally, too, a lonely 


heron may be seen basking in the sun, with her pen- 
dent, as if almost dislocated, wings. 


the next locality, is situated in the parish of Howth, 
and on the ascent of its hill ; Lord Howth and Mr, 
Newcomen are proprietors of the fee. Rent is about 
£4 per acre, while the labourer's wages is 8^. per 

Here is one of the oyster beds which supply the 
metropolis, it is not, however, of natural growth, 
but renewed from Arklow, as the consumption may 
require. The oysters, when first deposited, are of a 
gelatinous consistence, and very small, not much above 
two inches in diameter, but being laid down gradually 
increase in bulk and hardness. Muscles are also taken 
in quantities here. Beyond the oyster beds is one of 
those singular monuments of former jobbing, a mar- 
tello tower, above which is seen the romantic and im- 
proved villa of Mr. Kildahl, a spot of emerald verdure 
on the brown face of the promontory. 

Of the geology of Sutton a contemporary takes the 
following notice : — 

" A bed of dolomite, accompanied by greyish 
limestone, which first appears at a few points to the 
south of Skerries, after dipping beneath the sands of 
Portmamock and Malahide, re-appears near the har- 
bour of Howth. This same bed, sweeping round 
the base of the promontory, is next found near Sut- 
ton, at its south-western point. Here it is quarried. 

SUTTON. 119 

/ gjjj jgnce at no distant period it was exported to 
/ Engknd, where the magnesian earth was extracted 
/ /j^„j it, and converted into a series of valuable pre- 
/ parations. The following is an outline of the process, 
by the prosecution o( which Dr. Henry of Manchester 
is said to have realized a splendid fortune : The do- 
lomite, which consists of a mixture of carbonate of 
lime and carbonate of magnesia, is broken into frag- 
ments of the size of an egg, and burned as usual in a 
common kiln. By this process the carbonic acid or 
fixed air is expelled, and the earths remain. Upon 
a known weight of these, such a quantity of pyrolig- 
neous acid is next digested, as is inferred from pre- 
vious experiment to be exactly adequate to the satu* 
ration of the lime. This latter earth, in virtue of its 
superior affinity, is exclusively taken up, and washed 
off in the form of acetate of lime; and the magnesia 
left behind is converted into sulphate or Epsom salt, 
which is purified by processes well known to the 
practical chemist. From the purified Epsom, the 
carbonate of magnesia is easily thrown down by the 
addition of a suitable quantity of an alkaline carbonate, 
and from the carbonate the calcined magnesia is ob- 
tained, by the application of the minimum degree of 
heat necessary for the expulsion of the carbonic acid. 
The impure acetate of lime, also, formed in the com- 
mencement of the process, is a product of considerable 
value. When subjected to a gentle torrefaction, so 
as to destroy the bitumen which adheres to it, it 
yields, when properly treated with oil of vitriol, acetic 
acid in its purest form, and of any degree of strength 


which the manufacturer may choose. It is, in fact, 
possible, by a modification of this process, to procure 
it so strong as to include but 15 per cent, of water, 
and to congeal, when exposed to a temperature some 
degrees above the melting point of ice. Why should 
not this process be practised in our native city ? Or 
wherefore b it that our most valuable minerals be- 
come productive only when worked by English hands? 
We will not venture upon supplying any response to 
these interrogatories, but will merely express a hope 
that the period is not far distant, when Irishmen will 
merge party in national objects, and when the boun- 
ties of Providence shall cease to be marred by the 
folly or the wickedness of man." It may not be un- 
interesting to the reader to know, that the celebrated 
Parian marble belongs to the dolomite species, as does 
that of lona in the Hebrides, while those splendid 
edifices, the cathedral of Milan, and the minster 
of York, are both constructed of magnesian lime- 

^' The black oxide of manganese is also found at 
Sutton, and in the immediate vicinity of the magne- 
sian limestone. It has been raised and prepared for 
sale in considerable quantity, and sold to the manu- 
facturers of the bleaching salt of lime, and of the 
different other more recently fabricated compounds, 
of which chlorine is the active element." 

In 1616, Sutton was found by inquisition to be part of the 
possessions of the Howth family, but, by what right, said the jury, 

• Allan's Mineralogy. 

SUTTON. 121 

Vie cannot discover. It does appear, however, that a portion of 
it, about 240 acres, was granted after the Restoration to an Alder- 
man Goff, and has, by mesne assignments, descended to a Mr. 

In 1696, the William packet-ship, coming from Holyhead with 
eighty passengers, among whom was Brigadier-General Edward Fitz 
Patrick, the elder brother of Richard 6rst Lord Gowran, whose son 
was created Earl of Upper Ossory, was by a violent storm cast 
away near this phice, when all except the master and a boy were 
lost. The body of General Fitz Patrick was found upon the 
shore, brought to Dublin, and honourably interred in the choir of 
St. Patrick's cathedral. 

From Sutton a wild mountain road, overhanging the 
sea, treads a maze of hills and glens, thickets of furze, 
shady avenues of stunted trees, bold projections of 
rock, and, over brawling streams that trickle from the 
higher grounds, ascends to the little village of Sancer, 
and the wildly situated seat of Mrs. Hannington, im- 
mediately above which the first noble view is caught 
of the Bailly rock and light-house and the deep 
green sea, over which the frequent sparrow-hawks 
may be seen as poised in the deserted air, and the 
dark-winged cormorants, the tyrants of another ele- 
ment, screaming below them and plunging from the 
giddy cliffs into the deep for their fishy food. 

Continuing in a yet wilder course, the wanderer 
of the mountain commands many interesting views of 
the creeks and cavemed shores of Howth, the city, 
and the bay, with the here peculiarly magical appari- 
tion of the south wall light-house, rearing itself from 
the depth of the waters two miles in the sea, and 
seemingly unconnected with the mainland, and ulti- 
mately comes down upon that singular rock, the 


Bailly, which is again spirally ascended to its summit 
Pharos, shining with a neatness peculiar to these edi- 
fices. Its lights are twenty, suitably furnished with 
reflectors, &c. Round the dome runs an outer gal- 
lery, lightly, but securely, railed, which affords aw- 
fully sublime prospects of the magnificent panorama 
that surrounds it. 

Before leaving the Bailly it is worth observing, 
that situated as it is on the most southern point of 
Howth, it is distant from the Isle of Dalkey on the 
opposite shore, six and three-quarters English miles, 
while from a line supposed to unite those objects, the 
light-house on the south wall would be distant three 
and three-quarters, and Ringsend from the same, six 
and three-quarters. 

The historian will also recognise it as the spot, 
whither, according to tradition, on the memorable 
day of Clontarf, the most obstinate of the discomfited 
Danes retired, insulated the promontory, and de- 
fended themselves until they were carried off by the 
vessels of their countrymen. Their situation recalled 
the lines : 

** Nigfat closed around the warriors' way. 
And lightning shewed the distant bill. 
Where those, who lost that dreadful day. 
Stood few and faint, but fearless still." 


As the hill of Howth is usually one of the ear- 
liest land-marks that announces Ireland to English 
visiters, the subject may excite some interest beyond 

HOWTU. 123 

that of ordinary localities. Its natural wildness of 
scenery, and sublimity of prospect, early attracted to 
it the attention of all who could feel the interest of 
such associations, while a Sunday drive to its base, 
and a ramble over its steeps and amongst its rocks, 
was esteemed the most grateful recreation by the citi- 
zens of Dublin, even at a period when the "going 
and coming" by the rude machinery of the ordinary 
conveyances must have consumed a portion of time, 
that scarcely left a moment to explore the object 
when attained. 

A poet of the day thus alludes to these excur- 
sions, toilsome as they were, yet, perhaps, on that 
very account the more excitingly amusive. 

** Well might an artist travel from afar. 
To view the structure of a low-backed car : 
A downj mattress on the car is laid. 
The father sits beside his tender maid. 
Some back to back, some side to side are placed. 
The children in the centre interlaced. 
By dozens thus, full many a Sunday mom. 
With dangling legs the jovial crowd is borne j — 
Clontarf they seek, or Howth's aspiring brow. 
Or Leixlip smiling on the stream below.*' 

The locality seems, however, at this day less fre- 
quented for rural indulgence, than it was in the 
" olden" time, and perhaps this cessation of visiters 
may be greatly attributable to the two turnpikes that 
guard its approach. 

The promontory, generally called the Hill of 
Howth, is connected with the main land by the be- 
fore-mentioned sandy isthmus, and forms the nor- 
thern entrance of Dublin bay, being elevated 578 


feet above low water mark. It was anciently called 
Ben-na-dair, as it is supposed from the quantity of 
venerable oaks that then waved over its fertile decli- 
vities, and religiously shadowed one of those Pagan 
altars or cromlechs, which yet remain, and are, as the 
author of this work has elsewhere endeavoured to prove, 
attributable to a species of the Magian priesthood. 
The sides of the hill are rocky and precipitous, and 
are considered to present somewhat of the appearance 
of a miniature Gibraltar ; a circumstance, which in 
conjunction with the awjid religious rites performed 
on it, appear to have given it the Irish epithet still 
traceable in its name. 

Of the ancient Castle of the Earls of Howth only 
a small square tower, commonly called Corr Castle, 
remains upon the present race-ground. Their more 
modem residence is seen at right of the road ascend- 
ing to the town. It is a long, battlemented struc- 
ture, flanked by square towers at each extremity, and 
approached by a large flight of steps leading to a spa- 
cious hall, furnished with relics of antiquity, while in 
the saloon are some fine portraits, especially one of 
Dean Swift, by Bindon. It was painted in 1735, and 
represents him in his clerical costume, with Wood at 
his feet, to the right of the picture, writhing in agony. 
Swift, it may be observed, had been a frequent visiter 
in this castle. In one of his letters, in 1734, he 
writes : " The weather yesterday being very fine, I 
rode to Howth house, and as I was getting on horse- 
back to return, I was seized with so cruel a fit of that 
giddiness, which at times hath pursued me from my 

HOWTH. 125 

youth, that I was forced to lie down on a bed in the 
empty house for two hours, before I was in a condition 
to ride."* 

On an eminence beyond the turn to this Castle 
IS a neat parish church, to which succeeds, also at right, 
a pretty villa erected for Sir Edward Lees, when se- 
cretary of the Irish post-office. The next and princi- 
pal object of architectural attraction here is the har- 
bour, for the formation of which a series of acts of 
pa^liame^t (45 Geo. 3, c. 1 13—50 Geo. 3, c. 72— 
58 Geo. 3, c. 61—4 Geo. 4, c. 74—6 Geo. 4,c. 100 
— 7 Geo. 4, c. 76—7 & 8 Geo. 4, c. 35—9 Geo. 4, 
c. 75—1 Will. 4, c. 67— and 3 & 4 Will. 4, c. 43) 
have been made ; and accordingly a harbour was con- 
structed, embracing an area of fifty-two English acres, 
enclosed by two piers, the western 2,700 feet in length, 
the eastern composed of three limbs, whose lengths 
successively are 1,200, 220, and 860 feet, having at 
one extremity a small light-house. The breadth of 
the entrance between the jetties is 320 feet ; the depth 
at entrance is eleven feet at low water, and on the 
rise of the tide varies from nine to twelve feet. The 
breadth of the causeway on the western pier is forty 
feet, and the base of the same pier measures one hun- 
dred and thirty. The carriage way formed on the 
east pier is fifly feet broad, and the base of the pier 
itself two hundred. This noble work was eflTected at 
the cost of £300,000, a considerable portion of which 
was incurred by raising rocks from the bottom of the 
basin by means of the diving bell. Yet the harbour 

• Mason's St. Patrick's Cathedral, p. 406. 


did not admit vessels of large burden or great draught, 
while, according to engineers, so injudicious was its 
location, that had it been constructed but one furlong 
to the eastward of its present situation, the navy of 
Great Britain might have been moored within it, 
sheltered from the prevailing winds, in a safe anchor- 
age, and a depth of water uninfluenced by ebb or flow 
of tide. 

But even this work, so dearly purchased by the 
nation, has been already superseded, and another ge- 
neration may traverse the mossy causeway, and vainly 
seek the spot where the only monarch landed who 
came in peace to Ireland ; 

** Atque, ubi portus erat, tunc siccum litus." 

It is rapidly filling with mud and sand, and now but ac- 
commodates four wherries and five smacks employed 
in the fisheries. Each wherry carries seven or eight 
men, and used to have a bounty from government, 
now withdrawn. The hands are all engaged in shares, 
two of which go to the owner of the wherry, and in 
the proper seasons they catch cod, ling, haddock, ray, 
herrings, &c. It is also remarkable that, after all the 
money that has been expended in this place, it has 
not yet a boat-builder, carpenter, ropemaker, or 

From the harbour the tourist ascends into the 
town, which consists of a single street, running along 
the edge of the cliffs, with a congregation of huts 
branching down the declivity to the water. At the 
highest point of the village over the sea, appear the 
venerable remains of its ancient abbey, one of the 

HOWTH. 127 

few specimens of Gothic pointed architecture which 
the county of Dublin affords; yet, so deformed is 
the appearance of the sacred structure by a horde 
of the lowest grade who occupy a portion of it, that 
the stranger inquires for the abbey even in the heart of 
its cloisters. It was dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, 
and " had" (says Mr. Bell, in his " Essay on Irish 
Architecture") "in its perfect state a double roof, 
supported at each end by pointed gables, and each 
division of the church had an eastern window ; the 
larger one consists of three compartments, divided by 
mullions ; the two extreme ones are trefoiled at the 
top, and the centre division rises in the pointed form, 
above an archway, which seems to have been a later 
addition. The window of the back aisle is also 
divided into three compartmentiJ, the centre one 
rising the highest, though all their tops are circular. 
There are two entrances by gothic pointed arches, 
one at the south side, which had formerly been a 
porch, into the body of the church, and the other, at 
the west end, into the back aisle. A flat embattled 
belfry, with pointed arches for three bells, springs 
from the gable at the western extremity, opposite to 
the great window." — The original bells of this abbey 
are still preserved at the castle. When the church 
was dismantled they were deposited in a vault, whence, 
at the time of building the new parish church, they 
were drawn up with the object of furnishing its bel- 
fry, but on examination they were found cracked and 
unfit for use. In the south aisle is the tomb of 
Christopher, the twentieth Lord Howth, who died in 


1589. On the slab of this monument, in very high 
relief, is the eflSgy of the Baron recumbent, habited 
in the armour of a knight, with his faithful dog at 
his feet ; by his side lies the Baroness, (who was the 
daughter of Sir John Plunkett of Beaulieu,) attired 
in the costume of the age, and the heads of both sup- 
ported by tasselled cushions. The sides of the tomb 
are divided into compartments, and ornamented with 
rich foliage and gothic scroll work; each compartment 
containing an escutcheon of the family's arms and those 
into which they had intermarried. On one side are 
the arms of the St. Lawrences, and other shields 
charged with devices ; on the other, those of the 
Plunketts, Cusacks, Flemings, and Butlers. The ends 
are sculptured with a group of saints, and round the 
slab was a gothic inscription, now defaced. There 
are other monuments in this cemetery, but of no com- 
parative importance. 

A battlemented wall surrounds the grave-yard, 
on which, he who sits and gazes upon the scattered 
fragments of architecture, and the tombs mingled 
with weeds and shadowed with ivy, cannot but think 
of bygone times, and many who once proudly main- 
tained their characters on the stage of life, now 
mingled with the dust of this cemetery. The Book 
of Howth, compiled in this abbey, and containing a 
romantic chronicle of Irish affairs from A. D. 432 to 
1370, is supposed to be yet extant. 

Passing hence through the town, a very commo- 
dious modem chapel appears in its centre, surrounded 
by a small grave-yard. Near it are two schools^ one 

HOWTH. 129 

for boys and the other for girls ; to the former the Na- 
tional Board allows £12, to the latter £8 annually; 
the number of pupils in both was reported in 1834 as 
130, now increased to about I6O. 

A wild bridle-road guides the visiter hence to the 
summit of the hill, where the old light-house had 
been erected, and where a panorama of unrivalled 
magnificence presents itself. Here the town itself 
is distinguished, in its best aspect, slanting down the 
side of the hill, a village Tivoli, consecrated by the 
ruins of its better days ; thence the view, ranging over 
the little harbour occasionally animated with steamers 
and fishing-smacks, the holy solitude of St. Nessan's 
Island, (Ireland's Eye,) the remoter eminences of 
Lambay, and the blue mountains of Moume sha- 
dowed on the horizon, is lost in the expanse of sea, 
the mass of heaving waters, that, in modem parlance, 
unites ours to the Sister Island. There, on the op- 
posite side of a bay, which is well known to rival that 
of Naples, Bray-head and the Rochestown hills, peer- 
ing over the water, gradually elevate the spectator's 
attention to those Wicklow mountains, which, softly 
defined by lines as of light blue vapour, seem just 
arranged in a position to offer the most picturesque 
outline and finest termination ; while nearer, a suc- 
cession of castles, along the southern shore, invested 
with their own historic associations, relieve the eye as 
it glances along the bay to where burnished domes 
and crowded steeples foretoken — the Metropolis of 
Ireland. The descent from the above point to the 
before-mentioned Bailly light-house, is productive of 


numerous enchanting landscapes, if the term can be 
properly applied to prospects which the sea so magnifi- 
cently enhances. The shore affords in several places 
great facility for bathing, constant water, and a fine 
gravelly beach, of easy descent and retired from pub- 
lic view ; while in others it is indented with creeks, 
or worn into gloomy caverns, in which seals and por- 
poises may be often seen rolling their unwieldy 

The parish of Howth comprises 2669a. 2r. 3p. 
in the one denomination of land, and a population of 
1607 persons, of which, the Gttholics are 1400. It 
has, with that of Killbarrock, compounded for its 
tithes to the prebendary at £231. The union, be- 
sides the chapelry of Killbarrock, comprises the 
curacy of Beldoyle, all being so annexed to the pre- 
bend of Howth in St. Patrick's cathedral. The fol- 
lowing has been 


(^Atfar ai a$C€rtained,y 

1290. John de St. Amaro. 
1380. William Beverley. 
1509. John Fitz Simon. 
1522. Thomas D'Arcy. 
1529. William Power. 
1546. Simon Geoffry. 
1555. John Dongan. 
1595. Robert Conway. 
1615. Christopher Hewetson. 
1636. Thomas Uoyd. 
1660. WilUam Sheridan. 
1671. Patrick Grattan. 

1704. Robert Gratten. 
1723. Samuel Webber. 
1742. John Jackson. 
1750. Arthur Mahon. 
1753. John WaUs. 
1755. John Wynne. 
1771. WiUiam Blachford. 

1773. Moses Roquier. 

1774. Thomas Stewart. 
1789. Walter Blake Kirwan. 
1800. John Lewis. 

1833. Arthur Irwine. 

The Roman Catholic union of Howth comprises. 

HOWTH. 131 

besides the parishes of Beldoyle and Killbarroek, 
those also of Portmamock, St. Doulogh's, and Kin- 
salj. The manor includes the townlands of Howth 
and Ratheny. Lord Howth is proprietor of the fee. 
Rent on the hill is about £^ per acre, and in the more 
fertile parts £3 is paid, while cabins, without land, are 
let for £2 per annum. The number of labourers in 
this parish is said to be about 100, half of whom are 
constantly employed, and the other half occasionally. 
Those engaged in the fisheries, and working for them, 
are from eighty to ninety persons. 

The hill of Howth is celebrated in the most ancient aonala of 
Ireland, as the place of settlement of Partholanus and his colony, 
and the scene of their total destruction by a plague, in A. M. 2256. 

At the earliest period of the Christian era, when IreUnd was 
the sanctuary and refuge of those who fled the Roman power, 
Howth' was the residence of the celebrated Crimthan, who, ac- 
cording to the Irish annals, and in thorough consistence with the 
pelican sympathy which ever led IreUnd to shed her blood for 
those who sought shelter in her bosom, crossed the seas to stay 
the march of Roman oppression, and vindicate the rights of the 
expatriated wanderers. The chronicles of this country deservedly 
extol his achievements, and particularly relate, what may be con- 
sidered of some interest as regards the fine arts at the time, that, 
on his return from one of these chivalrous assertions of British 
liberty, he brought back with him a car inlaid with gold, a suit of 
armour studded with gems, a cloak with golden clasps, a sword 
richly carved, a shield with silver bullae, a remarkable lance, a ca- 
tapulta of resistless power, two noble hounds coupled with a silver 
chain, and a great variety of other precious articles. 

In the fourth century Howth is celebrated as one of the mili- 
tary stations of Fin Mac Goule and his band. 

In 819 the Danes devastated Howth. 

In 1012 CMelaghlin made an expedition against the Danes, 
lUdd devastated this district. In 1038 Sitric, the converted Dane, 



bestowed a considerable part of the lands hereabouts on his eccle^ 
siastical foundations, and is even said to have built the church 
here. In 1086, Murtogh O'Brien and his army of Munster ob- 
tained a victory here over the people of Leinster. 

At the time of the English invasion, Sir Armoricus Tristram 
was one of the most active adventurers. He and Sir John de 
Courcy, at the head of a chosen band, landed at Howth, and 
there encountering the inhabitants, who appeared to be a linger- 
ing horde of Danes, defeated them in a signal engagement at the 
bridge of Evora, the mountain stream that falls into the sea at 
the north side of Howth, opposite " Ireland's Eye." Sir Armori- 
cus lost seven relatives on this occasion, but acquired the lordship 
of Howth, and the designation of St. Lawrence in honour of the 
day of the battle. The sword, with which he fought, is still tri- 
umphantly exhibited amongst the relics at the castle of his de- 
scendants. According to tradition de Courcy and St. Lawrence 
made a compact in the church of Rouen, in Normandy, to unite 
their fortunes in arms, and abide its dangers and rewards. A pa- 
tron used to be annually held on the hill, until very recently, on 
St. Lawrence's day, to commemorate this victory, and, in clearing 
out the foundation for the new parish church, erected here a 
few years ago, more striking reminiscences of that day's fight were 
discovered in the quantity of bones scattered over an extensive 
space. An antique anvil, bridle, bits, and fragments of horse ar- 
mour were also found in this " ceramicus.^* Further particulars 
of Sir Armoricus will be found in the memoir of << the Family of 
St. Lawrence." 

Sir Nicholas St. Lawrence, the eldest son of Sir Armoricus, 
on his death succeeded to the inheritance of Howth, which he 
left to his eldest son, Armoricus, the third Baron. 

In 1200 the prebend of Howth was one of the thirteen €anon- 
ries incorporated by Archbishop Comyn. 

In 1216 King John made a grant, or rather confirmed the 
possessions of Armoricus de St. Lawrence, in the land of Howth, 
with the appurtenances, as fiilly as his father, Nicholas, had there- 
tofore possessed the same, together with all rights of churches, 
customs, mills, waters, &c. Soon after which this Armoricus 
granted twenty- five acres of land, in his lordship, to the vicar of 

HpWTH. 133 

Howth, described as next the river that flows into the sea, be- 
tween the church and the old castle towards the east, and ex- 
tending " a flo aqua^* in length, to divisions made between 
it and the lord's own land towards the west. This endowment 
is, however, by some attributed to Armoricus, the ninth Baron 
of Howth. 

For a notice in 1227, see << the Memoirs of the Archbishops of 

In 1235 the original prebendal church was removed from Ire- 
land's Eye to the mainland, by Archbishop Luke, and a new one, 
dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, was built upon the rector's glebe. 
This is the edifice whose ruins, as before-mentioned, still conse- 
crate the village. 

In 1306 the prebend of Howth was valued at £23 89. M. 

In 1313 Primate Jorse, in the well-known contest concerning 
the precedency of the sees of Armagh and Dubhn, came secretly 
to Howth, and proceeded in the night as far as Grace Dieu, car- 
rying his crozier erect, as an assertion of his claimt He was, 
however, met by some of the family of the Archbishop of Dublin, 
at the latter place, and compelled to quit the province. 

In 1348 the remarkable pestilence, that devastated Ireland, 
first broke out at Howth and Dalkey. It almost destroyed and laid 
waste the cities of Dublin and Drogheda, insomuch that in Dub- 
lin alone, from the beginning of August to Christmas, 14,000 
persons perished. 

In 1375 the king directed that proclamation should be made 
within the lordship of Howth, that none should cross sea from Ire- 
land, merchants excepted, without license from the crown.* 

In 1380 WOliam Beverly was prebendary of Howth, and 
likewise a canon of Westminster. In 1390 Sir John de Stanley 
landed at Howth, as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland for the third 
time. In 1410 the king assigned the tithes of the church of 
Howth to maintain the household of Thomas le Butler, prior of 
St. John of Jerusalem, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, and in 14'27 
Chief Baron Cornwalsh sailed hence to advise the king on the 
state of Ireland, being allowed 6«. 8cf. per day for his expenses 

* Rot. in Cane. Hib. 


while employed on thit misbion. In the same year Lord de Grey 
landed here as Lord Lieatenant of Ireland. 

In 1446 Lord Howth was sued by the crown for a herring- 
swyne twelve feet long, which had been cast ashore here. His 
lordship, however, pleaded that his ancestors, from time imme- 
morial, were lords of the manor and lordship of Howth, and as 
such seised of all '< porpoises, grapes and herringswyne," thrown 
ashore there, &c. On which plea he obtained judgment against 
the crown. 

In 1449 Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York, father of Edward 
IV. landed at Howth, as Lord Lieutenant. His government of 
Ireland Was a short but cheering interval. During the civil wars 
of York and Lancaster, Kildare for the white, and Ormond for 
the red rose, had organized all the passions and energies of the 
PalOi Duke Richard, however, by equally favouring and honour- 
ing every rank of the people, had acquired the general love of all, 
and wholly conciliated a nation, whom he was sent to subdue. So 
perfectly was this feeling established, that when, on his return to 
England, he was betrayed and defeated at Blore Heath, and ul- 
timately driven an exile into the country he had so lately go- 
verned, he was received there, not as a fugitive, but with every 
demonstration of the warmest affection. Gentlemen and follow- 
ers of houses, before then pitted in deadliest enmity, became his 
united adherents, clung together in his service, deserted their 
possessions to the reaction of Irish hostility, devoted their whole 
hopes to the unfortunate Prince, and, when he fell at Wakefield, 
perished promiscuously around him. 

In 1451 Sir Christopher, the fourteenth Baron of Howth, was 
empowered, by Act of Parliament, to search for a mine within this 
lordship, as well for tin as for lead ore, and to receive the profits 
thereof to his own use, during the term of three years, at 68. 8rf. 
per annum, if it should be found. For a notice in 1468, see at 
" Tipperkevin." 

Sir Nicholas St. Lawrence, the sixteenth Lord of Howth^ was 
devoted to the interests of the house of Lancaster, and, during 
the frenzy that shook Ireland from its propriety and allegiance in 
the cause of Lambert Simnel, was one of those who most faithfully 
defended King Henry's title and interest. When the rebellion, 

HOWTH. 135 

raised on that accoant> was quelled, the kiDg presented to this 
lord, as a tribute for his fidelity and senricesy 300 pieces of gold, 
and by charter, dated in 1489, confirmed to him the lands of 
Howth, kc^ he having in the preceding year, notwithstanding his 
well experienced attachment to the crown, thought it prudent to 
take the oath of allegiance, and do his homage before Sir Richard 
Edgecombe, in the great chamber at St. Thomas's Court, Dublin. 
Dying in 1526, he was buried with his ancestors in the abbey 

In 1522 Thomas D'Arcy, prebendary of Howth, had a grant 
by letters patent, of the office of clerk or keeper of the Rolls in 
Chancery, with a fee of £20 of silver, per annum, payable out of 
the king's manor of Esker, over and above the accustomed profits 
of that employment;* and in 1528, was presented to the Dean- 
ery of St. Patrick's. 

At the hosting of 1532 Lord Howth was summoned to do 
military service for his manors of Howth and Artane, and in the 
same year Archbishop Allen presented Nicholas Carney, A. M., 
to the perpetual vicarage hereof. 

In 1534. << the silken lord," in the celebrated Geraldine re- 
bellion, planted his artillery on this promontory, and from its 
commanding height cannonaded the vessels that were sent with 
English forces to reduce him. For a notice in 1538, see at ** Kill- 

In 1539 the prebend of Howth was re-valued at £24 6i. lOrf. 
and at the dissolution its monastery was found seised of a small 
portion of land here, which thereupon vested in the crown. For 
a notice of this locality in 1541, see at ** Killbarrock." 

In 1545 the Earl of Lennox, being driven from Scotland, fled 
to King Henry the Eighth, and craving succour, was recommend- 
ed by him to the Earl of Ormond, who, with the object of rein- 
stating him in his fortunes, mustered on Oxmantown Green "600 
gallowglasses, 400 kerns, 60 horsemen, and 440 shot ;" with this 
force, to which the Lord Deputy added 1500 soldiers, he marched 
to Skerries, in Fingal, where he took shipping, and sailing north- 
ward was joined by "the Earl of the Out-isles." Their scheme 

• Lit Pat 14 Hen. Vin. 


being rendered abortive by contrary winds and the unskilfulness of 
mariners, Ormond and Lennox landed their men at Carrickfergus, 
but the Lord of the Out-isles remained on board, encountered a 
storm, and was driven upon Howth, where he expired, being 
overcome by the fatigues of this expedition. His body was con- 
veyed to Dublin, and interred in St. Patrick's Cathedral, where 
Mason, the learned historian of that church, says the following in- 
scription had been carved upon his monument :— * 

" Vique manuque me4 patriae dum redditur exul, 
£xul in extern^ cogor et ipse mori.** 

A very interesting letter was written previous to this expedition 
by the Earl of Ormond, while at Skerries, to Lord Russel. See 
at <♦ Skerries." 

In 1547 the prebend of Howth was found on inquisition to 
comprise twenty acres of demesne lands, and tithes over the town- 
lands of Correstown, Howth, Balkyll and Sutton, and the tithe 
fishing thereof, to the amount of £24 annually, the farmer of the 
tithes being bound to repair the chancel, and the altarages being 
assigned for the curate's support. 

In 1549 Edward, the eighteenth Lord of Howth, died, and 
was buried in St. Mary's Abbey here. In 1552 Sir James Croft, 
on his removal from the lord lieutenancy of Ireland, embarked 
here for England ; and in 1564 Christopher, the twentieth Lord 
of Howth, erected the present castellated mansion. 

About the year 1575 occurred the memorable incident, which 
connects the name of Grace O'Mailley (better known as Grana 
weal) with this place. Returning from her visit to Queen Eliza- 
beth, she landed at Howth, and proceeded to the castle, but, it 
being the hour of dinner time, the gates were closed. Indignant 
at what she considered a dereliction of Irish hospitality, she seized 
the young heir of St. Lawrence, then playing on the shore, carried 
him on shipboard, and sailed with him, a prisoner, to her own castle, 
in the county of Mayo. Nor was he restored, until his father en- 
tered into an express stipulation that his gates should never again 
be shut at dinner hour. A painting in one of the castle chambers 
is supposed to represent this event. 

In 1580 Lord Grey landed at Howth, as Lord Lieutenant of 

HOWTH. 137 

Ireland. In 1589 Christopher, the twentieth Lord of Howth, 
died and was buried here. For a notice in 1593, see the memoir 
of << the Family of St. Lawrence." In the same year (3 1st of 
July) Sir William Ruasel, youngest son of the Earl of Bedford, 
landed here as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, whereupon the Lord 
of Howth claimed him and his suite for that evening as his guests. 
Sir William was met the next day, on his entrance into Dublin, by 
the council, the captains of the garrison, and the mayor with five 
hundred horse, and conducted with acclamation to the castle ; he 
refused, however, to accept the sword until he should receive, un- 
der the hands of the council, a full account of the state and con- 
dition of the kingdom, which being done, he was, on the 11th of 
August, sworn in with great acclamation.* In 1599 Lord Mount- 
joy, as Lord Deputy, and Sir George Carew, as Lord President 
of Munster, landed here, and spent the night of their arrival in the 
Castle of Howth, at which time this place was accounted amongst 
** the walled and good towns" of the county. For a notice in 1 602, 
see " Dalkey." 

In 1606 Sir Nicholas, the twenty-first Lord, died and was 
buried here. Sundry inquisitions, of record in the Court of 
Chancery, state the Bealing family seised in fee about this time 
of seven messuages and six acres here, which they held of Lord 
Howth, as of the manor of Howth, while the Lord's own posses- 
sions are stated as three hundred and fifty acres, which he held of 
the king in capite by knight service. 

In 1614 the lord deputy. Sir Arthur Chichester, landed here, 
and was received by the lords justices, the lord mayor, &c., who 
attended him into Dublin with great rejoicing. 

In 1615, on the regal visitation, this prebend was valued at 
£100, Martin Cod being then the officiating curate. 

In 1619, Christopher, Lord Howth, died seised (as found by 
inquisition) of the manor and townland of Howth containing three 
hundred acres, the island of Howth called the Bodden, fifty acres, 
eighty-five acres and a water mill in Whitestown, fourteen acres 
in Balscadden, thirty-three acres in Lispobble, forty-nine acres in 
Fieldstown, one hundred acres in Maync, Kiltaghtown, and Lough- 

• Wiffen's House of Russel, vol. ii. p. 15. 


bran, &c. The document adds, that Howth and the island were 
held from the king by fealty and two pair of gloves yearly on the 
feast of St. Michael ; the townland of Lispobble, &c., from the 
Archbishop of Dublin, as of his manor of Swords, by fealty and 
suit of court ; the townlands of Whitestown and Balscadden, &c«, 
were held from the Earl of Ormond, as of his manor of Rush ; 
those of Mayne, Kiltaghtown, and Loughbran, from Peter Barne- 
wall, as of his manor of Balrothery, &c. 

In 1641, when the Lords of the Pale projected establishing a 
navy for the security of the coasts of Ireland, and instituting an 
order of naval knights for this purpose, to whom houses were to 
be assigned in every province, with suitable equipments for each, 
Howth was the station proposed for the province of Leinster. 
The charges of the undertaking were to be defrayed out of the 
revenues of the impropriate abbeys. 

In 1662 the great Duke of Ormond landed here as Lord 
lieutenant, as did Lord Truro in 1669 in the same capacity. — 
In the latter year, William Sheridan, who had been prebendary 
of Howth, was appointed Dean of Down, and subsequently pro- 
moted to the sees of Kilmore and Ardagh. At this time also, 
James Duke of York obtained a grant of Bealing's freehold, before 
mentioned, then stated as containing four acres plantation mea- 

For a notice in 1671, see the memoir of the '< Family of St* 
Lawrence."-~In that year, Robert Reading claimed an allowance 
of £500 per annum out of the concordata, for six light-houses 
built by him, two of which were on Howth. He had also a duty 
on foreign ships. In the same year, Patrick Grattan was instituted 
to the prebend of Howth, as was Robert Grattan in 1704. 

In 1690 King William is said to have slept here, and the room 
of the royal slumber b still identified and maintained in the order 
of the occasion. 

In 1703 Lord Howth purchased from the crown, the outstand- 
ing fee called Beah'ng's freehold, forfeited by the attainder of 
King James. — About the year 1748, William, the twenty-sixth 
baron, bequeathed to the poor of Howth £40, directed £150 to 
be expended on his funeral, and appropriated £200 for the erec- 
tion of a family monument in the church-yard of Howth, in which 

HOWTU. 139 

lie was buried. In the time of bit tucccMor, iftiout the year 
1754^ A lead-Juiie w« dncovered here, which promised to be 
productive. It was situated about midway between the castle 
and the old light-house.— In the same year a terrier was taken, de- 
fining the extent of the united parishes of Howth and Killbarrock. 
In 1789 the celebrated preacher, Waher Blake Kirwan, was 
installed prebendary of Howth, which he held until the year 1800, 
when Lford Comwallis, then viceroy, presented him to the deanery 
of Killalla. 

It would not be justifiable to pass unnoticed an individual, 
who once ranked preeminent for pulpit eloquence in thb kingdom* 
He was born in Galway, about the year 1754, of an ancient 
Roman Catholic funily, having been the grand nephew of Doctor 
Anthony Blake, titular Bbhop of Ardagh, and afterwards the 
Catholic Primate. He was educated among the Jesuits at St. 
Omer, whence, at the age of seventeen, he embarked for the 
Danish island of St. Croix in the West Indies, under the pro- 
tection of his father's cousin -german who had large possessions 
there ; but, after enduring for six years a pernicious climate and 
a revolting state of society, he returned in disgust to Europe. 
On his arrival, he wetit to the university of Louvain, where he 
received priest's orders, and was soon after honoured with the 
chair of natural and moral philosophy. In 1778 he was appointed 
chaplain to the Neapolitan ambassador at the British court, where 
he acquired his earliest fame as a preacher. 

In 1787 he resolved to conform to the established rdigion, 
with the impression, as he is reported to have professed, of there 
finding more suitable audiences for his eloquence. He was ac* 
cordingly introduced by the Reverend Doctor Hastings, Arch- 
deacon of Dublin, to his first Protestant congregation in Peter's 
Church, Dublin, where he preached on the 24th of June of that 
year. His auditors impatiently filled every part of the building, 
in the expectancy of hearing the causes of his change of faith, 
but neither then, nor afterwards, did he ever, either in the pulpit 
or in his most confidential communications, breathe a syllable 
disrespectful to any religious persuasion whatever. 

" Although," he says in a letter of the 19th of June, 1787, 
two days after reading his recantation, << I have changed the 


sphere of my exertions, they shall still be invariably directed to 
the same objects, to improve the human heart, to enlarge and en- 
lighten the understandings of men, banish religious prejudice, 
and diffuse through society the great blessings of peace, order 
and mutual affection." It had been somewhat favourable to the 
exposition of his motives if the document closed there, but other 
conclusions may be drawn, when, in the same letter, he adds : 
<< An unmanly respect to the prejudices of the vulgar and igno* 
rant are considerations I have long soared above, they cannot, 
they shall not control the operations of a soul like mine ;" and 
again, << I freely acknowledge that I should not look upon my- 
self as a man, were I insensible to the pleasures arising from an 
unblushing and well earned fame, were I insensible to the com- 
forts which flow from competence and independence, or that I 
did not value the freedom of possessing these indisputable and 
unalienable rights of nature, which she has deeply grafted on the 
human constitution, and which no divine law ever intended, or 
inferior authority can arrogate the power to counteract;" and 
lastly, *< I propose soon paying my friends in Galway a short visit, 
and taking occasion to assure the public, in a place where I will 
have more room than in a small chapel, that a change of system 
has not robbed me of the milder affections of the soul," &c. &c 

Wherever he preached such multitudes assembled, that it was 
found necessary to defend the entrance of the church by guards 
or palisadoes. He was presented with addresses and pieces of plate 
from every parish in the city and the freedom of various corpora- 
tions ; his portrait was painted and engraved by the most eminent 
artists; and the collections at his sermons far exceeded any that were 
ever known. In 1800, as before-mentioned, he received the Dean- 
ery of Killalla, from the gift of Lord Cornwallis, and in 1805, de- 
parted this life at Mount Pleasant, near Dublin, and was buried 
in the graveyard of St. Nicholas Without. His wife and a family 
of two sons and two daughters survived him. 

According to the usage of the clergy amongst whom his early 
days were passed, and the doctrine and discipline, in conformity 
with which his first vows were taken, he preached extempore, and 
with an intonation of voice, and eloquence of action, that leave 
his published sermons comparatively vapid and cold. 

HOWTH. 141 

In 1807 the first stone of the pier was htid at Howth, and, 
under the direction of the late Mr. Rennie, the works were sub- 
sequently completed. The average time of passage between this 
(while it continued a packet station) and Holyhead was about se- 
ven hours. 

In 1812 the Board of First Fruits granted £600 towards build- 
ing a church here, while an order of Council of 1814 authorized 
the change of site to the present spot. In 1821 King George 
the Fourth landed in this harbour on the occasion of his visit to 

In 1829, the Mr. Michael Keary, mentioned at Clontarf, be- 
queathed £500 for the education of the poor Catholic children 
of this town, which has been invested in government funds, and 
the interest is so duly applied. 

West of the castle on the hill are the ruins of a 
very ancient little oratory, which, from the saint to 
whom it was dedicated, is known by the name of St. 
Fintan's church. It is extremely small, not exceed- 
ing twelve feet in length, by about eight in breadth, 
and having a small belfry at one end of it over one 
pointed arch entrance, while the eastern window fonns 
a very small rude cinque foiled arch. 

Colgan enumerates twenty-four Irish saints of the 
name of Fintan ; but more probably several of his no- 
tices referred to the same person honoured in differ- 
ent places. One was Abbot of Cluanednech in the 
diocese of Leighlin in the sixth century, and had as 
his disciple St. Congall, the founder of the noble ab- 
bey of Bangor in the county Down. His festival is 
kept on the i7th of February. Another, of the fa- 
mily of Nial, forsook the world in his youth, and be- 
took himself to the monastery of lona, and the disci- 
pline of St. Columba, whence, after that saint's death. 


he returned to Ireland, and founded the monastery 
called Teach-Munnu, in Kinselagh, in Leinster. He 
died in 634, and his festival is kept on the 21st of 

Above this little edifice rises Slieve Martin, a co- 
nical eminence, nearly in the centre of the peninsula, 
and having a large cairn on its summit; while on 
Carrick-mor, (i. e. the big rock,) an eminence of less 
magnitude just beneath, a signal post has been erected 
for communication with the Pigeon House, on the 
opposite side of the bay. 

From St. Fintan*s, a narrow way leads down the 
hill, and meets the main road beyond Sutton. The 
tourist must not, however, omit visiting the pagan 
altar, or cromlech, before alluded to, which will be 
found in a very sequestered situation between this and 
the Castle of Howth, feathered around with the fern, 
the classical bracken of Scotland. 

These cromlechs may be defined as large, flat, 
unhewn, ponderous stones, propped in an inclined po- 
sition on two, three, or four others, and sometimes 
surrounded with a circle, or circles of stones, forming 
the outwork of the temple. The channels, or fur- 
rows, still traceable on most of the inclined or altar- 
stones, make it probable that sacrifices, as of oxen, &c. 
might have been offered on them ; but, whatever were 
the victims, the altar is itself thoroughly eastern and 
primitive. Such an altar Noah " builded unto the 
Lord ;" such an altar God himself commanded — " If 
thou wilt make me an altar of stone, thou shalt not 
build it of hewn stone, for if thou lift up thy tool upon 

HOWTH. 143 

it, tbon hast polluted it/' King, in his Munimenta 
Antiqna, shews, that cromlechs similar to those in 
Ireland exist in Syria ; and Armstrong, in his History 
of the very ancient People of Minorca, says, that se- 
veral are still found there, and commonly called altars 
of the Gentiles. 

It is the fashion of the day to call the ancient Irish 
priesthood — Druids ; but it seems more consonant 
with mature inquiry, that, however their tenets might 
have assimilated with those of the Druids, as at least 
flowing from one source of primeval hierarchy, how- 
ever the two religions might from vicinity have blend- 
ed together, particularly when the dispersion from 
Mona had sent over so many to Ireland as Rowland 
mentions ;* yet the name of Druids was never attri- 
buted to the ministers of Irish worship by any writers, 
prior to the total destruction of that order. All those, 
who were nearest to their time, call them Magi ; and, 
even when the words draoi^ druidh^ druth, druadh^ 
occur, as they do in several Irish annalists, the 
term seems only used as doubting the wisdom or 
learned caste of the individual to whom it is applied, 
and not any such rank in heathen priesthood, as that 
of the Druids properly so called. Thus Tigemach, 
the oldest historian of Northern Europe, records the 
death of Morrough O'Carty, Ard-draoi, and chief pro- 
fessor of Connaught, in A. D. 1067j when, of course, 
Druids were long extinct as a religious fraternity. 
It seems most probable, that the name of Druid re- 
coiled on Ireland from Britain, and that the adoption 

• Mona Antiqua, p. 107. 


was the more freely countenanced, as the Magism of 
Ireland was, according to the more received authori- 
ties, the stock whence Druidism sprang; for, as Doctor 
Campbell expresses it, "the conceptions of British 
writers afford a stronger presumption than even the 
pretensions of the Irish, that Ireland was not only the 
more ancient nation, but that Druidism .... 
was more early in Ireland than in Britain, and that 
Britain imported it from Ireland."* 

That it did not come from Germany, the great 
officina gentium^ appears from Caesar, who mentions 
the Germans as essentially differing from Gaul in this, 
that they have no such thing as Druids ; while the 
same imperial author traces it as coming, according to 
his knowledge, from Britain into Gaul ; adding, that 
those, who wish to be thoroughly initiated in its mys- 
teries, mostly go into the former country to be edu- 
cated. It is clear the institution was not Celtic, or it 
would have equally flourished in Germany and Italy, 
and the Roman would not so have wondered at it 
when he encountered it in Gaul ; while, on the other 
hand, the fact, that those parts of Wales and Gaul, 
which lay nearest to Ireland, were, if not the only 
countries, at least those most deeply imbued with its 
discipline, and that also the various remains, ascribed 
to its priesthood, are far more abundant in Ireland, 
must strongly corroborate the inference of that country 
being the fountain of the institution. 

Much of the learning of the Druids perished in 

• Campbell's Strictures, p. 67. 

HOWTH, 145 

the sister country, wbfen the libraries of Bangor and 
the Cambrian monasteries were destroyed by the 
Saxons and Normans ; while the first Christian mis-> 
sionaries were equally hostile to their literary remains 
in Ireland. It is, here, however, enough to say that 
a religion, such as St. Patrick describes, did exist ; 
that its priests were called Magi, that the prevalence 
of its tenets, discipline, altars, Beltinne and Halloween 
rites, is enforced by all the external testimony of arti- 
ficial appearances in the country ; that its ceremonies 
are deeply legible, after the lapse of centuries, in the 
manners of the people ; that the cromlechs, the up^ 
right pillars, the circular temples of stones, the round 
towers of the sacred fire, the holy groves, the vene* 
rated fountains, which were dedicated to sun-worship, 
and afterwards prudently converted to the service of 
Christianity, still remain ; (for, like the Germans, as 
described by Tacitus, the ancient Irish thought it 
was absurd and unworthy the Author of all being 
and space to limit his presence within walls, or his 
worship within human architecture;) thatthey had their 
everlasting fire, like the perpetual fiame that ascended 
on the altar of burnt offerings at Jerusalem; and lastly, 
that like the Guebri, described by Doctor Hyde, as 
kindling an annual fire, whence the country was sup« 
plied, the Magi of Ireland also, on one particular 
night displayed the sacred flame on Tara, whence 
every hearth of the island should be religiously fed.* 

• See D'Alton's £8say on the ancient History, &c, of Ireland, in 
Trans. H. L Aet^emy, vol. xvi. Part 1. 


The promontory of Howth must necessarily be 
considered of paramount interest in the botany of this 
county. To a small extent, its productions may be 
classed as follow : — On and about the hill generally 
are seen nardus stricta, mat grass ; ilea: aquifolium^ 
holly ; borage officinalis^ borage ; crithmum mart" 
timunii samphire, whose leaves are an excellent pickle 
used for sauces, and are by many eaten raw in salads; 
meum ffeniculumj fennel ; lepidium hirtum^ hairy 
pepperwort ; oxalis dcetosella^ wood sorrel ; agro* 
steinma githagOj com cockle ; spergvla arvensis^ 
com spurrey, which, though here accounted a trou- 
blesome Weed, is, in Flanders, Germany, and the 
North of Europe, used as fodder, while poultry are 
f€|d with its seed; papaver dubium, long smooth- 
headed poppy ; teucrium scorodonia^ wood gertnan- 
der ; digitdis purpura^ foxglove ; orobanche minora 
lesser broom rape ; cakile maritima^ sea-rocket, a 
tariety of the geranium molley soft crane's-bill, with 
white flowers ; vicia sativa, common vetch ; hyperi^ 
cum humi/iisum, trailing St. John's wort ; picris 
echioideSj bristly ox-tongue; crepis biennis, rough 
hawkVbeard ; carduus mariantis, milk thistle ; tana^ 
cetum vulgare, tansy ; artemisia absinthiumj common 
wormwood; senecio viscosics, fetid groundsel; an-^ 
thetnis cotula, fetid chamomile; achillea ptarmica, 
sneeze-wort; euphorbia esigua, dwarf spurge; iris 
fwtidissima, with its heavy blue flower, cortimonly 
called roast-beef plant, from the circumstance of the 
leaves, when bruised, smelling like roasted beef; 
jwicus uliginosics, little bulbous rush ; juncus squar*- 
rosus^ moss-rash ; juncus acutus, great sharp rush ; 

HOWTH. 147 

juncus bulbosusj round-fruited rush ; lepidium Smithii^ 
smooth field pepperwort ; carlina vulgaris, common 
carline thistle, flowering in June; scirpus SavU, Savi s 
club-rush, flowering in July. 

In the watery bogs, valleys, and marshy places, 
veronica scutellataf narrcJw-leaved taatsh speedwell ; 
scirpus setaceusj bristle-stalked club-rush ; scirpus 
paucifloruSy chocolate-headed club-rush; ^cirpt^^wi- 
ians^ floating club-rush ; pinguicula vulgaris, com- 
mon butterwort ; eleochdris joo/w^m, creeping spike- 
rush ; utricularia vulgaris, greater bladderwort ; 
eriophorum polystacMon, broad-leaved cotton grass ; 
Itfcopus europcBus, giipsy wort; schomus nigricans, 
black bog-rush ; melica carulea, purple raelic grass^ 
a plant of which the inhabitants of some of the west- 
em islands make ropes, for fishing nets, as it is found 
to bear the water for a long time without rotting ; 
it is^ however, rather resorted to as a cheap than a 
serviceable article; montia fontana, water blinks; 
menyanthes trifoliata, marsh trefoil ; anagallis te- 
nella, bog pimpernel ; .drosera rotundifolia, round 
leaved sundew, of which Darwin writes : . 

' <<Queen of the marsh, imperial Dros'ra treads 
Rush fringed banks and moss embroidered beds ; 
Redundfint folds of drossy silk surround 
Her slender waist and trail upon the ground, 
As with sweet grace her snowy neck she bows, 
A zone of diamonds trembles round her brows ; 
Bright shines the silver halo as she turns, 

• And as she steps the living lustre burns." 

Agrostis canina, brown bent grass ; polygonum hy- 



dropipeVf water pepper ; hydrocotyle vulgaris^ marsh 
pennywort ; narthecium ossifragum^ Lancashire as- 
phodel ; peplis portula, water purslane ; tormentiUa 
reptansy trailing tormentil, formerly deemed an ex- 
cellent substitute for oak-bark in tanning ; comarum 
palusfrej marsh cinquefoil, bearing a fruit somewhat 
like that of the strawberry ; stachys palustris^ marsh 
woundwort ; carex veskaria^ bladder sedge, flower- 
ing in June ; rumex maritifnuSj golden dock ; cnicus 
paliLstriSj marsh plume thistle ; gnaphalium uligino- 
■sunij marsh cudweed ; senecio aquatictiSj marsh rag- 
wort ; orchis conopseCy aromatic palmate orchis ; /w- 
tera ovala^ common tway blade ; carex dioica^ creeping 
sedge, flowering in June ; carex culicaris^ flea sedge; 
carex inuricala, greater prickly sedge ; carex vuU 
pina^ great sedge, flowering in May ; carex panicu- 
lata^ panicled sedge, flowering in July ; carex ovdlis^ 
oval-spiked sedge, also flowering in July ; carex peri' 
dula^ pendulous sedge ; carex cespUosa, turfy sedge, 
flowering in June ; carex hirta, hairy sedge ; carex 
acuta^ slender-spiked sedge ; apargia taraxabif dan- 
delion hawkbit ; epipactis paltcstrisj marsh hellebo^ 
rine ; carex pallescens^ pale sedge, flowering in July ; 
carex fidva^ yellow sedge ; sium latifolium^ broad- 
leaved water parsnip, whose roots are deadly poison, 
fatal both to men and cattle, it flowers in August ; 
poa distansy reflexed sweet grass ; juncus effususy 
soft rush; alisina ranunculoidesy lesser water plantain ; 
alisma natans, floating water plantain ; sparganum 
natans, floating bur-reed ; ophioglossum vulgatuniy 
common adder's tongue ; stum inundatumy least water 

HOWTH. 149 

parsnip, flowering from May to July ; eleocharisflui' 
tanSy floating spike rush, flowering in June and July. 
On the mountain dry pastures veronica officinale; 
common speedwell ; scirpus cespitosus, scaly -stalked 
club-rush ; agrostis vulgaris^ fine bent grass ; aira 
cristata^ crested hair-grass ; holctis mollis^ creeping 
soft grass, one of the most troublesome weeds that in- 
fest light, dry soils, pigs, however, are very fond of 
its roots ; festuca ovina^ sheep*s fescue grass, of which 
Gmelin in his Flora Siberica says, that the Tartars 
prefer fixing, during the summer, where this grass is 
plentiful, as affording a most wholesome food for all 
sorts of cattle, but especially for sheep ; gallium sax- 
atile^ smooth heath bedstraw ; epUohium montanum, 
smooth-leaved willow herb, the top shoots of which 
have a very delicate fragrance, but so transitory, that 
before they have been gathered five minutes, it is no 
longer perceptible ; poa decumbenSi decumbent 
heath grass, so called from its straw being always in«> 
dining ; festuca bromoides^ barren fescue grass ; 
gentiana campestris^ field gentian ; carliita vulgar 
risy common carline thistle. — On banks above the 
sea shore, scilla verna^ vernal squill, flowering early in 
May; scilla nutans, harebell squill; epiU^ium te- 
tragonum, square-stalked willow herb. — On the barr 
ren ground, aira prcecox, early hair grass ; aira ca- 
ryophylkay silver hair grass ; It/copsis arvensis, small 
bngloss ; jasione montanaj common sheep's bit ; vt- 
ola luteay yellow pansy ; daucus carota, wild carrot.—- 
On the hedges and bushy places, lonicera pericly- 
menuniy common honeysuckle ; vicia cracca, tufted 


vetch, s&necio sj/lvdtictis, mountain groundsel ; era- 
tcegtcs aria, white beam tree, flowering in Jufae, its 
wood is said to afford an excellent charcoal for mak- 
ing gunpowder. — On the sea shore, fuais plicatus, 
matted fucus ; raphanus maritinwSj sea radfsh ; dn- 
th^llis vulnerariay kidney vetch; fiicus ciliaius^fu^ 
cUs aculeatus ; aster tripolium, sea starwort ; rotbolUa 
i?icarvata, sea hard grass, flowering about^ the end of 
August, and so named by the younger Linnaeus in com- 
pliment toProfessorRotboU of Copenhagen ; corrigeola 
littoraliSi sand strapwort, a very rare j^Iant, flowering 
in August; triticum Ibliaceum, dwarf sea wheat grass; 
silene maritimafSei campion, flowering from June to 
August. — On the commons, chenopodium murale, 
nettle-leaved goosefoot ; licken cornuci^ioidesj radi- 
ated lichen ; bailota nigral common horehound; 

In the com fields, lolium temulentum, bearded 
darnel, an' herb of an intoxicating quality, whether ta- 
ken tn bread or drink ; even swine have been known 
to be seized with a temporary blindness and drunk- 
enness, when it was mixed with their food; of this 
plant Vitgil makes mentiofn in his first Greorgic, 

" Interque nitentia culta 
Infelix lolium et steriles dominantur avense." 

Cynoglossum officinale, common hound's tongue; 
lamium incisum, cut leaved dead nettle; ervum 
hirsutum, hairy tare ; centaurea a/anus, blue bottle ; 
papaver somniferum, white poppy; fedia oKtariaf 
lamb's lettuce, flowering from April to June.— On 
the sandy banks, phleum pratense, common cat's tail 
grass, affording an early spring herbage ; phleum are- 

UOWTH. 151 

nariumjses, cat's tail grass ; Parnassia palt4stris^ grass 
of Parnassus ; erodium cicutarium^ hemlock stork's 
bill-^-T-In the boggy places, eriophorum angustifoliumi 

common cotton grass ; hypnum scorpioides About 

the old ahhey parieta7'iaqfficinaliSt wall pellitory. 

On the rocks and in their fissures, airaflejmosai 
wavy mountain hair grass ; statice armeria, sea pink ; 
cotyledon umbilicm^ navel wort j sedum acrcy wall 
pepper, a brilliant little flower, conspicuous enough 
about midsummer and for some time afterwards, on 
walls, roofs, and dry, barren, or sandy ground, which 
it clothes, as it were, with a cloth of gold, in defiance 
of the drought and the most scorching sun ; geranium 
sangmneunij bloody crane's bill ; lichen pilularis, pill 
lichen ; lichen perelluSj crab's eye lichen ; lichen conr 
centricttSi concentric lichen; lichen saaatilis, grey, 
stone lichen; lichencalicaris, channelled lichen ; lichen 
capirattiSf wrinkled sulphur lichen ; crithmum mari- 
timumy the samphire immortalized by Shakspeare, . 

" Half way down 
Hangs one that gathers samphire — dreadful trade !" 

In the mo'ist heaths and Aelds, Jtmcus tdiginostcsy 
little bulbous rush; pediciclaris pcUustrisy tall red 
rattle; careo' recurva, heath sedge; slum inundch 
turn, least water parsnip; rafnalina scopularum. 
— In the woods, heaths, and turfy ground, vacci- 
mum myrtittuSi bilberry, part of the autumn food 
of the grouse, bilberries are also sometimes made into 
tarts and jellies ; calluna tmlgarisy common ling ; 
erica dnerea^ fine leaved heath ; steUaria graminea, 
lesser stitchwort ; tormentiUa officinaliSj common tor- 


inentil ; polygala vulgaris^ milk wort ; orobus tubero^ 
sus, heath pea ; stellar ia kolostea, greater stich wort j 
hypericum ptUchruniy upright St. John's wort ; soli* 
dago virgaurea, golden rod ; carex lunervisj green 
ribbed sedge ; carex prcecox^ vernal sedge, flowering 
in May ; lycopodium selaginoides^ prickly club moss. 

In the meadows, pedicularis sylvatica, dwarf red 
rattle; lathyrus pratensis^ yellow meadow vetchling} 
apargia autumnalisy autumnal hawkbit. — In the 
isandy pastures, ornithoptis perpusillus, bird's foot; 
erigon acre^ blue flea bane ; poa distans, reflexed 
meadow grass; auraflexuosa^ waved mountain hair 
grass. — On the high grounds, gnaphalium syhati^ 
vunti Highland cudweed, flowering in September.— 
In the moist woods, carex remota^ remote sedge, flow- 
ering in July ; carex pilulifera, round-headed sedge^ 
flowering early ; carex panicea, pink leaved sedge. 

About Sutton side of the hill, viola tricolor, pansy 
violet ; viola lutea, yellow pansy ; narthesium ossijra^ 
gum, Lancashire asphodel; ervum hirsutum, hairy 
tare, a pernicious intruder on fields of com ; senecio 
viscosusy fetid groundsel; sagina apetala, small-fin- 
gered pearl wort ; melampyrum pratense, yellow cow 
wheat, of which Linnaeus says, that where it abounds 
the yellowest and best butter is made; lysimachia 
nemorumy yellow pimpernel; ononis arvensisy rest 
harrow, and a variety with white flowers ; euphorbia 
Portlandiea, Portland spurge ; anagallis tenella, bog 
pimpernel ; atriplex portulacoidesy shrubby orache, 
flowering late in the summer; airiplex laciniatay 
flowering early in August ; atriplex littoralist grass- 

HOWTH. 153 

leaved sea orache ; sedum Anglicum^ Euglish stone 
crop; trifolium scabrumy rough trefoil; asplenium 
marinumf sea spleenwort. Even the great Indian 
cress, tropcBolum majus^ has been found in great 
luxuriance, growing on the open shore at this side. 
Its electric properties are noticed by Darwin — 

<< Round her fair form the electric lustre plays. 
And cold she moves amid the ambient blace.'' 

Valeriana locusta; cerastium tetandrum, four cleft 
mouse ear chickweed ; and a species of the papaver 
^omniferum, white poppy with purple flowers. 

On the southern beach, statice limonium, sea la- 
vender; beta maritimaj sea beet, flowering in Au- 
gust, and accounted a good substitute for spinage in 
winter and spring months ; crambe maritimum^ sea 
kale ; erodium maritimum^ sea stork's bill ; triticum 
junceumy rushy wheat grass, a plant of great impor- 
tance in districts subject to inundations of the sea, 
which nature seems to have designed it, like the aruri' 
do arenariaj to retard ; festttca elatior^ great fescue 
grass; limbarda crithmoides^ golden samphire, flower- 
ing in August and September.— On the south side 
of the hill a variety of lotus corniculatuSj common 
l)ird*s foot trefoil with hairy leaves ; artemisia mari- 
timay sea wormwood; inula crithmoides^ samphire- 
leaved flea bane ; samolus valerandh water pimpernel ; 
statice spathulataj upright spiked sea lavender. — On 
the north-east side, growing out of a rocky mountain, is 
found pyrtis aria^ white beam tree ; — and on the east 
viola hirta, hairy violet ; sium repensj creeping water 
parsnip ; and orchis viridis, frog orchis. 


Of the geology and mineralogy of' this hill Dr. 
Stephens says — " In the peninsula of Howth» which 
forms the extremity of the northern side of Dublin bay^ 
several different kinds of rock, and some valuable pro- 
ductions are to be found. In following the course of 
the shore on the south side of the hill, the first stone 
observable in its place is secondary limestone in beds. 
Further on, and immediately incumbent on the lime- 
stone, is siderocalcite in considerable quantity, its 
situation corresponding with that of the limestone, 
and still further, but not visibly connected with these^ 
grit or arenaceous quartz, (of which the abrupt rocks 
above Lord Howth*s demesne, on the north-west side 
of the hill, seem also to consist,) with an appearance 
of irregular stratification in some places. This stone 
is soon succeeded by argillite, which continues as far 
as the martello tower, and the grit again appears 
from thence to the cove under Mr. Hannington's 

*^ The cliffs at the place last mentioned consist of 
strata of a sort of slaty clay, or shale intermixed with beds 
of the same sort of grit as that of which the greater part 
of the hill is composed. Some of the clay strata are 
penetrated by the siliceous matter, which gives them 
a greater degree of hardness than the others, and a 
most interesting spectacle is presented by this assem- 
blage of beds, which vary in thickness from an inch 
to a foot. These are in general nearly vertical, in 
one place they diverge upwards, the opening being 
filled up by bending strata ; the beds are of various 
shades of colour from brick red to ash grey, and are 

HOWTH, f55 

crossed by vems 6f quaitz fmd of chlorite, whick 8lib- 
stances are gefterally intermixed, 

" The different degrees of hardness possessed by 
the strata now described, ai^tbe cause of their pre- 
senting a very singular appearance, the softeif^ parts 
being tmshed aw^y to a considerable depth by the 
action of the atmosphere and the dashing^ of the 
waves, while the harder are preserved, and form:^ 
kind of stripes in relief. At the base of the cdiff 
there is a prolongation of the harder strata running 
Out into the Bed, and tO th^ east of this place the bill 
on the shore consists of a soft kind of slate, which is 
entirely smoothed down to a slope/** i 

"From the south-western side of Howth grey ore 
of manganese and brown iron stone have been ob- 
tained in considerable quantity, and a variety of the 
earthy black cobalt we of Werner has been found 
there,' in the fbrm of a coating, of a rich blue colour, 
which incrusts the fissures of a rock of slate clay, ap- 
proaching to whetslate. In this substance Mr. Tennant 
has ascertained the presence of the oxides of cobalt 
and of manganese, and the discovery of it at Howth 
is of importance, as it indicates the probability of the 
existence of other more valuable ores of cobalt in that 

A huge bed of porphyritic greenstone is also visi- 
ble on the southern side, running from the water edge 
into the heart of the hill, and separating at some dis- 
tance into two lesser veins, which gradually diverge 

* 8tepiieiui*8 Minendogy, p. 40, &c ^ 1^^.42. 


from each other ; while, in two caves on the north- 
west shore, lapides stalactitii, stony icicles or drop 
stones, have been found. It is likewise supposed to 
contain coal, and Irish diamonds have been found in 
working its quarries. 

Doctor Rutty classes two petrifying springs here, 
one issuing from under the battlements of the church- 
yard, and the other situated in a bay on the east side 
of the hill, at a place where is, perhaps, the most com- 
modious bathing-place in the neighbourhood of Dub- 
lin. Near it is the singular precipice called Puck's 

In the new harbour hundreds of the starfish may 
be seen expanding themselves in all the splendour of 
prismatic light A species of the mustella marina is 
also seen hereabouts sometimes, the astacus rtKOrimis^ 
lobster, abundantly, and the cancer marinus^ sea crab, 
less frequently. It may be lastly remarked, in refe- 
rence to this locality, that the road to it from the city 
has been the subject of distinct legislation in the acts 
56 Geo. 3, c. Ixxi, (local) ; 4 Geo. 4, c. 74; 6 Geo. 4, 
c. 100; 7 Geo. 4, c. 76 ; and 9 Geo. 4, c. 75. 

Thb Family of St. Lawrence. 

It has already been mentioned, in deference to very ancient 
tradition, that this ennobled surname in Ireland originated in the 
fortuitous circumstance of Sir Armoricus, who first appears t6 
have acquired it, having obtained the victory that assured the pa- 
trimony of his descendants on St. Lawrence's day. It must, how- 
ever, be remarked, that the most remote annals of France abound 
with records of families of" St. Laurent," and "St. Laurens," and 
that, as if some scions of these houses had passed into EnglandVith 


the Conqueror, or soon after, Robert de St. Lawrence and Osbert 
de St. Lawrence are found early in the twelfth century proprietors 
of lands in Hampshire, which descended to their heirs male. 

That the name rather originated in Normandy, and was inhe- 
rited by Sir Armoricus, would seem in a certain degree supported 
by the equally accredited tradition, that it was in the Church of 
Rouen this warrior and de Courcy became sworn companions in 
arms. There they " solemnly vowed,'* says Hanmer, *< to serve 
together, to live and die together, and equally to divide between 
them what they won by the sword, or should be given them in re- 
gard of their service. Thus they continued in France, Anjou, 
Normandy, and England, and, when Sir John de Courcy was joined 
in commission with William de Burgo, Fitz Adelm, and others. Sir 
Armoricus de St. Lawrence accompanied him into Ireland, where 
de Courcy received a grant of the king by patent for him and his 
heirs or assigns after him to enjoy in that land all that he could 
conquer with the sword, reserving to the king homage and fealty. 
They landed at Howth, and there fought a cruel fight by the side 
of a bridge, when Sir John de Courcy being sickly, tarried aboard 
the ship. Sir Armoricus, being chieftain and general of the 
field by land, behaved himself most worthily ; many were slain on 
both sides, but Sir Armoricus got the victory, with the loss of seven 
of his own blood, sons, uncles, and nephews ; whereupon, for hid 
singular valour and good service there performed, that lordship 
was allotted unto him for his part of the conquest, with other 
things which Sir John de Courcy gave him. Immediately Sir 
John, Sir Armoricus, and Sir Roger le Poer, (who afterwards 
married the niece of Sir Armoricus), so well appointed as then 
contented them, directed their course towards the north, thd 
principal cause that moved them (besides their valour) was the 
hard government of William Fitz Adelm, Lord Lieutenant of 
Ireland."* The same historian gives a very animated account of 
the achievements of these comrade warriors in Ulster. In one en« 
gagement " Sir Armoricus, sore wounded, was laid under a hedge 
where he left much blood, and was carried away between four men ; 

• Hanmer*8 Chonicle of Ireland. 


bis wounds were so many and so dangerous^ that no physician orsur*" 
geon could promise life the space of nine days> yet in the end he 
recovered. Next unto him was his son, Sir Nicholas -St. Lawrence, 
a most valiant knight, so sore wounded in nine several places that he 
was once left for dead, but at length recovered, to the great comfort 
of his friends-" About the year 1189 the gallant father perished 
under circumstances well suited to the chivalry of his life. De 
Courc/s settlements in Ulster having been threatened by Cathal 
O'Conor, Sir Armoricus marched with a little body of two hun- 
dred foot and thirty cavalry into Connaught, for the purpose of 
causing a diversion in his favour. Cathal was, however, informed 
of their motions, and, resolving to intercept tbem^ the brave knight 
soon found they had incautiously fallen into an ambush^ where a 
vastly superior force lay ready to destroy them* To contend o^ 
fered no hope of success, to surrender was dishonourable and dan- 
gerous. In this desperate emergency the love of life so far pre* 
vailed upon the cavalry, that they resolved to trust to the fleetness 
of their horses before they were entirely surrounded, and leave 
their companions to their fate, but the infantry, heaijng of this 
intention, with the broths of Armoricus at their head, gathered 
round their companions, reproached them with their ignoble pur- 
pose, reminded them of the many toils and dangers in which 
they had supported each other, the friendships and affinities 
they had mutually formed, the attachment and . fidelity they 
had experienced from each, other, and finally conjured them by 
every tender and effective motive not to disgrace their former 
conduct, nor abandon their fellow soldiers and their brethren to 
the fury of a barbarous and revengeful enemy. The heroic spirit 
was restored. Sir Armoricus « hghted, kneeled upon his knees^ 
kissed the cross of his sword, and ran his horse through, saying, 
thou shalt never serve against me that so worthily hast served with 
me. The like did all the rest." Two, the youngest of this body 
were ordered to retire to a neighbouring eminence, there to view the 
engagement, and bear a faithful report to de Courcy of the conduct 
of his friends in this their last hour of desperate encounter. " Xi 
was a bloody day, when all at the one side and 1,000 of the other 
side fell to the ground." Cathal founded the fine Abbey of Knock- 
moy, in the county Galway, on the field of action, a monument 


even more commemoratiye of tbe romantic valonr of his enemie^ 
than of his own ^^ory. 

Sir Armoricus had issue by the sister of de Courcy, three sons, 
the two younger of whom were slain on Good Friday, 1208, in assist* 
kig their said uncle against Lacy's men, who fell upon them <when 
unarmed in the churchyard of Downpatrick. Sir Nicholas, the eld* 
est 3on, was sent to England on his ftither's death, to inform the 
king of the situation of affairs, whence returning to Ireland he was 
obliged to content himself with the lands of Howth, and to suffer 
the conquests of his rehitives in Ulster to be appropriated to mo- 
nasteries and abbies. In the archives of Lord Howth is a deed, 
whereby this Sir Nicholas confirmed to his son Almaric allilowth 
with its appurtenances. This deed is witnessed by John Comyn 
Archbishop of Dublin, John db Courcy, Hugh Tyrrel, Robert 
Tyrrel, William Petit, Geoffrey de Constantino, Adam de Here- 
ford, Richard de Hereford, Geoffrey de Nugent, Adam de Phepoe, 
Richard Talbot, Robert de Nugent, Andrew de Courtyn, Ridiard 
de Castelio, Robert de Cornwabh, &c. 

In reference to the Norman stock it may be here observed, 
that in 1 191 Sir Robert St. Lawrence Was signalized by Richard 
Coeur de Lion, for his bravery in scaling the walls of Acre, while 
in 12S4 Simon de St. Lawtence was a considerable benefactor to 
the Priory «*du Mont aux Malades" in Rouen. On the other 
hand, however, it must be noticed that various records are ex^ 
tant of this century, relative to the members of the Tristram fa- 
mily, in Wiltshire, Berkshire, Kent, Oxfordshire, and Yorkshire. 
About the year 1317 the Lord Lieutenant, for some most ur- 
gent reasons touching the king, granted the wardship and mar- 
tiage of Nicholas, son and heir of Adam Lord of Howth, to John 
Plunkett of Bewley, in the county of Louth, whose daughter Alicia 
this Nicholas afterwards married.* He became the twelfth baron, 
and is mentioned by MarlebuVgh as a nobleman ** of singular ho'- 
hesty.** In 1969 he witnessed a grant of the lands of Rowlagh 
to the Priory of St. John the Baptist. In 1373 he was summoned 
to a great council, and also sat in the parliament of 1375. In 

• Roll in Ch. Rememb. Qffic. 


1376 he was one of the members for this county, in the remark^ 
able parliament which Edward the Third assembled on summons 
at Westminster, and in 1381 was appointed one of the guardians 
of the peace of this county. 

In 1380 Peter de Howth, who had married Matilda, daughter 
and co-^heiress of Sir Thomas de Verdon, and for whose lands he 
then did homage and swore fealty to the king, was by patent or- 
dered to be put into possession of her inheritance which was held 
of the crown by her father in ci^ite. 

In 1456 Sir Christopher St. Lawrence, the fourteenth Lord, 
was, by act of parliament, appointed a member of the Privy 
Council for life, with a fee for his services in that office ; and si* 
milar services, it may be observed, were sometimes considered of 
such importance and trust, that in 1547 Fulco de la Freyn6 on 
« like commission had an annuity granted to him of forty pounds, 
an enormous sum in those days. 

Sir Robert St. Lawrence, the fifteenth Baron of Howth, was 
made Chancellor of the green wax of the Exchequer by patent, 
ita 1467. In 1474 he was one of << the thirteen of the most no- 
ble and worthy persons within the four shires,'' composing th^ 
fraternity or brotherhood of St. George, and who assumed that ti» 
tie from the circumstance of their assembling annually at Dublin^ 
to express their zeal for English government* In 1483 he w^ 
constituted Lord Chancellor of Ireland by Richard the Third. 
He married the daughter of the Duke of Somerset, by whom he 
had four sons and two daughters. In 1485 William de St. Law« 
rence of Stapolin, was seised in fee of the castle and 440 acres in 
Laggagh in the County Meath, which he held of the Archbishop 
of Dublin, as of his manor of Eniskeen, by the service of a red 
rose yearly on the feast of St. John the Baptist. 

In 1490 Sir Nicholas (of whom further particulars, more es- 
pecially connected with Howth, are detailed in its history,) was pre- 
sent in parliament, and again in that of 1493, held by the Lord 
Deputy Kildare, previous to the famous battle of Knocktow, on 
which latter occasion this nobleman led the bill men, and through* 
out the day fought on foot. In 1509 he was made Lord Chan- 
cellor of Ireland. In 1535 Thomas Howth of Artane, was se- 
cond Justice of the King^s Bench ; and the act of absentees of 


1537, contains a special saying of his rights. Notwithstanding 
his judicial situation, it would seem that in 1539 this Thomas was 
retained as council for the religious houses of Ballybogan, Clo- 
nard, Great Conall, and Kilmainham, each of whom granted him 
an annuity for such his service. 

Sir Christopher, the seventeenth Lord of Howth, was one of 
the peers who sat in the parliament of 1541, on which occasion 
he signed the following interesting announcement to Henry the 
Eighth, of his having been at that parliament procldmed King of 
Ireland. *< After our most humble and bounden duties it may 
please your most excellent Majesty to be advertised, that your 
Highness's parliament began crastino TrinitatUy and the Tuesday 
next following, resorted to the same, the Earls of Ormond and 
Desmond, and with them the Lord Barry, the Lord Roche, the 
Lord Fitz Maurice, and hither came also the Lord Bermingham of 
Anery in Connaught, which lords have not been here of many 
years before : and the Thursday being Corpus Christ i day, after 
a solemn mass of the Holy Ghost, resorted to the parliament 
chamber, where the commons presented to us their speaker, one 
Sir Thomas Cusack, who made a right good proposition in laud 
and praise of your Majesty, most worthily deserved, and also de- 
clared what benefit came of obedience to prinpes and observing 
of laws ; which, after being answered by your Grace's Chancel- 
lor in English, and by the Earlof Ormand deckred in Irish, much 
contented the said lords and commons. And the Friday, being 
there again assembled, the bill, whereby your Majesty should be 
made king of this realm, was read and declared to the said Lords, 
who most willingly with all the rest of the lords spiritual and tem- 
poral consented to the same, and, after three times read with like 
consent, it was sent to the lower house, where it likewise passed 
with no less joy and gladness. We send to your Majesty the 
names of all such lords, both English and Irish, as were at the 
same, and gave their liberal consents thereunto. Your Majesty's 
servants, Donogh O'Brien and O'Brien's attorneys appeared at 
this parliament, and willingly gave their consents to the same act ; 
but for O'Neill, we cannot perceive that ever he will come to 
any honest conformity, but judge him to be the only poison and 
gall of this your realm. Over this it may please your Majesty to 



be advertised, that O'Reilly, being here at your Grace's parlia- 
ment, and wearing the apparel which your Highness sent unto 
him of your Grace's gift, made humble suit unto us to be peti^- 
tioners for him unto your Msyesty, that he might have and hold 
his lands upon your Highness to him and to his heh*s for ever ( 
wherefore, your Grace so contented, because he is a man of great 
power, we think it convenient that he have the honour of a Vis- 
count, and that he be called the Viscount of the Cavan, which is 
the chief town in his county." 

In 1543, the before-mentioned justice, Thomas Howth, was 
one of the Privy Council who signed a recommendation to the 
crown, advertising his Majesty, that after the despatch of the Lord 
O'Brien, Fitz William, and others, with letters to his Majesty, 
^< an Irish captain called Shedagh Mac Namara, bordering upon 
the said O'Brien's lands, and Lord of Cloncullen in Thomond, 
required us to write tikewise to your Majesty in his behalf who 
would also repair to do his duty to your Highness, and to declare 
his humble obedience to the same, with further petition that it 
might please your Majesty not only to advance him to the honour 
of a Baron, by name of Cloncullen, but also, that he may hold 
such lands and possessions as he now hath of your Majesty, by 
knight's service to him and to his heirs, with place in your parlia- 
ment accordingly. And, for that the said Mac Namara is a man, 
whose ancestors have in those parts always borne a great sway, 
and one that for himself is of honest conformity, whose lands lie 
wholly on the furside of the Shannon, we most humbly beseech 
your Majesty, to regard him according your princely bounty. * ♦ * 
But, what grant soever your Majesty make to any of that sort, 
it may please your Highness to will a special proviso and condition 
to be inserted in your letters patents, that the same shall not be 
meant nor expounded to entitle any of them, or their heirs, to any 
land or dominion on this side the said water of the Shannon," &c. 

Richard, the nineteenth Lord of Howth, was, in the reign of 
Edward the Sixth, sent into the territory of Lecale with 100 horse, 
to aid in banishing the Scots ft-om Ulster ; and Christopher, the 
twentieth Baron, sat in both the parliaments of Elizabeth, re- 
spectively held in 1669 and 1685. He was also, in 1559 and 
1663, joined in commissions, particularly alluded to at these years 
in the " General History of the County of Dublin," and in 1576 


was one of those who dgned the remonstrance for asd on behatf of 
the Lords of the Pale. 

A Neman reminiscenee is here euggested by a nioniiment m 
the church of St. Denis at Rouen, commemorating the death in 
1560 of «< Monsieur Pierre de St. Laurens, Sienr du VieO manoir, 
&C., de Grand pr6, Conseiller en la Cour, kcJ* 

Sir Nichoks, the twenty^first Lord of Howth, was knighted in 
the memorable year of 1588, and in 1593 brought to the general 
hosting on the hiD of Tora, six archers on horsriiack for Howth, 
and one for Killester. He was, also, one of the peers who sat in 
the parliament of 1595. 

In 1599, Sir Christopher St. Lawrence, son to the Lord of 
Howth, being in the train of the Ear! of Essex, on the occasiea 
of the attack on the castle of Cahir, was sent *< in the begiontng 
of the night (May 29), with 800 kern-men to possess an idand 
whidi heth from the castle north-east (not more than harquebnss 
shot), and to break up two bridges, one of which leadeth from the 
island to the main, and the other from the same island to the 
castle,'* in which enterprise he completely succeeded. This gal* 
famt young gentleman was afterwards brought into much trouble 
by his attachment to his unfortunate leader on this occasion, the 
Earl of Essex. ** Sir Christopher St. Lawrence," writes Rowland 
Whyte to Sir Robert Sydney in October, 1599, «<at an ordinary, 
took a cup and drank to the health of my Lord of Essex, and to 
the confusion of his enemies. * He was called in question lor it 
before the Lord Treasurer, where he did not deny his words, but 
would justify them if any enemy of my Lord Essex did find fiiult 
with him. I heard my Lord Treasurer did school him, but 
nothing else done unto him." ^ * * And, in another letter, 
** The Lord of Dunkelly, Sir Christopher St. Lawrence and others, 
that are come out of Ireland, were at court, and presented them- 
selves before her Mijesty. She used them very graciously, but told 
them they had made a scornful journey." * * * Again, ^ Sir John 
GaXbert came to Sir Christopher St. Lawrence's dian^er, he being 
a-bed, and told hhn that he came to know, i^ because he did not 
piedgethehealthof my Lord of Essex the same day he drank to it, 
and to the damnation of his enemies, he would stsd) him, for so it was 
given out that Sir Christopher should say ; but. Sir Christopher 

M 2 


said it was a lie, that he, at that time, drunk to the Earl's health, 
and the gentlemen to whom he drank, pledged it, and that what 
he said there he would maintain with his sword in his shirt against 
any man. Sir John replied, that he pledged it not because he 
was aUied to a contrary faction." In a letter of the same corres- 
pondence, dated on the last day of the said month, Whyte says, 
*< My Lord Mountjoy must go into Ireland, and the Lords upon 
Monday were at York House, to confer with my Lord Essex upon 
the state of Ireland. They were long with him, he continues 
still as he did, and I hear no hope of any speedy liberty. It is 
verily believed that her Majesty will have his contempts called to 
public question. All captains that have charge in Ireland are 
commanded to be gone. Upon Sunday, St. Lawrence was at 
council table, where 200 told him that he had used indecent 
speeches of him, and took him to be his professed enemy. St. 
Lawrence answered that he never offended his honour, that he 
knew both how to govern himself and his speech towards him, 
that whosoever told him of it was a villun, and that if he would 
name him, he would make him deny it. Aye, by G — that he 
would ; all this with very great reverence to the place, but pas- 
sionate as a soldier moved with the speeches of so great a coun- 
sellor. He was commanded to return to his charge ; he replied, 
< that he had but a poor command there, that he had great busi- 
ness here to stay, which he would acquaint their Lordships withal, 
if it pleased them to hear it, that he was willing to quit it to any 
other.' I think he hath a company of 100 foot, and some horse. 
It was told him he was an Irishman ; he said, * I am sorry that 
when I am in England I should be esteemed an Iri^man, and in 
Ireland an Englishman. I have spent my blood, engaged and 
endangered my life often to do her Majesty service, and do be- 
seech to have it so regarded.' " 

In 1600 this chivalrous soldier was a colonel of foot at the 
fight of Carlingford, with the Lord Deputy Mountjoy, in the 
expedition against Tyrone. In July of the following year, 
"Mountjoy," as Moryson relates, "having in person reconnoitred 
the woods and fastnesses, despatched Sir Christopher St. Law- 
rence's regiment to Benburb, where was the ancient residence 
of Shane O'Neill, environed with woods. Here a considerable 


Irish force had assembled, and a sharp conflict of three hours' 
duration ensued. The battle was fought in view of the Deputy's 
camp, whence reinforcements were detached to the En^ish as 
occasion required. Tyrone's troops were finally defeated with 
the loss of 200 men." He afterwards acquitted himself with sin- 
gular bravery at the siege of Kinsale, as is fully testified in the 
Pacata Hibernia. Yet, in 1607, he and Lord Delvin were 14)- 
prehended as having participated in the rebellion of Tyrone and 

In 1634 Nicholas, the twenty-third Lord of Howth, was one 
of the peers who took part in the procession of that talented des- 
pot. Lord Strafford, to St. Patrick's Cathedral, previous to his 
opening the sessions of parliament ; and in 1641 he was amongst 
those of the Pale whom the Lords Justices and Privy Coun- 
cil of Ireland invited to a conference at the castle, *< on the 
estate of the kingdom ; on which occasion, only he, the Earl of 
Kildare, and Lord Fitz William attended. In the same year, a 
royal writ, dated at Bristol, was directed to him amongst others, 
the king's liege subjects, to receive the great seal which had been 
sent over by Sir William Welles, Lord Chancellor, and command- 
ing that all grants of the old seal, from the first day of the 
reign, should be vacated and thereby annulled. Chrbtopher St. 
Lawrence of Cruisetown, was one of the confederate Catholics who 
assembled at Kilkenny in 1647. 

William, the twenty-fourth lord, by his will, bearing date in 
May, 1671, ordered his body to be buried in the monument of 
his ancestors near his father in Howth church, provided for the 
payment of his debts and his daughter's fortunes, and, because his 
son Thomas was but of tender years, directed that the guardian- 
ship of him and his younger brother should be committed to his 
well-beloved Thomas Earl of Ossory, bequeathing to his younger 
son Charles, and his heirs, all his estate in England, desiring 
that the woods thereon might be sold and converted to his best 
advantage, and that, as soon as he was fit for it, he might be either 
sent to study the laws of England, or bound unto some merchant. 
To his son Thomas he gave the great seal of the family, and, if 
his executors found assets sufficient, he desired a new vault and 
tomb might be made in the church of Howth for his father's and 


tnoiher't bones, and his and his family's interment, (in regard the 
old Tault was well nigh Aill>) in the same place where his fiither and 
mother then lay^ &c 

Thomas, the twenty-fifth Baron, sat in Kmg's James's parlia<* 
ment in 1689, as he did in 1692 in the first after the revolution, 
and in 1697 signed the association and declaration in defiance of 
the person and goyertiroent of King William, and the succession 
as setded by act of parliament. In 1767 Thomas, the twenty- 
seventh Lord, was created Viscount St. Lawrence and Earl of 

Varions other notices of the family are given at the localities 
to which they apply^ and may be traced by the general index ; but 
Camden's remarks should not be overtooked. ^ By a singciUr 
happinessy" he says, ** during so long a series of years not one of 
the St. Lawrences of Howth has been convicted of treason, nor 
any left in a state of minority ;" the latter daose of the coi^ra- 
tulation isi however, contradicted by the pedigree. 

Ireland's eye. 

This interesting island, lying immediately off 
Howth, is supposed to be diat which Ptolemy calls 
" Adri deserta," Pliny " Andros,'' and Richard of 
Cirencester *' Edria.** It is of a pyramidal form, and 
composed chiefly of quartz rock, which, like that in 
Howth, exhibits the phenomena of contortiom in 
great variety and distinctness ; the quartz being in- 
terstratified with schistose rocks of a great variety of 
colours, rendering by their contrast the curvatures of 
the beds very apparent. It has a high rocky ascent 
on the Howth side, precipices called the Stags on the 
east, which have proved very dangerous to ships, and 
a shelving bank at south and east, which produces 
many curious medicinal plants, that in the months of 
May and June yield a strong, heavy odour. 


Rabbits abound on the island, and in reference 
to its ornithology, the cross-bill, loMa^ a bird whLeh 
destroys pines and fir trees, has been seen upon it 
occasionally, as also the columba rupicoloj or rock 
pigeon ; while, in more ancient times, the island was 
noted for a fine breed of goshawks, that used to build 
among its rocks. They were in high esteem among 
falconers, being flown at cranes, pheasants, partridges^ 
and geese, while their habit of preying upon wild 
geese is said to have been the origin of their name. 

On the south side of the island are the ruins of a 
small, but very ancient chapel, founded, according to 
tradition, by St. Nessan in the sixth century ; and, 
in whose sequestered sanctuary he is said to have past 
the evening of a well spent life in abstinence and 
prayer. From its gable sprang a round belfry, the 
stump of which yet remains. 

Many curious legends still survive relative to St. 
Nessan's residence in the island, and the temptations, 
he endured here, have each " a local habitation and 
a name.'' Lanigan, however, thinks, and it is gene- 
rally most safe to agree with him, that the history of 
Nessan has no foundation in truth. '* There was no 
Nessan in that island, but we find that three holy 
men, sons of Nessan of the royal bouse of Leinster, 
inhabited it in the seventh century, and their me- 
mory was revered there on the J 5th of March, at 
which day Colgan treats of them. The island, from 
them, got the name of Inis-mac-Nessan, or island of 
the sons of Nessan, as it appears in a brief of Pope 
Alexander the Third to St. Lawrence O'Toole." 


It is said that in this abbey was deposited and 
preserved that copy of the Four Gospels preemi- 
nently styled, " the Garland of Howth," of which 
Archbishop Allen has written, that it was held " in 
such esteem and veneration, that good men scarcely 
dared to take an oath upon it, for fear of the judg- 
ment of God being immediately shown on those who 
should favour themselves." 

In 1179, Pope Alexander the Third granted to the See of 
Dublin (inter alia) this island with its appendages, an endowment 
which was further confirmed by John, when Earl of Morton, and 
subsequently by Pope Clement the Third to that see. In 1887 
it was again assured to the see by King Edward, and also in 
1394, by King Richard during his sojourn in Dublin. 

In 1548 Sir Christopher St. Lawrence, knight, contested the 
right to Ireland's Eye with the Archbishop of Dublin, when the 
Lord Chancellor decided that it belonged to the See of Dublin,, 
and that Lord Howth never had any seisin thereof, otherwise 
than by the license of the Archbishop for the time being, and at 
a certain reserved rent. It is accordingly so still held by the Earl 
of Howth. 

The botany of Ireland's Eye exhibits iris foetidis' 
simay the roast-beef plant ; aira prcecoxj early hair- 
grass ; crithmum maritimum^ sea samphire ; thalic- 
trum minuSy lesser meadow-rue ; spartium scopariumi 
common broom ; the rosa villosa^ garden rose in va- 
rious parts of its surface ; mesogloia multijidaj which 
stains water to a pink colour. — In marshy spots, nuynr 
tiafontana^ water blinks ; senecio aquatixms^ marsh 
ragwort; car ex recurva, heath-sedge. — On the rocks, 
staMce armeria, sea-pink ; geranium sanguineum^ 
bloody crane's-bill; lavatera arborea, tree-mallow; 

Ireland's eye. 169 

scilla vernay vernal squill, a sweet and rare flower 
with blue and white bells. — On the sandy shores, 
arenaria marina^ spurry sandwort, aira fiexuosa^ 
waved mountain hair-grass ; euphorbia Portlandica, 
Portland spurge. 

The tourist, returning to the mainland, cannot 
leave the scenery of Howth and its fine promontory, 
without admitting, that were it within six times the 
distance from London that it is from Dublin, it 
would long before this be a diadem of picturesque 

Passing the church and castle on the left, the 
parish school is seen on the right, which is principally 
supported by Lord Howth. The succeeding sea- 
coast presents some good salt-marshes, the pasture of 
which is considered restorative for cattle. 

Following the road from Howth to Beldoyle, the 
botanist will find on the sandy warren in that direc- 
tion verbdscum thapsus^ great mullein ; salsola kcdi^ 
prickly saltwort ; gentiana campestris, field gentian j 
eryngium maritimumj sea holly ; conium maculatumj 
common hemlock \ statice reticulata^ matted thrift ; 
arundo arenaria, sea reed; triticum junceum, rushy 
wheat grass ; campanula rotundifoliaj round-leaved 
bell flower ; rumex acetosella, sheep's sorrel ; triglo- 
chin maritimum, sea arrow grass j scleranthus an- 
nuus, annual knowel ; arenaria serpyllifolia, thyme- 
leaved sandwort j spergtda nodosa^ knotted spurrey j 
a variety of rosa spinosissima, bumet rose, with white 
flowers ; thalictrum minicSy lesser meadow rue ; star 
chys palustris, marsh woundwort j antirrhinum Una- 


riOf yellow toad flax, the expressed jube of which, 
mixed with milk, is poison for flies ; raphanus raphes 
rmtrum^ wild radidi ; hyozcyamm niger^ common 
henbane ; trifolium procumbenSf hop trefoil ; carea: 
arenaria^ sea sedge ; littorella lacustrUp shore weed ; 
atriplex laeimata^ frosted sea-orache ; carlina vulga- 
m, the seeds of which, as of mimy other plants of ^e 
sune ckss, are furnished with a plume, by which ad- 
mirable mechanism they perform long aerial journeys, 
crossing lakes and deserts, and are thus disseminated 
far from the original plant, having much the appear* 
ance of a shuttlecock as they fly. It is further to be 
observed, that the flowers of this thistle expand them* 
selves in a star, and form a beautiful appearance in 
dry weather, but shut tibemselves up against moist» 
whence, being immersed in a bottle of water, and ex^ 
posed to the air, they make an excellent hygrometer, 
and retain the quality for a long time. On these 
sands may also be observed ranunculus parviflarus, 
small-flowered crowfoot ; hlysmus ru/us, narrow- 
leaved blysmus, flowering in July, &c. 


the next locality, is a fishing village about six Irish 
miles from the metropolis, situated upon a cold, bleak 
strand, but commanding a good prospect of Howth, 
Ireland's Eye, and Lambay. There are eight wher- 
ries and four smacks engaged in the fisheries here, 
employing about one hundred persons. Its harbour 
is nearly dry, boats cannot enter it before last quar- 
ter flood, and the general rise of tides is about twelve 


feet ; there are, however^ good landing beaches, with 
conveniences for drying nets. 

A handsome chapel is in progress of erection 
here. It is to have a nave eighty-four feet long by 
forty broad, and thirty-five high, with suitable tran- 
septs and a cupola. Near it are two capacious charity 
schools, founded in 1831, one for boys, the other for 
girls. They are supported partly out of grants of £18 
to the former, and £l 7 to the latter, annually, from 
the National Board, and partly on Mr. Keary's be- 
quest, hereafler mentioned. The total number of 
their pupils was 119 in 1834. 

This maritime parish bears the name of the vil- 
lage, and extends over 1422a. 3r. 12p. Its rectory 
being entirely impropriate in the corporation of Dub- 
lin, it ranks as but a curacy in the union of Howth, 
annexed with it and Killbarrock to a prebend in St. 
Patrick's Cathedral. The curate used, until late 
years, to receive a stipend of £10 annually from the 
corporation, who are also the principal proprietors of 
die fee (to the amount of £450 per annum) under 
the grant made to them of the possessions of the Pri- 
ory of Aroasian Canons of All Hallows. 

Some particulars of the order of Regular Canons 
of St Augustine, of which the Aroasians were a 
branch, and so called from an abbey in the diocese of 
Arras, in Flanders, are given at " Holmpatrick/* 

The Earl of Howth is also a proprietor of part of 
the fee of this parish. Rent varies within it from £2 
to £6 per acre, and a cabin without land is let for about 
£2 per annum, the wages of labour being 8s. per 


week. This parish accounts likewise in the Roman 
Catholic Union of Howth. The census of its com- 
parative population returns the Roman Catholics as 
1,053, and the Protestants as 85, while the number 
of labourers therein and in Kiilbarrock is said to be 
139, of whom 83 get constant employment, the re- 
mainder occasional. 

So early as in the year 1040 Sitric, the Danish King of Dublin, 
bestowed, towards the founding of Christ Church, <* the land, ma- 
nor, villeins, cows, and corn of Beldoyle." This, however, seems to 
have conveyed but a portion of the district, for, in a century after- 
wards, Dermot Mac Murrough, on founding the priory of All 
Saints, near Dublin (on whose site Trinity College now stands,) 
assigned to Bishop Edan O'Killedy, for its use, the lands of Bel- 
doyle, with the farmers and serfs living thereon, as also the lands 
of Balencongalan, Canturk (Clonturk), Duncarnac (Donnycarney), 
Rubanagan, Knockclishan, and Kaldronan.* 

In 1184 King Henry confirmed Dermot's grant to All Saints, 
and in 1200 King John gave a similar assurance of title to Christ 
Church of what it possessed under Sitric's endowment. 

In 1270 Nicholas, the sixth Lord Howth, entered into a con- 
tract with the prior and convent of All Saints concerning their 
portion of Beldoyle, and confirmed their part as they held the same 
" in frankalmoign by gift of the ancient Irish kings,** 

In 1369 a parliament was held here by William de Windsor, 
then Lord Deputy of Ireland, at which certain exorbitant assess- 
ments and talliages were laid upon the Pale. These afterwards 
became the subject of popular remonstrances, and were impugned 
as passed in a place where it was represented there were no build- 
ings but a small chapel, and consequently no accommodation for 
the commons convened thither, who were thus constrained the 
sooner to grant the subsidies sought. For a notice in 1418, see 
at " Donnybrook." 

• Rot. in Tur. Lend. 


In 1537 the Nugent family were seised of certain lands here, 
see at " Balgriffin." 

Immediately previous to the dissolution, the Prior of All Saints 
was seised of twenty gardens, sixty acres of arable land, four of 
meadow, sixteen of pasture, one of copse, and a warren of an acre 
here ; also of four messuages, five cottages, two hundred acres of 
arable land, twelve of meadow, twelve of pasture, and four of wood, 
in the Grange of Beldoyle, while the rectory of Beldoyle was also 
appropriate to that religious house.* Its possessions were there- 
upon granted to the corporation of the city of Dublin, on account 
of their opposing and suffering by the rebellion of Thomas Fitzge- 
rald, and they are still the proprietors thereof. The annual rental 
of the estates, which the corporation obtained by right of the reli- 
gious house of All Hallows alone, amounts to £4,790 per annum. 

At the time of the regal visitation in 1615, Patrick Behan was 
the incumbent of Beldoyle, which he held with St. Doulogh's, 
Balgriffin, and Malahide. 

In 1697 Charles Smith was returned as parish priest of Howth, 
Beldoyle, Portmarnock, and BalgrifBn, and resident in Beldoyle. 

In 1793 an attempt was made by the Rev. Walter Blake Kir- 
wan, then rector of the union of Howth and Beldoyle, to levy 
tithes from this townland, when it was determined to resist the 
claim as obsolete and unfounded, the city lands there having been 
from time immemorial tithe free. 

In 1829 Michael Keary, before mentioned, bequeathed £500 
for educating the poor children here, which sum has been vested 
in government funds, and its interest duly applied within the 

In 1831 died here the Rev. Michael Bernard Keogh, who was 
parish priest of this union for thirteen years, and a preacher of 
such estimable celebrity that it is unnecessary at this recent inter- 
val to affect to recall his merits. A contemporary periodical thus 
characterizes the style of his sermons : — " He is not what the world 
generally deems a finished orator, a measurer of sentences, an 
elaborate constructer of periods, a struggler after the imaginary 

• Inquis. 30. Hen. 8. in Ch. Rememb. Offia 


graces of pronabciation, a sedulous observer of all the school- worn 
laws of gesticulation. He is not an orator of this class, he appears 
rather to rely upon the innate dignity of his profession, the sound- 
ness of the doctrine which he promulgates, and the natural re» 
sources of his own mind. He seeks not to propitiate you by any 
borrowed embellishments, he scorns to attract your attention by 
the specious charlatanism of ordinary rhetoricians, he comes be- 
fore yon in the simple but lofty character of a Christian minister, 
OS one empowered and deputed to address you in the name of 
heaven ; he teaches you even at the first glance to feel, that it is 
not his part to flatter your prejudices, to study the peculiarity of 
your taste, or to accommodate his opinions and expressions to your 
previously indulged habits | he wrings from you by his air and 
manner a tacit acknowledgment of his supremacy, and you stand 
befcMre him in submissive silence as one bound to listen with un- 
broken attention to what ever he may choose to utter." He was 
interred in the vaults of St. Michael's and St. John's Catholic 
church, and a marble monument in the chapel of this parish records 
the virtues of its pastor. 

The botany of Beldoyle presents Itfcopsis arvensis^ 
bugloss ; viola tricolor^ pansy violet ; viola luteay yel- 
low pansy ; erythrcea centauriumj common centau- 
ry ; agrostema githago, corn cockle ; cerastiicm ar- 
vensCj field mouse-ear chickweed ^ spergula arvenr 
si^9 com spurrey; papaver duhium^ long smooth- 
headed poppy ; papaver somniferurrti white poppy ; 
rapharms raphanistrumj wild radish ; vicia cracca^ 
tufted vetch ; vicia sativa^ common vetch. — In the 
sandy banks, fields and waste grounds, erodium d" 
cutarmMy hemlock stork's bill ; geranium molle^ soft 
crane*s bill, and a variety thereof with white flowers ; 
sonchus arvensiSf com sow thistle j crepis biennis, 
rough hawk's beard ; euphorbia paralia, sea spurge ; 
cardmis marianus, milk thistle; gnaphalium ger- 


tnanicum^ common cud weed ; senecio vUe^miSt fetid 
groundsel j lychnis flos cuculh ra^ed robin ; iri/o^ 
Hum arvense^ hare's foot trefoil. — In the hedges, tri- 
folium officinale^ melilot-^In the meadows, apargia 
autumnaliSy autumnal hawkbit.— In the com fields, 
cknfmnthemum segetutfh com marigold ; hlium te- 
muiefttmr^ bearded darnel. — In the gravelly heaths, 
ttpargia hirta, deficient hawk bit, and in the muddy 
sea shore, salicomia herbaceOf marsh samphire ; ca- 
rex distans^ loose carex. 

A dreary road issues from this village towards 
Portmarnock, having at right a great scope of shore, 
which might be easily, and at a small expense, res- 
cued from the tide ; at left a tract of salt marsh, and 
an extensive coney-burrow, while in front the island 
of Lambay and the heights about Malahide give a 
feature of the picturesque to the scene. After pass- 
ing the bridge at Maine, a road turns at left to 
Balgriffin, following the course of the little streamlet 
that rises near Ballymun, and gliding through Bel- 
camp, Balgriffin, and Stapolin, passes here into the 
sea. Continuing hence along the shore to Portmar- 
nock, the road traverses the salt marsh and coney- 
burrow before alluded to, partially overgrown with 
furze, and exhibiting to the more curious botanic in- 
quirer, the scirpus rufus^ brown club rush ; scirpus 
maritimuSi salt marsh club rush ; €lau€us m^timusy 
wild carrot; thymus ^rpyUum^ wild thyme; gna^ 
phcUium uliginosumi marsh cudweed ; scirpus glav^usy 
glaucous club rush ; saiicomia herbacea, marsh sam- 
phire; chara vulgaris^ comnwrn chara; kmna tri- 


sulca^ ivy-leaved duck weed; lycopus EuropcetiSy 
gipsy wort; scabiosa succisay devil's bit scabious; 
menyanthes trifoliata^ marsh trefoil; chenopodium 
maritimum^ sea goose foot; sium inundatumj least 
water parsnip ; schcenus rufus^ red bog rush ; schce- 
nics nigricans^ black bog rush ; cenanthe peucedani- 
folia^ water dropwort ; cenanthe ptmpinelloides, pars- 
ley water dropwort, flowering in July ; linum cathar- 
ticum, purging flax; trifolium arveme, hare's foot 
trefoil ; cale.v distans, loose sedge ; saxifraga granvr 
lata, white meadow saxifrage, flowering in May — ^the 
double white saxifrage of the gardens is a species of 
this; melUotus officinalis, common yellow melilot, flow- 
ering in June and July ; statice spathuUUa, upright 
spiked sea lavender j statice limonium, common sea 
lavender, flowering in July and August. — While on 
the road side, in the same direction, ore found nialva 
rotundifolia, dwarf mallow ; and papaver hyhridum, 
round rough-headed poppy. 

" Sopha'd on silk, amid her charm-built towers, 
Her meads of asphodel, and amaranth bowers. 
Where sleep and silence guard the soft abodes, 
In sullen apathy papaver nods." 

Presently the tourist reaches the hamlet of 


with the venerable mansion-house of the Plunketts 
peering from its ancient woods, on the brink of a little 
nameless river that rises above Kinsaly, winds by its 
old church, and here empties itself in to the sea. On 
its opposite bank is a mill worked by a stream and by 


an arm of the sea. It is, however, wholly useless 
in summer, and even during a great portion of the 
winter, although a very trifling expenditure would 
enhance its advantages to the neighbourhood. Near 
the mansion-house is a moat surrounded with old 
trees. The ancient church, which was the burial 
place of the Plunkett family, has long since fallen into 
decay. The present is a small structure without or- 
naments or tombs, while the grave-yard exhibits but 
the solitary one of a Mr. Trumbull. 

The rectory of Portmarnock is entirely impropriate. 
The parish, therefore, ranks ecclesiastically as but a 
curacy, in the deanery of Swords, and in the arch- 
bishop's gift. It borders on the sea, extends over 
2326a. Or. 21 p., has nine acres of glebe, and in the Ca- 
tholic arrangement is in the union of Howth. The 
late census of the comparative population states the 
Catholics here as three hundred and sixty-two, and 
the Protestants as eighty-three. Mr. Luke Plunkett 
is a principal proprietor of the fee; the Grange, how- 
ever, belongs to Lord Milltown. Arable land here, 
and in the adjoining townland of Carrickhill, is let for 
a rent of about £4 per acre, while the sandy skirts 
produce £2, the labourer's wages being from 7^. to 
8^. per week. 

Henry the Second, whilst in Ireland, granted the lands of 
Portmarnock to the Abbey of the Blessed Virgin in Dublin, with 
all rights, &c., as before mentioned at " Ratheny," which grant wa 
confirmed by the bull of Pope Clement the Third in 1189. A 
bull, it may be here remarked, is the term given to letters apos- 
tolic containing the decrees or commandments of the pope. It 
acquired this appellation from the bulla ornament attached to it. 



Bulls are always written on parchment, and sealed with lead or 
green wax, and thereby distinguished from briefs. They are 
divided into two sorts, the one appertaining to an act of justice, 
the other to an act of grace. In the former instance the lead 
attached to the bull is hung by a hempen cord, in the latter by a 
silken thread. This pendent lead or seal bears the impression on 
one side of the heads of St. Peter and St. Paul, and on the other 
of the name of the pope and the year of his pontificate. Besides 
the seal or lead, they have usually a cross, with some text of scrip- 
ture or other religious motto attached to them. On the death of 
a popehis name is immediately erased from the pontifical seal, which, 
being thereupon carefully wrapt up in a linen cloth, is delivered 
to the chamberlain, under the seal of the vice-chancellor, to be 
preserved by him until the election of a new pontiff. 

King John, at the commencement of his reign, confirmed (o 
the reh'gious house of the Blessed Virgin the lands of Portmarnock, 
Lisban, and Munmackan, with the chapel of Portmarnock and all 
its appurtenances, to be enjoyed by the grantees, freed from any 
secular service or exaction whatsoever. It was accordingly a ma- 
nor or lordship in their hands ; a dispute, however, soon after 
arose between one Elias Cumin and the abbot, concerning the 
lands between Portmarnock, the Grange, and the town of Kin- 
saly, which was compromised by that portion being equally di- 
vided between them, the part contiguous to the Grange being 
assigned to the monks, while the other portion near Kinsaly was 
to be enjoyed by Elias.* 

For a notice of Portmarnock in 1540, see at " Bally bog- 

On the dissolution, the aforesaid abbey was found to have 
been seised of three messuages, 240a. arable, IOa. meadow, and 
12a. pasture, in the Grange of Portmarnock, annual value £12; 
also, of nine messuages and ten cottages, 220a. arable, 5a. 
meadow, and a stang of pasture in Portmarnock, annual valuo 
£11 17^. Od. ; two tide-mills, a water-course, and a rabbit- 
burrow, annual value £4 ; also of the rectory of Portmarnock, 

Archdall, Mon. Hib. p. 154. 


eitending t>Ter the townlands of Portmarnock, the Grange of 
Portmarnock, and Robs-wall, annual value, £10 bs. Od,* The 
Grange and warren were thereupon, together with the mills, (pro- 
perly called tidemills, being suppUed with water from the sea,) 
demised to the Earl of Ormond, and the reversion subsequently 
granted to Sir Patrick Barnewall. In 1603, however. Sir George 
Carew, knight, passed patent for the Grange of Portmarnock, 261 
acres, with all the tithes and customs thereof, stated as having 
been theretofore demised to the Earl of Ormond in 1575 ; while 
in the following year the Earl of Thomond had a grant of the 
tithes of the town and lands of Portmarnock, as demised in 1578 
to Thomas Earl of Ormond. The Earl of Thomond had a fur- 
ther grantin 1609of the Grange of Portmarnock, 261 acres, with all 
and singular royal fisheries and fishings adjoining to said premises. 
In consequence of these and other subsequent grants, a very heavy 
litigation ensued in the eighteenth century between Nicholas Lord 
Kingsland and the Kingston family. 

For a notice in 1602, see at " Dalkey ;" about which time an 
inquisition was taken relative to the tithes of Portmarnock, which 
defines the rights therein as they then existed. 

in 1615 the commissioners on royal visitation reported this 
place to be without a clergyman, and the great tithes and altarages 
granted away. They accordingly assigned John Etheridge for the 
cure. For a notice in the same year, see at " White Church.** 

In 1668 Walter Plunkett was found seised of the town and lands 
of the Grange Portmarnock, 383 acres plantation measure ; yet 
in a few years afterwards, the same were, with the mill, on inqui- 
sition, alleged to be the property oi Lord Kingsland, who actually 
passed patent for them, with other extensive tracts, in 1660 and 
1685, while Luke Plunkett was, on the latter occasion, found 
seised of 211 acres in the townland of Portmarnock, and of 135 
acres in CarrickhilLf 

In 1700 Thomas Plunkett and Catherine his wife claimed an 
estate for Kfe, and a jointure for said Catherine, in Portmarnock 
and Carrickhill, William Plunkett, the heir of the before men- 
tioned Luke, having forfeited his interest therein in the civil war 

• Inquis in Ch. Remb. Office. t Inquis. in Cane. Hib. 

N 2 


of 1689. Their claim was, however, postppned, they being pe- 
titioners before the commons, while George Plunkett and Jo- 
hanna his wife, who had been the widow of said Luke Plunkett, 
claimed the benefit of her jointure off the lands, which was allowed. 

About Portmaraock the botanist will find viola 
tricolor y pansy violet; viola lutea^ yellow pansy; 
chlora perfoliata, perfoliate yellow wort; cerastium 
arvense^ field mouse-ear chickweed ; spergula ar- 
vensts, corn spurrey; rosa spinosissima, bumet rose; 
papaver somni/erum, white poppy ; sisymbrium so- 
phiay fine-leaved hedge mustard; geranium Pyre- 
naicufn^ mountain crane's bill ; polygala vulgaris, 
milkwort; anthyllis vulneraria, kidney vetch; lis- 
tera ovata, common tway blade ; agroslema githago, 
corn cotkle ; sinapis alba, white mustard, eaten as 
an ingredient in salads ; cenanthe pimpinelloides, 
parsley water dropwort. 

On the sandy banks, fields, and shores, phleum 
arenariumj sea cat's tail grass ; festuca tiniglumis, 
single husked fescue grass ; arundo arenaria, sea 
reed; triticum junceum, rxx^y yfhe?^. grass; convol- 
vulus soldanella, sea bindweed; campanula rotun- 
difolia, round-leaved bell flower ; erythroea littoralis, 
dwarf tufted centaury; eryngium maritimumj sea 
holly ; amni majus, common bishop's weed ; Parnas* 
sia palustris, grass of Parnassus, with its beautiful yel- 
low-streaked flowers ; allium arenarium, sand garlic ; 
spergula nodosa, knotted spurrey ; a variety of the 
thymus serpyllum, wild thyme, with woolly heads ; eu- 
phrasia officinalis, eyebright, enlivening the autumnal 
scene with its brilliant little blossoms ; cakile mariti- 


Tiia, sea rocket ; picris hieracyoides^ hawk weed ox 
tongue, peculiar to these sands ; erodium cicutariunij 
hemlock stork's bill ; euphorbia paralia, sea spurge ; 
carea: arenariay sea sedge ; equisetum variegatum^ va- 
riegated horse-tail, a very rare plant ; carea: extensa, 
long bracteated sedge ; salir argentea, silky sand wil- 
low, whose leaves are so conspicuous for the silver bril- 
liancy of their under surface, as to rival some of the 
most beautiful Cape shrubs in that particular ; apargia 
aw<wmna/t*, autumnal hawkbit ; car///ia vulgaris^ com- 
mon carline thistle ; gramen sparteum spicatum, sea 
mat weed, or marram, used for matting ; reseda luteola^ 
wild woad, highly prized by the ancient Irish for the 
yellow dye it afforded ; this at Portmarnock has been 
cultivated for the purpose, and grew to the height of 
three feet and a half, staining as deep a yellow as 
that raised at Rouen, which was imported sometimes 
at £200 per cwt. ; schAsnus nigricans^ black bog- 
rush ; reseda alba^ wild mignionette ; thalictrum 
minusy lesser meadow rue; Mr. Mackay has also 
discovered here the clypeola jonthlasph a curious 
little plant, a native of the Mediterranean shore ; 
sinapis nigra, common mustard ; trifolium arvense, 
hare's foot trefoil ; gnaphalium dioicum, mountain 
cudweed; epipactis lati/oliaj broad-leaved helleborine; 
crambe maritima, sea kale ; viola hirta, hairy violet, 
flowering in April and May ; viola Curtisii, yellow 
sea pansy, flowering from May to September ; stch 
tice spathulaiaj upright spiked sea lavender ; erythroea 
latifolia, broad-leaved tufted centaury ; erythrcea cen- 
tauriumf common centaury, both flowering in July; 


lycopodium saldgirmdes^ lesser Alpine club moss ; 
hypnum albicanSf ht/pnum abieHmum^ hypnum ru- 
tabiUum. — In the dry pastures aira cristata^ crested 
hair grass; apargia hispida^ rough hawkbit; crepis 
UenniSi rough hawk's beard; ophrys api/eraj bee 
orchis ; apargia hirta, deficient hawkbit ; linum ca- 
tharticunij purging flax. 

In the muddy sea shore, salicornea herbacea, 
marsh samphire. — In the hedges, fields, and ditches, 
medicago sativa, lucerne ; orchis pyramidalisy pyra- 
midal orchis ; Jedia olitoria, lambs lettuce.— In the 
marshy places, orchis lafifolia^ marsh palmate orchis ; 
rot bollia incurvata^ sea hard grass; chenopodium 
maritimumy sea goose foot; cenanthe peucedani'^ 
folia^ water dropwort; carex distansy loose carex; 
anagaUis tenella, bog pimpernel, flowering in July 
and August; epipactis palusfris, marsh helleborine, 
flowering in July. — At the bridge, cochlearia offi- 
cinalisy common scurvy grass. — On limestone, le- 
cidea speira, urceolaria contorta. — On tiles, lecor 
nora ean]g't/a.— Near the old church, rasa dume- 
torum^ thicket rose ; rosa arvensis^ white trailing dog 
rose ; rosa inodora, slightly scented briar, flowering 
in June and July. While the qnagallis tenella, bog 
pimpernel, with its purple flowers, 

*< Marshals me the way that I was going.*' 

A dreary way it would hafve been, had its direct 
course been followed into Malahide ; the route, how- 
ever, is made far more interesting by turning oflf at 
right to Portmarnock strand by 



i. e. the kill of rocks, a denomination also the ancient 
inheritance of the Plunkett family. 

Travelled as this locality was, on a lovely day iu 
MaiTh, the sparrows, the boldest and most mischievous 
of feathered visitantsj were chirping and plundering* 
around, the swallows wantoned in the mid region of 
the air, and the larks, perhaps the only birds of this 
country that sing as they soar^ were springing into 
the clear blue sky, or wafted in music on the passing 
breeze. A narrow, melancholy lane, hedged with 
elder, conducted to the not uninteresting ruins of tlie 
old church j the gables and side walls are almost per- 
fect, as is the triply perforated belfry. The grave* 
yard boasts of no anstocratie dust, but, within the shell 
of the chapelj under the boughs of the elders that 
entwine over them, arc two monuments, one to The- 
resa riuukett, who died in 1072* another stated to have 
been *' erected" (but now "fliUen from its high es- 
tate") by Mr. Oliver Barnewall of Dublin, " mar- 
chant," for himself and his wife Catherine, while at 
its foot is noted the death of the commemorator of the 
dead, said Oliver himself, in 1690* This chapel is 
about twenty yards in length by only four and au 
half in breadth. 

Thence the pedestrian can proceed over a warren, 
where numerous daisies were at this time struggling 

• A French writer on rtiral economy lias culculated, ibal the gruin 
consumed hy *^nrrow)i in Frauvc, onnmiltv , 13 wgrlli ten jnUtignu of 



through the sands. As an old poet quaintly writes — 

" Of all the flowers that grow in the mead, 
I love the best that flowret white and red; 
Which maidens call daisie, that adorn, 
Like eyes of day, the green, smooth, summer lawn ; 
Emblem of childish innocence, I see 
Again my youth and playmates all in thee. 
As merry lasses, dancing on the green, 
Tread down thy flower which erst shall not be seen. 
But trampled wither to the autumn's sun. 
And wane away when their short race is run ; 
So ray young life, by fleeting hours oppressed, 
And worn by those that it hath most caressed. 
Will close anon, when I no more shall be 
Noticed or thought upon, sweet flower, than thee." 

Presently valleys of dazzling sands appeared open, 
ing to the sea, and in some places exhibiting a scanty 
vegetation, but more usually the bare tracks of rab- 
bits. Then such a lovely strand, so white, so firm, 
so curiously inlaid with every specimen of shells ; 
the silent, sunny, sandy cliffs at left ; the blue sea at 
right, foaming its white wreaths over the whole shore, 
and in the distance Howth, apparently insulated, and 
Ireland's Eye, and further yet Lambay, enveloped in 
vapour. The black, rocky shore of Tobbermackeany 
succeeded, its dangerous aspect being fatally illus- 
trated by the masts of a sunken vessel, that pointed 
above the full tide at a short distance from its ledge, 
and over which the gulls were wildly screaming. At 
the head of these rocks appear the butments of a quay 
that once projected from this shore ; over it now stands 
another of the martello chimeras, from which a narrow 
terrace road leads to 



a square edifice erected on a rock that overhangs the 
sea, and having a farm-house attached to it. 

According to tradition this castle was founded in the fifteen tU 
century by one of ihc sept of de Berxningham. 

By inquisition taken in ihe time of Henry the Eighlli, the reli- 
gii>us house of the Virgin Mary was found seised of ninety -three 
acres in ** RoebuckVwEill, as abo of a castle and six messuages 
there, annual value £3 13^,4^,* In lien of whichj on the sur* 
render of that hou^e, William Cottrell, " parson of the convent,** 
had a pensioti of £3 6.*. 8</. granted to him, chargeable on the 
tithes of '* Hoebuck^s walls " 

Soon after the dissolution the castle was granted, with its ap- 
purtenances, to Sir Patrick Barncwall in fce^ which patent was 
suhjscquently confirmed by King Edward the Sixth, the premises 
being charged, as were the manors and lordships of Bally boghill, 
Fori mar nock, and the other possessions of Mary's Abbey, with a 
pension for the last abbot and his brethren- The tithes of Ro- 
bert a-wall were granted to the same patentee, subject to a yearly 
rent of£l 10*, Irish, lately purchased by Mr. Christopher Mac 
Donnell, who has also acquired the fee of the soih For a notice 
in 1C02, sec " Dalkey." 

In 1G85, Fvird Kingsland pa^cd patent for (inter alia) Robs- 
walli one hundred and fifteen acres, with the tithes thereof. 

Lead ore has been found in the rocks here, dis- 
|iosed ill ramifications, and crystals resembling Kerry 
stones have likewise been collected here. It has also 
a large vein of black and some white marble, with 
representations of white shells mixed through it, after 
the manner of the Kilkenny marble- 

With the wreck still in view, the fearful thoiiglit 
suggested itself, what a scene would this be in a night 

• Xn'|uis. in Ch. Rememb. Office. 


of storms, the roaring, foamy tide of sea dashing 

against the rocky basement of the castle ; the rain 

pouring a deluge over the cliffs, 

" Giving its sum of more 
To that which had too much ;" 

the agitated moonbeams tossed on the heaving waters; 
the lightning bursting through the opening sky ; and 
above all, the deep, dead tones of signals of distress. 
The gloomy magnificence of the speculation was 
relieved by the presence of a more peaceful and re- 
freshing object, a remarkable, bubbling, fresh spring 
of delicious water, within the immediate proximity of 
the sea; at a few paces beyond which is 


a well-built and pleasantly situated village on the 
brow of the sea, as its name implies, but, being 
without shelter and in an open country, it is much 
exposed to the influence of the winds. The air, 
however, is very pure. In the middle of the town is 
a well of clear and wholesome water, dedicated to the 
Blessed Virgin, and covered with an arched enclo- 
sure, within which her statue was formerly set. The 
chapel is very old and inadequate for its congregation. 
Two national schools have been established here, 
one for boys, the other for girls, which receive re- 
spectively £12 and £20 annually from the Board. 
The new church is a neat, small edifice, on a com- 
manding height, without any mural slabs, nor has the 
grave-yard as yet received any distinguished occu- 
pants. Opposite the church is a Protestant school 
established in 1821. 


Malahide has been a lordship or manor in the 
Talbot family for centuries, having courts leet or 
baron, and comprising the towns and lands of Feltrim, 
Hamonstown, Balvenstown, &c. The royalties ex- 
tend a considerable distance along the sea-shore. The 
lords of the manor have also enjoyed the privilege of 
importing coals and other merchandize into its little 
harbour, duty free. 

Near the town is the castle, or, as it is usually 
termed, the court, the residence of the noble inheritor, 
Lord Talbot de Malahide. This building is large, 
irregular, and unequal in its height, nearly square in 
its outer form, and richly invested with ivy, erected 
in an elevated situation on a limestone rock : it com- 
mands a fine view of the town and bay of Malahide. 
The hall is spacious, and presents all the features of 
antiquity. Indeed, the foundation of this structure 
is commonly referred to the reign of Henry the Se- 
cond, but it received considerable repairs and addi- 
tions in that of Edward the Fourth. A fine porch 
has been constructed to the principal entrance, under 
the direction of the present proprietor, and the build- 
ing considerably improved thereby, in regard both to 
external ornament and internal convenience. There 
are ten rooms on a floor. The lower story, consist- 
ing of servants* offices, &c. is vaulted, and entered by 
a gothic doorway, while the rooms above are ap- 
proached by spiral stone stairs, leading into a striking 
antique apartment, lighted by a pointed window of 
stained glass. The wainscoting of this room is of 
Irish oak, that has now acquired the sombre tint of 
ebony, and is divided into compartments, ornamented 


with sculpture from Scriptural history. Adjoining 
this room is the saloon, a spacious, handsome apart- 
ment, containing some good paintings, particularly a 
valuable little picture, once an altar piece, belonging 
to Mary Queen of Scots, which represents the nati- 
vity, adoration, and circumcision, and was painted by 
Albert Durer ; a portrait of the Dutchess of Ports^ 
mouth, mistress of Charles IL, fondling a contented 
dove ; another of her son, the first Duke of Rich- 
mond ; (these two latter pictures were presents from 
the Dutchess to Mrs. Wogan of Rathcoffy, from whom 
they were inherited by Colonel Talbot;) one of King 
Charles I. dancing with the Infanta of Spain at the 
Escurial, &c. The original moat of the castle has 
been softened off into an ornamental slope, planted 
with Italian cypresses and other evergreens, but the 
battlements still remain terminated at the angles by 
circular towers, and present an imposing front. The 
demesne and gardens are disposed with much correct- 
ness of taste, and the former is beautified with groups 
of plantations, amongst which are some splendid old 
oaks, elms, ashes, horse-chesnuts, and sycamores, that 
seem the representatives of a forest nobility, almost as 
ancient as that of the family by whom they were planted. 
Beside the castle, are the venerable remains of its 
ancient chapel, the entrance to which is guarded by 
two magnificent sycamores. The form which this 
edifice presents, is that of a nave and chancel or 
choir, divided from each other by a spacious gothic 
arch, about the centre of the building ; the aisle is 
sixteen yards by seven, the chancel eleven by six 
yards and a half ; what remains of the east window is 


camposed of muUions and other divisions of tracery 
of the perpendicular style in architecture, finely inter- 
wreathed with ivy. Adjoining the chancel is a pointed 
arch door, leading to some apartments which were 
either occupied as a vestry, or for the residence of the 
monks of the abbey. The western end supports the 
belfry, and Is thickly covered over with ivy. The ex- 
ternal parts of the building are not altogether without 
ornament. The canopies or drip-stones of the arches 
are well cut, and, In consequence of the hardness of the 
black stone or calp with which this church was con- 
structed, they preserve to the present day an uncom- 
mon sharpness in the mouldings. Beneath the belfry 
there Is another handsome gothic window, divided Into 
two lights, with crocketted ogee canopies, though 
greatly mutilated. The walls had originally embattled 
parapets. The Interior Is strikingly shaded with vene- 
rable chesnut trees, that in their season of foliage cast 
a still more sombre interest over the monuments they 
shadow. Of the latter, the most worthy of notice is 
an altar-tomb surmounted with the eflBgy, In bold 
relief, of a female habited In the costume of the 
fifteenth century, and representing the Honourable 
Maud Plunkett, wife of Sir Richard Talbot. She 
had been previously married to Mr. Hussey, son to 
the Baron of Galtrlm, who was slam on the day of 
her nuptials, leaving her the singular celebrity of 
having been a " maid, wife, and widow on the same 
day." There are other monuments of the Talbot 
family, and some more modern of the Henleys and 
Stapletons, scattered through the enclosure — Near 


this, in a garden, is a square tower of the ancient out- 
works of the castle. 

The parish bears the name of the village. It was 
formerly a chapelry dependant on the church of 
Swords, but now ranks as a curacy in its deanery. 
From a very remote period it was held with those of 
KiUeigh and Killossory, and the vicarage of Swords, 
and so episcopally united in 1810. That union has, 
however, been since dissolved, and this parish (the 
rectory being impropriate in the economy of St. Pa- 
trick's) is now conferred as a curacy separately, the 
patronage being in the dean and chapter of St. Pa- 
trick's. The tithes have been compounded for at 
£110 per annum. In the Catholic dispensation it 
continues to be in the union of Swords. According 
to the census of 1831, it contains 217 inhabited 
houses, 237 families, and a total population of 1255 
souls, in which estimate the Catholics bear a propor- 
tion of four to one. It comprises 1533a. Or. 3p., 
principally laid out in tillage. The soil rests upon 
mountain limestone, and the quarries, which are of 
black, grey, and yellow hues, afford numerous organic 
remains. On the south side of the high lands, conti- 
guous to the sea, lead ore has been discovered. Lord 
Talbot de Malahide is the resident proprietor of the 
fee ; the rent of land varies from £5 to £G per acre, 
and a cabin without land lets for £2 10^. per annum. 
The number of labourers in the parish is supposed to 
be about ninety, of whom some have constant em- 
ployment, and the rest occasional. The former class 
receive about \5d. per day, wages. 


The cotton manufactory, hereafter alluded to, as 
having been established in the town, is metamor- 
phosed into one for silk, which gives daily employ- 
ment to but eight individuals. The fishery has also 
so much declined, that there are but three wherries 
here now fit to put to sea. The depth of water in 
the harbour varies from four and a half to five fa- 
thoms at high water, but it has neither pier nor quay, 
nor indeed do they appear much wanted, as the ves- 
sels beach easily on the sandy shore, and may ride 
afloat in the channel in perfect safety, if their draught 
does not exceed ten feet. The oyster bed, however, 
maintains its ancient celebrity. It is of about two 
acres extent, but requires to be renewed. The oys- 
ters are green finned. Malahide likewise affords excel- 
lent cockles, and the strand (a large tract of which 
could be easily recovered from the sea) is covered 
with an abundance of curious shells. There is also 
a considerable salt-work here. 

In 1174 Richard de Talbot, having accompanied Henry the 
Second to Ireland, obtained a grant of Malahide, part of which, 
Malahide beg, he soon afterwards leased to the monks of Mary's 
Abbey, and his son Reginald confirmed the demise. 

In 1 190 Malahide is mentioned as a chapelry dependant on 
Swords. See "Coolock." 

In 1286 Richard de Talbot, grandson of the aforesaid Richani, 
having succeeded to thb manor on the death of his father Adam, 
granted to King Edward all lordships, escheats, reliefs, marriages, 
&c. happening therein, and settled the said manor thereby on his 
son Milo de Talbot In 1800 the said Richard contributed twenty 
shillings as his subsidy for Malahide towards the expenses of the 
Scottish war. Soon after which occur records of stubborn kw- 
suits between his grandson and another Richard Talbot, of Fel- 
trim and Castletown-Dalkey, for the manor of Malahide, in which 


the former was, after a due course of litigation, ruinously success- 
ful. This Richard of Malahide was, in 1315, Sheriff of Dublin, 
he subsequently signalized himself in the wars against Edward 
Bruce, but was, with other noblemen and gentlemen, treacherously 
murdered at Ballybragan, in the County of Louth, in 1329. At 
the time of this event, Thomas, the son and heir of said Richard, 
was a minor, and accordingly the king in that year made a grant 
of the wardship of his estates during the minority, at a certain 
nominal rent to one of the minions of the day.* 

In 1373 Thomas Talbot of Malahide was summoned to at- 
tend a great council held in Dublin, as also to a parliament in the 
same year; and in two years afterwards, the surveyors of the 
harbour of Malahide were instructed to oppose the unlicensed ex- 
portation of corn thence, and also to prevent any of the retinue 
of the chief governor, William de Windsor, from absenting them- 
selves from Ireland in that direction, under the penalty of forfeit- 
ing their horses, arms, and baggage, and proclamation to that effect 
was directed to be made within thb lordslfl|l. 

In 1408, the king, being seised as before in right of a minority, 
granted two-thirds of the manor of Malahide to Sir Thomas Fle- 
ming, the other third being in the hands of the doweress ;f and in 
1433 a grant of the same nature was made under similar circum- 
stances. — Such was the political injustice, by which, in those days, 
the royal exchequer was fed by the spoliation of the orphan and 
the ward ! 

In 1475 the editor of Camden will have it that Malahide was 
erected into a manor and free warren, and that, therefore, the 
bust of Edward IV. was reverentially placed over the castle gate. 
The manor was, however, of far higher antiquity ; but there was 
a grant, in this year, by that monarch to Thomas Talbot, by 
which, in addition to his former privileges of receiving customs, 
holding courts leet and baron, &c., said Thomas was appointed 
high admiral of the seas, with full power and authority to hear 
and determine, in a court of admiralty, all trespasses, &c., by the 
tenants or vassals, or other residents, within the town of Malahide. 
In 1488 Sir Richard Edgecombe, when he came to take oaths 
of allegiance from those who had espoused the cause of Simnel in 

• Rot. in Cane. Hib. t lb. 


Ireland, landed at Malahide, " and there a gentlewoman called 
Talbot received him and made him right good cheer ; and the 
same day, at afternoon, the Bishop of Meath and others came to 
Malahide aforesaid, well accompanied, and fetched the said Sir 
Richard to Dublin, and, at his coming thither, the mayor and sub- 
stance of the city received him at the Black Friars' Gate, at which 
Black Friars (the site of the present Four Courts) the said Sir 
Richard was lodged.*** In a few days afterwards. Sir Peter Talbot, 
Lord of Malahide, made both his homage and fealty to him at 
St. Mary's Abbey. 

For a notice of the rights of the vicar of Swords in Malahide, 
see « Swords" at the year 1489. In 1524 Sir Peter Talbot was 
fined for suffering merchant vessels to break bulk at Malahide, 
contrary to the king's privileges granted to the city of Dublin. 
By his will of the year 1529, he directed that he should be buried 
in the church of Malahide, beside Dame Janet Eustace, and left 
considerable bequests for the repair and maintenance of its 

In 1580 Malahide is enumerated in the Repertorium Viride 
of the unfortunate Allen, Archbishop of Dublin, as still one of the 
exterior chapels dependant on Swords. 

At the hosting of 1532, Thomas Talbot was summoned to 
render scutage and do military service for the manors of Malahide 
and Garristown. 

An inquisition was taken in 1547 concerning the tithes of 
Malahide ; which finds that they issue from the lands called « the 
Courte de Malahyd" and Balregan, and are worth, together with 
the tithe bf fish and altarages, £11 6s. Sd. per annum, besides half 
the oblations at funerals which belong to the Vicar of Swords ; 
the stipend of the curate and repairing of the chancel being de- 
frayed by the farmer of the tithes. In 1559 the tithes of Mala- 
hide, « as well predial as all personal offerings," were demised to 
William Talbot of Malahide for fifty-nine years. 

This locality is subsequently classed by Holinshed amongst 
the chief haven-towns of Ireland. In 1639, Lord Strafford sought 
to wrest from Richard Talbot, the then inheritor of Malahide, the 

* Harrises Hibemica, part 1, p. 31. 



admiralty of its port and other his valuable franchises, but, on his 
pleading the ancient charters under which his family had so long 
inherited, the court gave judgment against the crown, and Straf- 
ford's designs were on this occasion defeated. 

In 1649, John Talbot, the son and heir of said Richard, 
having, in the wars of 1641, embraced that side, to which mis- 
guided loyalty and ill-requited enthusiasm had hurried the gallant 
and respectable gentry of Ireland, shared with them the ruinous 
consequences of one national attainder. He was outlawed, and 
his castle of Malahide, with five hundred acres of land, was, about 
this year, granted to Miles Corbet, the regicide, soon after which, 
it is believed that Oliver Cromwell took up his id>ode for a short 
time here. Corbet held it for about seven years, and, according 
to tradition, it was during his occupation that the chapel was un-^ 
roofed, for the profane purpose of covering a bam with the mate- 
rials. << From this port, Corbet, when outlawed at the period of 
the Restoration, took shipping for the Continent, and subsequently 
expiated his < errors,' as Mr. Brewer mildly terms them, by a de* 
grading death. Shortly after his flight from Malahide the Talbot 
family regained possession of the estate." — Corbet, it may be re* 
marked, was a gentleman of an ancient family in the county of 
Norfolk. He had studied the law at Lincoln's Inn, and for the 
space of thirty-seven years had been chosen a member of the 
successive parliaments. Being appointed one of the High Court 
of Justice for King Charles's trial, he appeared not among the 
judges until the day that sentence was pronounced, when he came 
early in the morning and signed the warrant for his death, his 
signature being the last on the roll. He was afterwards Lord 
Chief Baron in Ireland, and is characterized as in other respects << a 
man of a very tender conscience, and of an holy life and conversa- 
tion, and that as well in his greatest prosperity as in his adversity.'* 
In 1653, and again in 1659, Corbet was one of the five commis- 
sioners appointed for the government of Ireland, he being particu- 
larly directed on the latter occasion, after three months, to come 
into England to give the parliament an account of the affairs of 
thai country. In this office he manifested such integrity towards 
his employers, that in the anxiety to husband tlie treasure of the 
Comnionwealth, he impaired his own estate. On the abdication 


of Richard CromweU, when Lord Montgomery and bb royalist 
aasodates possessed thcmsdves of the Castle of Dublioi and made 
ColonelJones their prisoner, thehr next measure was to seize 
Corbet as he was returning from a conTentide, and to declare for 
a free parli«nent. About the year 1661 he was executed as a 
regicide at Tyburn, being drawn thither on a sledge from the 
Tower ; fais quarters were placed over the city gates, and his head 
upon London bridge. He has been described as then an aged, 
black, swarthy, melancholy-looking man. 

In 1660, « the lands of Malahide being for the most part 
waste and yielding no profit,'' its tithes, which were from a very 
early period appropriated to the economy of St« Patrick's cathe- 
dral, were demised to Ralph Wallis, Esq., for twenty-one years at 
the yeaHy rent of £12. 

In 1665, by the Act of Explanation, John Talbot of Malahide 
was restored to all his lands and estates in this county, as he had 
held the same in 1641, but subject to quit rents. 

In 1661, the Archbishop of Dublin having nominated a com- 
mission of inquiry to determine the real value of the tithes of 
Malahide, Killossery, and Killeigh, which reported them worth 
£135, assigned one-third (£45) to the curate of Swords, tanquam 
ialoiium secundum jura et siatuia hvjus regni ffibemia pro 
Jungendo itio qffkio curaih and the remaining two-thirds be ap- 
pointed should be payable to the Economy of St. Patrick's Cathedral. 

In 1697, Mr. Thomas Smyth was returned as Parish Priest of 
Malahide, and resident at Mr. Talbot's. 

In 1782, Richard Talbot, of Malahide, was one of the gentle- 
men who undertook to raise a regiment of fencibles for the defence 
of his country. Each regiment on this occasion was to consist of 
eight companies, to be raised by the officers in numbers, according 
to their radc* without levy money, while government was to pro- 
vide accoutrements, arms, and pay. 

In 1783, a cotton manufacture having been established here 
by the same spirited individual, and a large mill erected where 
cotton was spun by the action of water, the Irish Parliament voted 
£2000 towards completing its machinery. 

In 1788, by a statute, reciting that the country adjacent to the 
town of Malahide, and also a considerable part of the county of 



Meath, was supplied with coals, culm, slates, timber, and various 
other things, from the harbour of the said town of Malahide, which 
were conveyed thence by land carriage, at a very considerable ex- 
pense, to the great discouragement of persons concerned in manu- 
factures, and that Richard Talbot of Malahide proposed to make 
a navigable canal from Malahide through Swords, to the river of 
Fieldstown, at his own proper charges, said Richard was empow- 
ered to purchase the land in the line of said canal, to open rivers^ 
make weirs, &c. as the company of the Grand Canal had been 
previously enabled to do, and with the right of similar duties and 
tolls. In this last year, however, Malahide sustained a deep loss 
in the death of this its proprietor, of whom it is but justice to re- 
mark, in strict reference to the locality, that, when he succeeded 
to the estate of his uncle there, he found it covered by a number 
of idle and disorderly peasants and fishermen, without employment 
for themselves or their destitute families ; upon which he imme- 
diately applied himself to incite their industry, usefully directed its 
objects, and expended a large sum of his own money in building 
'and furnishing the cotton works, and especially in the construc- 
tion of a very ingenious water-mill. The auspicious expectations, 
which those projects induced, were, however, too soon disappoint- 
ed, and the consequent failure of the cotton trade here, as also at 
Balbriggan and Prosperous, led to the most deplorable conse- 
quences. Parliament had liberally contributed to the expenses of 
the projectors and proprietors of those works at their outset, but 
refusing a second grant, these persons became insolvent, and 
crowds of artisans being suddenly dismissed from their employ- 
ment, the various families, who, " a httle month" previously, had 
exhibited a picture of regular and thriving industry, were devoted 
to penury and idleness. 

In 1814, the Board of First Fruits granted £800 in aid of 
building the church here. 

On the borders of the village* is SeaparkXourt, 
finely situated, with a sloping and ornamental lawn in 
front. It is a square building, of ample proportions, 
having a flat roof concealed by a parapet that sur- 


rounds the whole structure, and was erected by Nicho- 
las Morres, Esq. second son of Sir John Morres, of 
Knockagh Castle, in the county Tipperary, who ob- 
tained this portion of the manor on his marriage with 
Susanna, eldest daughter of Richard Talbot of Mala- 
hide Castle. It has, however, much declined from its 
former appearance and the descriptions of more en- 
thusiastic tourists. It may be mentioned, that the 
above Nicholas was buried in the church of Malahide, 
that one of his sons, Nicholas Morres, entered into the 
service of France in Bulkeley's regiment, in 1733, of 
which he became Lieutenant Colonel in 1756, and 
died in 1796 at the Chateau d'Amboise, without 

When the tourist has concluded his observation 
of this interesting locality, let him return to the vene- 
rable remains of its chapel. His eye will repose with 
reverence on the ivy tendrils that flower over its walls ; 
he will admire the singular complication of their 
branches, the vivid hue of their leaves, the varying 
sunshine scattered over them ; and, above all, the un- 
worldly tenacity with which they cling to ruin ; and, 
haply while he sits upon a monument, and not a sound 
disturbs the solemn gloom, except when some scared 
bird flits from the matted ivy, or a breeze murmurs 
drowsily over the floor, and shakes the withered leaves 
upon its surface, he too will recal the proud deeds of 
those, with whom this locality has been from time 
immemorial identifled. 


The Family of Talbot. 

The illustrious achieremeDts of this family are traced in the 
history of every ctTiFized nation, and every where attach to them 
the reverence justly conceded to a long line of ancestry, unsullied 
hy the crimes that too frequently stain the annals of contempora- 
neous houses. Even in the political vicissitudes of these countries 
the Talbots have survived, both in England and Ireland, in baro- 
nial rank, for upwards of seven centuries, and neither treasons nor 
attainders have ever clouded their splendour. 

Like most of the nobility of the British empire, they look to 
Normandy for their origin, and claim, as their remote ancestors, 
the Talbots, Barons of Cleuville, in the country of Caui. In 
1066^ Hugh and Richard « Talebot" are enumerated amongst the 
Norman knights attached to William the Conqueror, and so espe- 
cially noticed both in Bromton's list and in the ancient Chronicle 
of Normandy. The former appears to be the Ivo Taiibois, whom 
the Conqueror enriched with the estate of Spalding and the ad- 
joining country, while about the year 1070 Richard Talbot is 
mentioned, in Domesday Book as holcHng nine hides of land of 
£arl Waher Giffbrd, and Hereford Castle and other possessions 
in Herefordshire, in capite, of the Conqueror. He had two sons, 
Geoffrey and Hugh ; the former held twenty knights' fees in 
Herefordshire in the time of Henry the First, and was a steady 
supporter of the pretensions of the Empress Maud ; and from his 
son William, who held Hereford Castle in the time of King Ste- 
phen, descended the Talbots of Bashall and Thomhill, in York- 
vhire. Hugh, the second son of Richard, was Governor of the 
Castle of Plessy, in Normandy, in 1118, and married the daughter 
of William de Mandeville, on whose decease he became a monk 
in the celebrated monastery of Beaubec, in Normandy. He also 
left a son Richard and other issue. 

In the year 1 165, Richard, the son of the befbre-mentioned 
Hugh, had a grant of the Lordship of Eccleswell and Linton, in 
Herefordshire ; and, having long previously married the daughter 
of William de Montgomery, had issue by her, three sons ; Gil- 
bert, his heir. Lord of Eccleswell, and ancestor to the Earls of 


Shrewsbury, and Richard and Robert Talbot, who, according to 
Sir William Betham's pedigree of the family, accompanied King 
Henry into Ireland, where Richard obtained the Lordship of Ma- 
lahide as a fief of the crown as above mentioned, and in connexion 
wilh which his descendants are traced in the foregoing pages. 

About the year 1240, Gilbert Talbot, the descendant of Ri- 
chard mentioned at 1165, having married Gundeline, daughter of 
Rhys ap Griffith, Prince of Wales, changed hb ancient armorials 
for those of that prince. 

In 1259, the noble monastery of the Holy Trinity was founded 
for monks of the order of £remites of St. Augustine, on the south 
side of the Liffey, (where within this century stood the theatre in 
Crow-street,) by the Talbots of Templeogue; and in 1262, Ri- 
chard Talbo| was Archbishop of Dublin. See the ** Memoirs of 
the Archbishops of Dublin." 

In 1800, Richard Talbot, the son of Gilbert, mentioned at 
1240, and Lord of Eccleewell, joined in the celebrated letter ad- 
dressed to the Pope from Lincoln, on behalf of the Commons of 
England, and in assertion of the King's right to the supreme do- 
minion of the realm of Scotland. 

In 131 1, John Talbot was summoned to attend the parliament 
of Kilkenny ; and in 1315, Richard Talbot, the lineal descendant 
in the fourth degree of the before-mentioned Richard of Malabide, 
distinguished himself under the celebrated Lord John de Berming- 
ham, afterwards Earl of Louth, in the service against Edward 
Bruce, brother of Robert Bruce, King of Scotland, who had in- 
vaded Ireland, and overran and devastated the whole country, 
until he was eventually slain, and his head sent to King Edward 
the Second, in 1318. This Richard was afterwards, in 1329, 
treacherously slain, with 200 noblemen and gentlemen, by the 
gentry of the county Louth. 

In 1322, Sir Gilbert Talbot, Banneret, of the county of Hert- 
ford, and Sir Richard Talbot, junior, having adhered to the Earl 
of Lancaster and the barons, attacked and burned the town of 
Bridgenorth, whereupon the ^eriffs throughout England were com- 
manded to raise the posse comitalus to take them. They were, 
however, more gloriously captured in arms at the battle of Bo- 
roughbridge ; but Gilbert was released on payment of the enor- 


inous fine of £2000, and an engagement to deliver annuaUy to the 
king one ton of wine, price forty shillings. In the same year ano-» 
ther Sir Richard Talbot was summoned from Worcestershu-e to 
do service against the Scots ; and soon afterwards another Sir 
Gilbert was constituted Justice of South Wales, with a grant of 
lands in that district. 

In 1326, Richard Talbot was intrusted with the defence and 
custody of Newcastle Mac Kinnegan, with a salary of £20 per 

In 1334, Richard Talbot, ancestor of Lord Furnival, was one 
of the English lords who joined Baliol, invaded Scotland by sea, 
and routed the Scottish army at Gleddesmore. On BalioPs esta- 
blishment, he was restored to lands in Scotland, which he claimed 
in right of his wife, the heiress of John Comin, Lord of Bade- 
noch ; while, by Edward the Third, he was, in 1338, made Go- 
vernor of Berwick-upon-Tweed, and Justice there as well as within 
all the king's lands in Scotland. In 1347 he was with Edward the 
Third at the siege of Calais, where he had under his command 
one baronet, fourteen knights, ninety-two esquires, and eighty-two 

In 1352, Sir Thomas Talbot, of Malahide, had a grant from 
the crown of exemption from serving on juries, or at assizes, or 
executing the offices of sheriff, escheator, or other minister against 
his will ; and was one of the knights summoned to the Irish parlia- 
ments of 1373 and 1375 ; about which latter time Thomas Talbot 
was Constable of the Castle of Arklow, in the heart of " the Irish 
enemy ;" and in 1377 Reginald was ordered to aid in defending 
the marches of the Pale in Ireland, with his available men at 
arms. He was afterwards Sheriff of the county Dublin. Branches 
of the family were at the same time established in the counties of 
Carlow, Kilkenny, Louth, Wexford, and at Moyrath, in the county 

In 1373, Thomas Talbot, of the Bashall line, commanded the 
castle and town of Berwick ; in 1389 was Constable of the Castle 
of Guisnes, in Picardy ; and in 1406 was sent on service into Ire- 
land. In 1379, Richard Talbot of Malahide was at the parlia- 
ment, or rather council, convened to Baltinglas, for the purpose 
of treating on terms of peace with the O'Byrnes, O'Tooles, O'No- 


lans, and Mac Morroughs. He was afterwards sheriff of the county 

In 1395, Richard, the son of Gilbert Tdbot, by Petronilla, 
the sister of the Earl of Ormond, acquired the Lordship of Wex- 
ford, with various liberties thereunto annexed. It was he who, 
seeing how open and defenceless Kilkenny was on every side, and 
willing to testify his respect for his uncle, who had then recently 
become its proprietor, as well as to attach the townsmen to the 
family, surrounded that city with a strong walL He had after- 
wards a grant from the crown of the temporalities of the see of 
Ferns, during its vacancy, rent free. 

In 1414, when the realm seemed to sink under the compli- 
cated oppression of war and faction, Sir John Talbot, Lord Fur- 
nival, a man distinguished by mihtary abilities, was appointed to 
the government of Ireland for the term of six years, with the ex- 
traordinary power of appointing his own deputy when and as often 
as he pleased. The most intrepid of the enemies of English go- 
Ternment yielded to the influence of a character, which subsequent 
events so strongly developed, and various indentures between him 
and the Irish leaders, CConor, O'Brien, &c., yet extant in the 
rolls of chancery, so strongly testify the fears which his presence 
had then excited, as might almost justify the application of that 
sentiment in this country, which Shakspeare attributes to the sor- 
rowing mothers of France. Unattended, however, as he was by 
any army, and obliged to rely upon the forces and supplies raised 
in* Ireland, he pleaded necessity for recurring to the oppressive and 
arbitrary impositions used by his predecessors. The English Pale^ 
it is true, was not enlarged by his exertions, but for the time it 
was defended, and so considerable was such service deemed, that 
the lords and commons in 1417 transmitted to the king the speak- 
ing testimony as to the Irish mode of government, detailed in the 
General History of this County. On being recalled from the go- 
vernment of Ireland, he passed into France with the English army, 
did signal service at the siege of Caen, but was not at Agincourt, 
where, however, several of his name and kindred distinguished 
themselves. In 1420 he entered Paris with King Henry the 
Fifth in triumph, and on the accession of Henry the Sixth, enjoy- 
ed the special favour of the Duke of Bedford, regent of France. 

202 COUNTY or dublik. 

In 1428 he had the command of the whole English army then in 
France, but in the following year was defeated at Patay by the 
Maid of Orleans, and himself taken prisoner, idthough he 

* * above human thought 
Enacted wonders with his sword and lance.** 

nor was he released until 1433, a circumstance which evinces (hat he 
had no participation in the least justifiable act of the regent's admi- 
nistration, the putting to death a young, beautiful, and patriotic fe- 
male, on charges the most vague and unfounded. On being re- 
leased he reconquered the fort of Jouy, demolished the castle of 
Beaumont, took and regarrisoned those of Creil and Pont de St. 
Maixence. In 1438 he took those of Longueville, Guillemcourt, 
&c. In 1441 he was appointed a marshal of France ; in the follow- 
ing year was created Earl of Shrewsbury and Wexford, in which 
right he appointed his seneschal for the liberty of Wexford ; in 1443 
was one of the ambassadors to negotiate the peace with Charles the 
Seventh; and in 1446 was created Earl of Waterford and Baron 
of Dungarvan, with all castles, lordships, baronies, knight's fees, 
advowsons of churches, wrecks of the sea from Youghal to Water- 
ford, &c., to hold to him and his heirs male by homage, fealty, 
and the service of being seneschal of the king and his heirs in his 
land of Ireland. In the same year he was again lord lieutenant 
of Ireland, and held a parliament at Trim« 

In 1452 he appeared before Bourdeaux, was admitted by the 
citizens, and on the 17th of July following, at their earnest solici- 
tation, attacked the French army then lying before Castillon, on 
the river Dordon. At first he was successful, but his horse being 
killed, and himself immediately after, his force was beaten, and, 
though the loss was not very great in the action, yet in its conse- 
quences it induced the total severance of Guienne from the Bri- 
tish dominions. The body of this, the English Achilles, was 
brought back to his native country and interred in the abbey of 
Whitchurch. His son John, Viscount Lisle, was also slain with 
him in this engagement. Camden says, the sword of the father 
was found in his time in the river Dordon, with the unclassical in- 

"SumTalboti,M IIU C XLIII, 
Pro vincere inimicos meos." 


*« How would it haTe joyod brave Talbot," exclaims Nash," " the 
terror of the French, to think that, after be had been two hundred 
years in his tombj he should triumph again on the stage, and have 
his bones new embalmed with the tears often thousand spectators 
at least, who in the tragedian that represents his person imagine 
they behold him fresh bleeding.*^ 

Another Talbot, Sir Gilbert of Irchenfield and Bhurkmere in 
Shropshire, was in 1418 made governor-general of the marches in 
Normandy, and was joined in commission with Sir Gilbert Umfre- 
viUe, to reduce M the forts and castles in that country to obe- 
dience. According to the Chronicle of Kirkstall he died during 
the siege of Rouen. 

In 1443 Ridiard Talbot, brother of Lord Furnival, was Arch- 
bishop of DubliU) and in the same year, on the death of Arch- 
biehep Prene, was elected Primate of Armagh by its dean and 
chapter, but decliaed the proffered dignity. See of him in the 
<< Memours of the Archbishops of Dublin." His nephew. Sir John 
Talboly the son of Lord Furnival, was in 1447 appointed Lord 
Chanoellor of Ireland, with power to appoint a deputy, which he 
exercised in 1452 in favour of Sir Thomas Talbot, prior of Kil- 
oiainham. His elder brother, the second Earl of Shrewsbury, was 
no less involved than his father had been in the turmoil of war. 
He had accompanied that &ther both in France and Ireland, and 
when he was slain at Castillon, the second Earl was appointed by 
parliasoent one of the guardians of the sea. In 1456 he was made 
Lodrd Treasurer of England, and in 1460, having adhered to the 
House of Lancaster, was slain at the battle of Northampton, as 
was abo his third son, Sir Christopher Talbot. 

John, the third Earl of Shrewsbury, was at the second battle 
of St. Albans, and was knighted by Prince Edward. To his 
youBger brother, Gilbert Talbot, Henry the Seventh, in the com- 
mencement of his reign, granted the fine seat of Grafton, in Wor- 
cestershire, which had been forfeited by Sir Humphrey Stafford, 
an attainted Yorkist. The king, in further testimony and reward 
of hia bravery and prudence, made him a Knight of the Garter, 
and Governor of Drokwich, in France. It appears that this Gil- 
bert manifested his attachment for Henry by joining him at New- 
port, when on his way from Shrewsbury to Bosworth, « with the 


whole power," says Hall, who erroneously caHs him George, " of 
the young Earl of Shrewsbury, then being in ward, which were 
accounted to the number of 2000 men." According to Hohnshed, 
he commanded on that day the right wing of the victorious army. 
In the same year he was sheriff of Shropshire. His nephew 
George, fourth Earl of Shrewsbury, appeared in person at the 
battle of Stoke ; and in 1490 had a command in the detachment 
that was sent in aid of Maximilian the Emperor, against Charles 
King of France. In 1513 he commanded the van of the English 
army at the siege of Therouenne ; in 15^0 was present at the 
memorable interview between the kings of England and France, 
on the "field of the cloth of gold ;" and in 1523, being then 
Lieutenant General of the North, he made some inroads into 

In 1537, by the Irish Act of Absentees, which recited the rui- 
nous consequences occasioned by the absence of persons having 
lands in Ireland, and that previous statutes had imposed the for- 
feiture of two-thirds of the income of such absentees, and that the 
other third should be forfeited for mesne rates, George Talbot, 
Earl of Waterford and Salop, was declared one of that class, and 
his Irish estates- were accordingly thereby vested in the crown, with 
savings, however, for the boroughs of Ross, Wexford, &c. 

In 1538, Peter Talbot had a grant in fee fi'om the crown, of 
the manors and castles of Powerscourt, Fassaroe, and Rathdown, 
which, however, in 1540, he was induced, or rather compelled, by 
the authority of the crown to surrender. About this time flou- 
rished Robert Talbot, of the Grafton line, one of the earliest 
English antiquaries, and whose collections proved greatly servicea- 
ble to Leland, Bale, Caius, Camden, and others. His manuscripts 
are now in the library of Rennet's College, Cambridge. 

In 1553, Francis, Earl of Shrewsbury, was appointed Lord 
President of the Council in the North, and in 1557, Captain Ge- 
neral there. George, the sixth Earl, was one of the most upright as 
well as able statesmen of his age ; he was of the Council of Queen 
(Mary, and exhibited an instance remarkable in those days of jea- 
lousy and dbtrust, of equal favour from her successor, who chose 
him to fill the same station, and afterwards appointed him to the 
dangerous office of holding Mary Queen of Scotland in custody 


at Chatsworth, which trust he fulfilled for seventeen years. There, 
too, he entertained the Earl of Leicester, for \vhich he received 
an autograph letter from the queen, in 1577. Though he may 
thus be said to have guided three females, nay three queens, he 
was unequal to the government of his own wife ; and he, to whom 
the proud daughters and the niece of Henry the Eighth submitted 
their judgment, was subject to the intolerable caprice of an ambi- 
tious and self-willed woman, who, not content with having induced 
him to settle vast property on the children of her third husband, 
the Cavendishes, to the prejudice of his own, intermeddled with 
state affairs, and boldly released him from his superintendence of 
the captive princess by a suggestion of jealousy, which might have 
cost the earl his head. Several of his letters, relative to the Scot- 
tish queen, are to be found in Lodge's Illustrations of English 

The youngest daughter of Gilbert, seventh Earl of Shrews- 
bury, was, at the request of Queen Elizabeth, her godmother, 
named Alethea, << out of her Majesty's true consideration and 
judgment of that worthy family, which was ever true to the state." 
In 1580 flourished Thomas Talbot, an eminent antiquary, and son 
of John Talbot, of Salebury, in Lancashire. 

In 1613 William Talbot was one of the most strenuous of the 
agents despatched to his Majesty by the Irish Recusants, for 
which he was afterwards committed to the Tower of London, 
where he suffered a long imprisonment, and, before he was per- 
mitted to return to Ireland, was mulcted by the Star Chamber 
of England in the enormous fine of £10,000. 

In 1617 died Edward Talbot, eighth Earl of Shrewsbury, to 
whose memory a splendid monument is erected in St. Edmund's 
. chapel, Westminster Abbey. On his decease, the first line of the 
Earls of Shrewsbury having become extinct, John Talbot of 
Longford, near Newport, the fifth in degree from Sir Gilbert 
Talbot, mentioned as having commanded at Bosworth-field,' suc- 
ceeded to the title, which he transmitted to the present earl. 

In 1630 Francis Talbot passed patents for upwards of 25,000 
acres in the county of Wexford, and became the founder of the 
families of Castle Talbot and Talbot Hall. The name was also 
established in the counties of Monaghan, Cavan, and Wicklow. 


In 1638 Gilbert Talbot, of the Worcestershire Ime, was, bj his 
Majesty sent envoy to the republic of Vbnice. He was after- 
wards a sufferer in the civil wars, but subsequently obtained thd 
honour of knighthood, became master of the jewel house, and was 
one of the first twenty-one appointed of the council of the Royal 
Society on its first institution. 

In December, 1641, John Talbot, of Robertstown, was one of 
the gentlemen of the Pale who assembled at Swords, on the re* 
quisition of Luke Netterville ; relying, however, on the king^s 
proclamation of pardon to all who would come in and submit, he 
and omiy others of the principal gentry of the Pale immediately 
accepted the royal invitation, but the puritan Justices, seeing that 
this submission, if allowed to become too general, would defcfit 
their expectation of forfeitures, resolved to put an effectual termi- 
nation to it, and accordingly indicted Mr. Talbot and the others 
as traitors, for having conversed with some rebels, even when the 
rebels were masters of the country, and they wrote to Ormonde 
that very many of the best rank were endeavouring to make sub- 
missions, but that the state had been too indulgent to the Irish in 
former ages since the conquest ; that, if the governors of Ireland 
had been careful to improve the frequent opportunities offered to 
them by rebellions, they would have prevented all future atteu^ts ; 
that rebels should not be allowed to wipe out their crimes by sub- 
missions, and that, therefore, they hoped his Ms^esty would make 
such settlement throughout the whole kingdom as King James 
had done in Ulster.* Mr. Talbot, therefore, and all those who 
had so submitted, were thrown into prison, and some of them put 
to the rad^ to extort such confessions as might enable them, says 
Carte, « to impeach all the Catholic gentlemen in the kingdom, 
and particularly those of the Pale, whose lands were best im- 
proved, with being concerned in the rebellion." 

In 1642 Henry Talbot, member of parliament for the bo- 
rough of Newcastle in Ireland, was expelled from the house on 
account of his royalist principles; at which time, Garrett Talbot, 
brother of Sir Robert Talbot, was campaigning under Lord Cas- 

• Carte's Life of Ormond, vol. i. p. 292. 


tlehaven in Monster, while in Ei^Uind, in 1644^ Mr. Edward 
Talbot, brother of the Earl of Shrewsbury, was shun at Marston 
Moor, fighting for Charles the Fhst, and in 1645^ Sir Gilbert 
Talbot, after an ineffectual defence of Tiverton, of which he was 
governor, was, wkh the garrison, taken prisoner by General 

Id 1646v Sir Robert Talbot was one of the commissioners for 
the Irish on the occasion of the Articles of Peace between them 
and the Marquis of Ormond. His signature, and those of James 
Talbot of Templeogue, and Colonel Gilbert Talbot, appear to 
the celebrated *^ Protestation and Remonstrance of the Roman 
Catholic Nobility and Gentry of Ireland," alluded to in the *^ Me* 
moirs of the Archbishops of Dublin.'' In 1664^ a petition, nume- 
rously signed by the noblemen and gentry of Ireland, for the 
remuneration of the above Sir Robert Talbot, was presented to 
the crown, and it would appear that the Lord Lieutenant was 
thereupon ordered to authorize the assessment thereof. 

In the time of the Commonwealth, Sherington Talbot of 
Worcestershire, a zealous royalist, was obliged to compound for 
his estate with the Parliament Committee for the sum of £2,01 1, 
while> in testimony of the acknowledged attachment of this family 
to the iStuart cause, Charles, the twelfth Earl of Shrewsbury, who 
was born in 1660, had the distinguished honour of being the first 
sul^^ect to whom Charles the Second was sponsor, after his resto- 

In 1665, Sir Henry Talbot had a grant of hmds in Connaught, 
in exchange for certain estates of his adjoining to the castle of 
Dublin, and convenient for his Majesty's service-— Of Doctor 
Peter Talbot, see the ^ Memoirs of the Archbishops of Dublin.'' 

In May, 1672, his brother Colonel Richard Talbot, was captured 
with several others by the Dutch in their attack on the Engli^ fleet 
in Solebay. In 1686, he was elevated to the titles and honours of 
Lord Baron of Talbotstown, Viscount of Baltinglas, and Earl of 
Tyrcoaoel, to hold to him and his heirs male, with remainders 
over to his nephews, Sir William Talbot of Cartown, and William 
Tdbet of Haggardstown, in tail male, and in four years afterwards 
was created Marquis and Duke of Tyrconnel. His history is 
that of the reign in which he flourished. He was married to the 


beautiful Miss Jennings, sister to the Duchess of Marlborough, 
who, on her lord's decease, obtained permission to erect a nun- 
nery for poor Clares, in King-street, Dublin, where in obscure 
retirement she closed her days at the advanced age of ninety-two, 
and was buried in St. Patrick's cathedraL The convent, though 
no longer used as such, is still standing. In the civil wars of 
1688, this nobleman forfeited considerable estates in Ireland, as 
did also Sir William Talbot in the city of Limerick, George Tal- 
bot in the county Roscommon, James Talbot in the said county 
of Roscommon, and in the county and city of Dublin. 

In 1689, Colonel Talbot was one of those taken prisoner at 
the siege of Derry, as was Brigadier Marks Talbot at the battle 
of Aughrim, both fighting for the cause of James the Second. 

Charles Talbot, the twelfth Earl of Shrewsbury, before alluded 
to, was lord chamberlain of the household to King James the Se- 
cond, he subsequently, however, resigned the command of a regi- 
ment in his service, mortgaged his estate, and espoused the politics 
and succession of the Prince of Orange. For which, and many 
good offices performed, he was made principal secretary of state 
and knight of the garter ; he was also appointed commissioner of 
the court of claims, bore one of the swords at the coronation, and 
was at one and the same time lord Ueutenant of three counties, 
Hertfordshire, Worcestershire, and Herefordshire. In 1694 he 
was created Marquis of Alton and Duke of Shrewsbury, and is 
described as having possessed no ordinary measure of learning, a 
correct judgment, and a placid demeanour, which insensibly attach- 
all who knew him, qualities that with his general popularity induced 
King William to give him the epithet of " The King of Hearts." 
In 1713 he filled three posts which no single individual had 
ever occupied before — those of lord lieutenant of Ireland, lord 
high treasurer of Great Britain, and lord chamberlain of the house- 
hold. His administration in Ireland was honourable to himself 
and beneficial to the country. " I come here," he took an early 
occasion to observe, <^ not to be of any party, but to administer jus- 
tice equally to all, to serve the queen, and to protect her subjects 
in their liberty." During a contested election in Dublin, when the 
Tories, as a mark of distinction, wore laurels in their hats, he ad- 
mitted no one to his levees who carried this or any other badge of 


dissen^on. His reward, as has been too frequently the result^f 
such impartiality, was the distrust of each party, and the abuse of 
both. He was openly ridiculed in satires and lampoons, and, in 
allusion to a personal defect, was insulted on the very walls of the 
Castle by the nickname of " Polyphemus,'* or « Ireland's Eye." 

In 1722 William Talbot, of the Grafton line, was promoted to 
the bishopric of Durham, of which county he was also made lord 
lieutenant and custos rotulorum. His eldest son, Giarles Talbot, 
was in 1733 constituted lord high chancellor of England, and 
created a baron of Great Britain, by the title of Lord Talbot, Ba- 
ron of Hensol, in the county of Glamorgan. It has been said of 
him, "that eloquence never afforded greater charms from any 
orator, than when public attention listened to his sentiments, deli- 
vered with the most graceful modesty, nor did wisdom and know- 
ledge ever support it with more extensive power, nor integrity 
enforce it with greater weight." Malkin, in his work on South 
Wales, relates of him, that riding unattended in that county by 
the bank of a river, near Hensol, which he wished to cross, he 
inquired of a countryman whether it was fordable there ; the rustic 
nodded assent, but not in a manner that fully satisfied Lord Talbot, 
who repeated the question in Welch, when the man with much 
emotion exclaimed, '< Oh no, for heaven's sake do not attempt it ; 
it is very dangerous ; come with me and I will shew you the ford. 
— ^I took you for a Saxon 1" 

The Honourable and Reverend James Talbot, fourth son of 
George, the thirteenth E^rl of Shrewsbury, by the daughter of 
Lord Fitzwilliam, was educated some time at Paris, and after- 
wards at the College of Douay, where he received orderS| and took 
the degrees of Bachelor and Licentiate of Divinity. About the 
year 1759 he was consecrated Bishop of Birtha, ^^inpartihus in* 
JideUum^^ and appointed vicar apostolic over the Roman Catholics 
in the London district, comprehending most of the southern coun- 
ties, the body of the English Roman Catholics being divided into 
four districts since some time before the Revolution, over each of 
which an apostolical vicar presides. He resided during the greater 
portion of his life at Hammersmith, and died there in 1790 at a 
very advanced age. In 1782 Richard Talbot was one of the four 
delegates of the province of Leinster who entered into the resolu- 



tion — " That the addresses of the Irish parliament having dis- 
claimed any power or authority of any sort whatsoever in the par- 
liament of Great Britain over this realm, we shall consider a repeal 
of the sixth of George the First by the British parliament, made 
in pursuance of the said addresses, a complete renunciation of all 
the claims contained in the said statute, and as such we will ac- 
cept it and deem it satisfactory." In 1797 the fort of Irois, in 
the West Indies, was gallantly defended by Lieutenant Talbot of 
the 82nd Regiment, who, however, died of the wounds received 
on that occasion. In 1805 Captain John Talbot of the Leandcr, 
retook that vessel, and captured the Ville de Milan, and in 1812, 
as commander of the Victorious he captured the Rivoli, after a 
severe action, in consequence of which he was created a Knight of 
the Bath. 

In 1810 Neil Talbot, brother of the present Lord Talbot dp 
Malahide, was killed at Ciudad Rodrigo, where he commanded as 
Lieutenant- Colonel of the 14th Light Dragoons. His lordship 
has also a brother, Thomas Talbot, member of the senate of Up- 
per Canada, and colonel of the militia of that province. In 1831 
Lady Margaret Talbot, their mother, was created Baroness Talbot 
de Malahide and Lady Malahide of Malahide for her life, with re- 
mainder on her decease to these her heirs male, in right of which 
limitation the present lord now enjoys the dignity. 

Other particulars of the Irish line, not enumerated in this me- 
moir, will be found in the above sketch of Malahide, and in other 
parts of this << History," as directed in the General Index. 

After passing the pretty cottage of Mrs. Clare at 
right, the road from Malahide to the metropolis pre- 
sents in its outset a noble and extensive view of the 
northern parts of the county. At the village of Yel- 
low Walls, a road turns to the right over a little rivu- 
let to Swords, and opens upon the sea. Its boundary 
ditch, on the day of observation, presented the infant 
wild strawberry, and the earliest primroses of spring. 
Near it, on the lands of Mantua, may be seen the re- 


mains of an ancient fort, close to which is Seaiown, 
formerly the estate of Christopher Russell, and for* 
feited by him in 1641. 

Turning from the Dublin road to a hill at right, 
the tourist will reach the interesting scene of 


a village at the foot of a hill, that commands an ex- 
tensive and beautiful prospect over the sea imd the 
whole country of Fingal, with the expanse of the bay 
and the Rochestown and Wicklow hills beyond it. 
On its summit is a large windmill, a very conspicuous 
object from every direction j near which are some 
ruins of the ancient residence of the Fagan family, 
long the proprietors of the district, and to whose ge- 
nerosity the place was probably indebted for its name, 
i. e. the hill of hospitality. They held it, however, 
as of the manor of Malahide. The fee is now in 
Captain Sever, an absentee. 

The rent of land here is about four guineas per 
acre j the labourer's wages, sixteen pence per day. Its 
soil rests on mountain limestone, and the quarries 
present numerous organic remains. 

Its tithes, the extent and value of which are defined by an in. 
quisition of 1547, were, with those of Drjnamy Nevinstown, 
Brownstown, &c. early appropriated to the Economy of St. Pa. 

In the reign of Elizabeth, when the unfortunate Earl of 
Desmond was a prisoner of state, his health requiring country 
air, the custody of his person was consigned to Christopher Fagan, 
of Feltrim, who magnanimously informed the government, that, 
as his guest, the earl was most welcome to diet and lodging at his 



house^ but that he should never become bis keeper. Desmond, 
in such liberal guardianship, was permitted to walk abroad on his 
parol, a privilege which he abused, and effected his escape into 
Munster, where, entering soon after into open rebellion, he was 
treacherously murdered by some of his own followers. 

This hill, now covered with furze and brushwood, was then 
darkened by a venerable forest ; yet amidst its romantic rocks 
and the everlasting scenery that surrounds it, associations con- 
nected with the above event seemed to rise from the soil, and 
fill the memory with the national inflictions of that period. The 
vision of the captive Desmond appeared environed by those 
English knights who, early in the reign of Elizabeth, when unable 
to equip themselves for the distant spoliation of the then newly dis- 
covered world, besought their gracious sovereign to license an 
expedition and invasion of Ireland ; doubtless urging, that it would 
initiate all who undertook it in the glorious labours of civilizing a 
savage and converting a superstitious' nation, — an apprenticeship 
of Buccaneers, which the queen was induced to legitimate, — and 
"in consideration thereof" the novices modestly covenanted to 
remit to the Englbh treasury about a groat per annum, for every 
acre of their acqubitions, in which faithful promises originated 
their cognomen of "undertakers." 

The palatinate of Desmond was the great object of this guilty 
confederacy ; while, in truth, extending as it did over one hundred 
and fifty miles of territory in the province of Munster, and com- 
prising upwards of half a million of acres, over which the earl 
claimed and exercised an exclusive and uncontrolled jurisdiction, 
its continuance in such a state seemed to justify the political ap- 
prehensions of the English government. The history, however, 
of this campaign, and the consequent confiscation and allotment of 
a province, are wholly beyond the scope of the present work ; and 
it shall only be remarked, what many perhaps who read these 
pages will learn with surpnse, that amongst these adventurers 
were the accomplished Sir Walter Raleigh and Edmund Spenser, 
the author of the " Faerie Queen." 

The Christopher Pagan, alluded to as having entertained Des- 
mond here, had been in 1573 Lord Mayor of the city of Dublin ; 
and it is of him, although erroneously styled " Nicholas" Pagan, 


Holinshed sayS) << There hath been of late Worshipful ports kept 
by Master Fyan, who was twice mayor, Master Segrave, Tho- 
mas Fitz Simons, Robert Cusack, Walter Cusack, Nicholas Fagan^ 
and others, and not only their officers so hr excel in hospitality, 
but also the greater part of the civity b generally addicted to such 
ordinary and standing houses, as it would make a man muse which 
way they are able to bear it out, but only by the goodness of God, 
which is the upholder and furtherer of hospitality. What should 
I here speak of their charitable alms daily and hourly extended to 
the needy. The poor prisoners, both of the Newgate and the 
Castle, with three or four hospitals, are chiefly, if not only relicTed 
by the citizens. Furthermore, there are so many other extraor- 
dinary beggars that daily swarm there, so charitably succoured, as 
that they make the whole civitie in effect their hospital." 

In 1611, John Fagan passed fresh patent for the town and 
lands of Feltrim, a mill and 240 acres, Effemock, 54 acres, 
Mabestown, 106 acres, kc. ; all which he had inherited from his 
father Richard ; but John's descendant, Christopher, forfeited 
these paternal estates in Cromwell's time, to which, however, he 
was restored in 1663, by a decree of the Court of Claims, adjudg- 
ing him an innocent Papist, and giving him his former possessions 
in tail male, including the above lands, as also others in Coolock, 
Bullock, Dalkey, and considerable estates in Lusk, of all which he 
died so seised in 1682, and which, together with about 1400 acres 
in the barony of Duleek, were wholly forfeited by his son Richard 
in the confiscations of 1688. On that event, and on the death of 
his brother Peter without issue, his sister, Lady Strabane, having 
previously, in 1684, obtained a grant of the reversion of these es- 
tates expectant on the old entail, to her son Claude, Lord Aber- 
corn, they would have vested accordingly in his family, but appear 
to have been reassumed by the crown. 

The ancient residence here was one of the numerous localities, 
named as having received the unfortunate James the Second in 
his flight from the Boyne, and the chamber was at no very remote 
period confidently shewn, where he passed the weary hours of one 
wretched night. 

In 1699, the trustees of the forfeited estates complained in an 
official Report, that so hasty had been several of the grantees or 


their agents in the disposition of the forfeited woods, that vast 
numbers of trees had been cut and sold for not above 6J. a-piece ; 
and in particular, they stated that the Uke waste was still continu- 
ing on the lands of Feltrim, within six miles of Dublin, and the 
woods of 0*Shaughhe8sy in the county of Galway. 

in 1703, Folliottl9herigley had a grant of the town and lands 
of Feltrim, Effernock, and MabestowH, $25 acres, « the estate of 
Richard Pagan, attainted ;^ and in 1728, this denoitiination was 
returned as comprising 221 acres, of which the tithes of com and 
hay were stated to be payable to the economy fund of St. Patrick's 
cathedral. Inimedtately after ^hich, the lands passed into the 
possession of the Bever family, whose descendant, Edward Bever 
of Felttim, was enabled by a private act of parliament in 1760 to 
make leases thereof, and otherwise to charge the premises.^ — At 
this tone Hoffsl^er had his celebrated flower-garden here. 

AboBt Feltrim the botanist will find fedia den- 
tata, oval-fruited com salad ; agrostis vulgaris^ com- 
mon bent grass ; jasione montanay common sheep's 
bit ; sedum acre, wall pepper ; agrimonia eupatoria^ 
Bgrimony igaJeopsis ladanum, red hemp nettle; a 
variety of the thymus serpf/llum^ wild thyme with 
white flowers ; draba vernaj common whitlow grass ; 
geranium columbinurrij long-stalked crane's-bill ; ge- 
ranivm lucidunij shining crane's-bill ; polygala vuU 
gam» .milkwort ; poterium sanguisorba, salad bumet; 
S€unjraga tridactyletes^ rue-leaved saxifrage, flower- 
ing in May ; fedia olitorta, lamb's lettuce, flowering 
from April to June j allium arenarium^ sand garlic. 
On the adjacent lands a variety of the gakopsis 
tetrahit^ common hempbane with white flowers ; or- 
chis viridis, frog orchis ; plantago media, hoary 
plantain. — On the rocks, arabis hirsuta, hairy wall 

cress ; urceolaria contortaj ; and in the hedges, 

trifolium officinale, mclilot. 


Between this place and Swords, is a holy well, 
dedicated to St. Wereburghe, a saint of the seventh 
age, daughter of Wilfere, King of Mercia. " In her," 
as her biographers write, ^'was mingled the royal 
blood of all the chief Saxon kings, but her glory was 
the contempt of a vain world even from her cradle, 
on the pure motion of the love of God.*' 

The Family of Faoan, 

so intimately connected with this locality, is of high antiquity in 
Ireland, and much distinguished in its annals, as well as in the 
history of other countries. 

In the year 1022, died Flan CVFagan, archdean of Durrow in 
the King's County, « a man in real estimation for goodness, wis- 
dom, and exempkry piety." In the thirteenth century the name 
was established as one of tenure in Meath, as the ancient denomi- 
nations of Faganstown and Derry-Fagan testify ; and there the 
Pagans early connected themselves with the de Lacys ; the Plun- 
ketts, ancestors of the Earls of Louth; the Barnewalb of Cricks- 
town, ancestors of the Viscounts Kingsland, and the Barons of 
Turvey and Trimlestown. About the year 1275, Nicholas de 
Hynteberg and others confirmed to Sir Robert Bagod a certain 
stone house with all its appurtenances of wood and stone, situated 
within the walls of the city of Dublin, and in the parish of St. 
Martin near St. Werburgh's gate, which had been theretofore the 
land of William Fagan, together with a certain tower beyond said 

bk ldd4> Richard Fagan had a pension of twenty marks charged 
on the treasury of Ireland, in consideration of hisgood services against 
O'Reilly and Bermingham, and in 1343 had a further grant of 
part of the lands forfeited by his father-in-law, Sir Hugh de Lacy, 
for the term of his own life and that of his son John. This John 
was in 1358 high sheriff of the liberties of Meath, and in 1373 
was appointed governor of the castle of Trim. In 1402 Nicholas 
Fagan was one of two commissioners deputed to collect state sup- 
plies in the barony of Morgallion, and in 1423 Sir John Fagan was 


constituted high sheriff of the liberties of Meath, and receif^ a 
writ of mandamus to muster the forces of his district, in order to 
repel the incursions of the O'Conors and O'Reillys, " the avowed 
enemies of the English Pale.** His son, Richard Pagan, was in 
1457 high sheriff of the liberties ofMeath, and in the following 
year obtained a pension of twenty marks, on account of the heavy 
expenses he had sustained in the king's service during his employ- 

Christopher Pagan, the representative of the Meath line and 
the inheritor of their estates, was involved in the civil wars that 
arose in Ireland during the reign of Henry the Seventh, and in par- 
ticular in the assertion of Perkin Warbeck's title to the crown. 
This Christopher was (with as it is said four of his sons) slain at 
the siege of Carlow, and having been attainted, his estates were 
on inquisition of 1494 ascertained, and subsequently granted over 
to the Aylmers, Barnewalls, and other nobles of the Pale. John, 
the youngest son of Christopher, escaped the fotal field where his 
father and his brothers perished, and flying to Cork, intermarried 
about the year 1514 with the daughter of William Skiddy of 
Skiddy's Castle, by whom he had Thomas Pagan, afterwards one 
of the citizens of Cork, who not only opposed the proclaiming of 
King James, and the entrance of the Lord Mountjoy into the 
city, but even took forcible possession of Skidd/s Castle. 

To return to the Hne of Christopher, — his eldest son Richard, 
who fell with him at Carlow, left a son, Thomas Pagan, who ac- 
quired the estate of Peltrim, and had two sons, Christopher and 
Richard; the former was one of the sheriffs of the city of Dubhn 
in 1565, and again in 1573, as was the latter in 1575, and Lord 
Mayor in 1567. In 1604 this Richard obtained a pardon of 
alienation for himself and his son and heir John Pagan of Peltrim, 
and dying in 1609, was buried in the family vault at SU Audeon's. 
John intermarried with Alicia, the daughter of Walter Segrave, 
by whom he had issue four sons. A short time after the decease 
of his father he surrendered his estates to the Crown, and not 
only obtained a new grant thereof by letters patent in 1611, but 
also got a grant of several lands in the county of Wexford in 1637. 
His eldest son, Richard, intermarried with Eleanor Pagan, the 
heiress of the Meath estates, by which event all the estates of the 


Fagan family vested in the house of Feltrim. By her he had 
Christopher Pagan who succeeded thereto, but was declared a 
forfeiting proprietor during the civil wars of 1641. On proofs 
however, of his innocence, he was in 1670 decreed to the posses- 
sion thereof, qualified into an estate in tail male. The other three 
sons of John Pagan were Thomas and George, who both died 
umnarraed, and John, who became the founder of the Munster 
line, the last representatives of the Pagans of Feltrim. 

Early in the seventeenth century, branches of the family were 
settled in the county Carlow ; while in 1617 died the learned 
Nicholas Fagan, whom the Pope had preferred from the abbey 
of Inislaunaght, to the see of Waterford. He was interred in the 
religious house over which he had presided. 

In 1666, Patrick Pagan preferred his memorial to the Court 
of Claims, as a soldier, for certain lands in the county Louth 
enumerated in hb petition and schedule ; and in 1682 died Chris- 
topher Fagan, as mentioned in the notice of << Feltrim,'' leaving 
two sons, Richard and Peter, and a daughter, Elizabeth, who in- 
termarried with Claude, the fourth Lord Strabane. Richard was 
a zealous adherent of King James the Second, and distinguished 
himself at the siege of Derry, as commemorated in the quaint 
lines on the subject : 

" Bellew left Duleek, and his ancient hall, 

To see bis monarch righted, 
Fagan of Feltrim, with Fingal 

His cavalry united ; 
Twas part of the plan, that Lord Strabane 

Should give his neighbours warning. 
But they packed him off with a shot and a acoffp 

His hollow counsel scorning,*' &c. &c. 

Richard also fought for the Stuart at the battle of Aughrim, and 
consequently forfeited all his estates. He left three daughters by 
his wife Eleanor Aylmer, of Lyons, one of whom, Helen, was mar- 
ried, as mentioned hereafter, to John Taylor of Swords ; another^ 
Mary, to John Eustace, of Confee Castle; and the third, Anne, 
died unmarried. Peter, the younger brother, is noticed at " St. 
Doulogh's ;" he died without issue. 


In the charter of King James the Second to Old Leighlin, iu 
1688, Hugh Fagan was named one of the burgesses, as was Richard 
Fagan in that granted in the ensuing year to Swords, and the same 
monarch, in 1690^ presented the Re?. James Fagan to the vicar- 
ages of Dowestown and Castlecor. 

To revert to John, son of John Fagan and Alice AyLner, be- 
fore mentioned aa the founder of the Munster line, he married 
Bell, daughter of William Knowles, of Waterford, and died about 
the yeiur 1683, leaving three sons, William, Christopher, and 
James. . The latter passed after the RevoUition into the Spanish 
service, where he was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel. 
William, the eldest son, died without issue, leaving all of his pro- 
perty that escaped confiscation in 1689, (for he too espoused the 
cause of James the Second,) to his next brother, Christopher, who 
had also adhered to the same cause, was a captain in Lord Ken- 
mare's regiment of infantry, fought at Aughrim, was comprised in 
the capitulation of Limerick in 1691, and retired thence, at the 
invitation of Lord Kenmare, to the county Kerry, where he died 
in 1740, leaving issue, Patrick Fagan^ and other sons. Patrick 
died in 1770, leaving a very numerous family, some of whom have 
signalized themselves in various quarters of the globe. Christo- 
pher, the eldest, entered the French service, became a chevalier 
of the order of St. Louis, and a very distinguished officer, and died 
in London, in 1816, without issue. Stephen, the second son, was 
an eminent merchant in Cork, and died in 1811, leaving issue as 
hereafter mentioned. Robert Fagan, the third son of Patrick, 
became a merchant at St. Kitt's ; and his son Christopher is now 
Adjutant-General in the India service. Another son, James, be- 
came Quartermaster-General at Grenada, where he was killed in 
a duel. A fifth, John, left issue — two sons ; George, who became 
Adjutant-General in India, and Christopher, a Brigadier- General. 
Stephen, the second son of Patrick, above alluded to, left two 
sons, Patrick and James ; the former, by his wife, Miss Hussey, of 
Dingle, left several children, the eldest of whom, Doctor Stephen 
Fagan, appears to be now the representative of the Fagan family ; 
while James, by his wife, Ellen Theresa Trant, left two sons, Wil- 
liam and Charles, and two daughters, Eliza and Susan. The elder 
brother of this line, William Fagan, is settled as a merchant in 

KIN8ALY. 219 

Corky intermarried in 1827 with Mary, the only daughter of Charles 
Addis, of London, and by her has issue, sons and daughters. 

In 1809, Robert Fagan, Esq. was appointed British Consul in 
Sicily and Malta. He resided in Italy for several years, during 
which, by frequent exfodiations and searches in the neighbourhood 
of Rome, he discovered many articles of value. In 1816, how- 
ever, he fell into a desponding state while at that city, and threw 
himself from a window, of which fall he died. In 1810, Lieutenant 
< Fegan' of the Royal Marines distinguished himself in the action 
against the French squadron in the Bay of Naples ; and in 1815 
General Fagan did signal service in India. 

From Feltrim the line of this excursion crosses 
the little river, before noticed as emptying into the 
sea at Portmamock, and enters 


a parish comprising 2,129a. 3r. 27p. in the one 
denomination, with a population of 503 Catholics 
and 58 Protestants. It is in the Catholic union of 
Howth. A Mr. Cooper is the principal proprietor 
of the fee j the rent varies from £3 to £4 per acre, 
the wages of labour being at most sixteen pence per 
day, in some instances less. 

The old church is at a little distance from the 
present village, on the road to Portmamock, and 
south of the pure, limpid stream that runs between 
them. It exhibits some picturesque, ivied ruins of 
nave and chancel with a double-belfried gable, sur- 
rounded by ancient trees. There are no monuments 
in or about this ruin worthy of notice. In the vil- 
lage of Kinsaly is a handsome modern chapel, adja- 
cent to which is a poor school, supported by the pro- 


duce of sermons and private contributions, and usu- 
ally attended by about 120 children. 

Previous to tbe English invasion Kinsaly was in the possession 
of Hamund Fitz Torkaiil, a Dane, and Henry the Second ex- 
pressly recognised his right on condition of his paying annually 
two marks to find lights for the holy rood (i. e. the holy cross) 
of Christ Church in Dublin. Strongbow afterwards gave Kinsaly 
absolutely to Christ Church for the same use,* which grant was 
confirmed by Archbishop Laurence O'Toolein 1178; accordingly 
in a bull of Pope Urban of the year 1186, it is specially named in 
the enumeration of the landed possessions of that priory. 

At this early period a church was founded here dedicated to 
St. Nicholas, and made one of the exterior chapeb subservient to 
the mother church of Swords, being granted by Archbishop Luke, 
together with all its tithes, and sundry other profits and emolu- 
ments, to the vicar of that parish.f 

St. Nicholas of Pinara, Bishop of Myra, the patron of Kinsaly, 
and especially regarded as the patron of school children, was born 
at Patara, in Lycia. From his infancy he was inured to the exer- 
cises of devotion, penance, and perfect obedience. He was chosen 
Archbishop of Myra, and in that exalted station became celebrated 
for his extraordinary piety and zeal. Hospinian attributes the in- 
vocation of St. Nicholas by sailors to a miracle — 

" Cum turbine nauts 
Deprensi Cilices magno clamore vocarent, 
Nicolai viventis opem^ descendere quinam 
Coelitum visus sancti sub imagine patris. 
Qui freta depulso fecit placidissima vento/'| 

Armstrong, speaking of Ciudadella, mentions that near the en- 
trance of the harbour stands a chapel dedicated to St. Nicholas, 
to which the sailors that have suffered shipwreck resort, in order 
to return thanks for their preservation, and to hang up votive pic- 
tures representing the dangers they have escaped, a custom which 

• Reg. Christ Church, f Allen's Reg. t Hosp. de Festis, 153. 


the classical scholar will recognise as derived from the older times 
of Rome — 

** Me, tabula sacer 
Votiv^ paries indicat uvida, 
Suspendisse potenti 
Vestimenta maris Deo." 

St. Nicholas died in 843, and his festival is kept on the 6th of 

In 1200 Amori de Nugent gave to the prior of Christ Church 
an acre of land in Maine, near Kinsaly, soon after which a claim 
was set up by the heir of that Elias Comyn (before mentioned at 
Portmarnock) to a part of Kinsaly ; but the prior of Christ Church, 
to quiet his possession, agreed to pay him 100^. annually in the 
abbey of St. Augustine in Bristol. 

In 1337 King Edward confirmed the grant of Kinsaly, with its 
appurtenances, to the see of Dublin, as did King Richard in 1395. 
— For a notice of its tithes in 1489, see at " Swords." 

On inquisition of 1576 John Talbot was found seised in fee 
of a house and one hundred and twenty acres of land in this parish, 
which he held from the dean and chapter of the Holy Trinity, by 
fealty and twenty-five shillings annual rent. Sir John Perceval be- 
came subsequently entitled to a certain corody out of the lands of 
Kinsaly, secured to him by a royal letter of about the year 1666.* 

In the seventeenth century Andrew Golding was seised of the 
manor of Kinsaly, a mansion-house, ten messuages, and two hun- 
dred acres, which he held under the dean and chapter of Christ 
Church. The interest of that family having been forfeited by his 
heir, Richard Golding, in 1641,t Lord Kingston in 1669 obtained 
a grant of the town and lands, 386 acres plantation measure, to 
hold in free and common soccage. 

For a notice of Kinsaly in 1697, see " Swords." 

In 1703 Thomas Tilson of Dublin purchased a chief rent of 
£9 English, theretofore payable out of Paul Davis's lands here, to 
Richard Fagan, attainted, while Stephen Swift of Kilkenny had a 
grant of said Pagan's landed estate here, 95a. 

• Record Tower, Dub. Cast. t Inquis. in Cane. Hib. 


In 1832 the first stone was laid of the new Catholic church by 
the Rev. William Young, parish priest of the union of Howth, 
Beldoyle, and Kinsaly. 

Leaving Kinsaly, which, it may be remarked, is 
said to possess a bed of excellent marble, the road 
passes into the village of 


In the street, at the head of the lane v^rhich leads 
to its church, are the stone basement and socket of 
an ancient cross, one of those which once marked the 
croceffi, or lands of the cross, " ex parte Fingal.'* 

This church, which is situated on an eminence, 
commanding a most extensive prospect, is said to have 
been built by the Danes, as a shrine for St. Olave ; 
the supposition is not, however, probable nor well 
supported, and Lanigan with more propriety consi- 
ders it the work of natives, and dedicated to St. 
Doulogh or Dulech, an Irishman, whose day of com- 
memoration is kept on the 1 7th of November.* It 
was originally a cruciform structure, but the nave 
has long since given place to a very small, modem 
church, wholly destitute of even the ornament of 
monuments. At the time of its foundation this form 
could not have been fully developed, for the transepts 
are remarkably small, as is also the eastern portion or 
original chancel. The building does not stand due 
east and west, and, though it possesses the stone 
roof in common with the ancient Saxon churches, all 
its windows and arched loop-holes approximate to the 

• Lanigan's Eccl. Hist. vol. iii. p. 359. 

SAINT doulouoh's; 223 

pointed form. It is forty-eight feet long by eighteen 
wide, and has a double stone roof, the outer, which 
covers the building, and the inner, which divides the 
lower from the upper story ; a small chamber, dimly 
lighted, occupies the space between, while in the 
centre of the building rises a low broad tower with 
graduated battlements, on which, recently, an incon- 
gruous spire has been erected, that disfigures and in- 
jures the edifice. 

On entering the crypt by a small door at the 
south side, the tomb of the patron saint presents 
itself, from which a subterranean passage is said to 
have descended to the well hereafter described ; a 
narrow way leads thence into the chapel, which is 
twenty-two feet long by twelve broad, and lighted by 
three windows, one at the east, and two at the south. 
Up two pair of stairs is a recess, not much larger 
than an oven, said to have been the penitential bed of 
the saint. The roof of the edifice is still in good 
preservation ; the outer part, rising in a very steep 
wedge shape, is covered with smooth oblong stones, 
not large, but laid so closely together without over- 
lapping, and so well bedded in mortar, that, after the 
many intervening centuries, they neither admit light 
nor water. The staircase is two feet wide, and of 
similar construction, the steps being each an irregular 
triangle and placed alternately, so that two occupy 
only the breadth of one step as usually placed, by 
which the ascent is accomplished in half the ordinary 
space. A modern building, contiguous to the ancient, 
forms the present place of parochial worship. Near 


the church, is a well dedicated to the Blessed Virgin. 
The water is contained in a circular basin, and over 
it is an octangular inclosure forming a cone. About 
it were anciently some fresco paintings and decora- 
tions, put up by Peter Fagan of the Feltrim family. 
The descent of the Holy Ghost on the Apostles was 
represented at the top, and round the sides were 
the eflSgies of Saints Patrick, Columba, and Brigid, 
piuch after the manner they are engraved in the title 
to Messingham*s Florilegium, as also of the patron 
St. Doulogh, in a hermit's habit ; on the wall was 
likewise the following inscription engraved upon a 
marble slab, commemorative of the sanative effects of 
this holy well : 

<< Piscinae Solymis clarae decus efferat alter, 

£t medicas populus jaciet Hebrteus aquas, 
Grata Deo patrium celebrat Fingallia fontem 

Doulachi precibus munera nacta piis ; 
Morbos ille fugat promptus viresque reponit 

^gris, et causas mille salutis habet ; 
Scilicet aequus agit mediis Doulacbus in undis, 

Angelus ut fontem, sic movet ille suum ; 
O fons noster amor ! si te negleximus olim, 

Mox erit ut nomen sit super astra tuum." 

But all these curious memorials of devotion were de- 
stroyed by the wilful wickedness of those, who knew 
not how durably a nation is alienated by profaning or 
slandering the objects of its religious reverence. The 
Greeks felt the eloquence of such an incentive, and 
forbade the restoration pf the sacred monuments 
which the Persians had prostrated. Below this well 
is another vaulted place called St. Catherine's pond. 


This parish, the rectory being in the dean and 
chapter of Christ Church, ranks as a curacy with- 
out glebe or glebe-house. It comprises but the one 
townland of St. Doulogh's, and is in the Catholic 
union of Howth. The comparative population of it 
and of Balgriffin was reported as 534 Catholics to 78 
Protestants. The rent of lands in both places rates 
from £5 to £7 per acre, labourers' wages being Ss. 
per week. Extensive limestone quarries have been 
worked here, which exhibited numerous organic re- 

In 1178 Archbishop Laurence O'Toole granted to Christ 
Church (inter alia) the chapel of St. Doulogh's with the tithes 
thereof, also Ballymacamlaib, Cloncoein, Talgagh, Tulaghcoein, 
Cellingeneleam, Celtinen, Rathsalchan, Tillaghnaescop, &c. 

At the close of the fifteenth century, John Bumell of Bal- 
griffin gave to John Young, chaplain, and to his successors certain 
messuages, lands, and tenements in Bothem, Balinacarrick, and 
Nettlebed, with their appurtenances for ever, towards establishing 
a: chantry in the chapel of St. Doulogh's.* 

Other records connected with this locality will be found at 
« Balgriffin." 

In 1814 the Board of First FruiU lent £800 towards building 
the glebe-house, and gave £400 for the same object. 

On the old walls here grows arabis hirmtUy hairy 
wall cress ; and in the vicinity, ophrys apifera^ bee 
ophrys ; narcissus sylvestris^ wild daffodil, &c. 

Leaving St. Doulogh^s, 


or Bally-griffin, i. e. Griffin's town, succeeds, with 

• Rot. Pat. 21 Hen. VII. in Cane. Hib. 



the handsome seat of Mr. Rutherford at left, its gar* 
dens and hothouses, and the little river intersecting 
the grounds and feeding its fish ponds. The fee of 
this locality is in Mr. Doyne. Rent rates from £5 
to £7 per acre. 

Balgriffin was formerly a chapelry dependant on 
the parsonage of Swords. It is now united with St. 
Donlogh's, and, as the rectory is wholly impropriate 
in the Precentor of Christ Church, ranks as but a cu- 
racy in the deanery of Swords, and in the patronage 
of the chanter of the said cathedral, both curacies 
being estimated at the annual value of £ 160. Tlie 
union extends over 1052a. 2r. 2p. In the population 
returns Balgriffin is stated as a separate parish, and 
that of 1831 returns its inhabitants as two hundred 
and fifly-nine persons. 

The church of Balgriffin was, immediately after the English 
invasion, in the patronage of Thomas Comyn, as lord of the town- 

In 1178 Archbishop OToole confirmed to the priory of the 
Holy Trinity (inter alia) the church of Balgriffin and its glebe, 
with the chapel of St. Doulogh's, in the same parish, and the tithes 
thereof. It appears, however, that in the time of Archbishop 
Luke, the family of Thomas Comyn disputed this title, and, on the 
death of an incumbent, WiUiam Norragh, the widow of said Tho- 
mas affected to present John White thereto ; her claim was, how- 
ever, unsuccessful as respected the advowson, but the family of 
Comyn continued possessed of the fee, and in the year 1403 Sir 
William Comyn was found seised of the manor, messuages, rents, 
and tenements of Balgriffin, with all their rights and appurtenances. 
His son having intermarried with Maria Burnell, the property 
passed into the latter family.* 

Rot Glaus. 4 Hen. IV. in Cane. Hib. 


Id 1418 King Henry the Fifth granted to Sir Thomas Talbot, 
brother of the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, the manor of << Bally- 
griffin,'' with all its appurtenances, being in the king's hands by 
forfeiture, to be held by him for ever at the service of a knight's 
fee and an half. But, although the record runs so, it would seem 
as if the king's title was misstated, and accrued in right of a mino- 
rity, for in 14G0, Willtam Baron de IVIarcsco was here married 
to Christiana, daughter of Robert Burn ell, Lord of Balgriflin. 
She survived hjaij atidj as appears hy sc\ aral ancient records, was 
an especial favourite with Kiag Edward tlie First and his court. 

In 1500 the king comniitted the custody of the whole county 
of Dublin, durmg pleasure, to Robert Burnell of Balgrifiin,* a 
branch of vi hose family suoii after settled al Castleknock, 

In 1534 John Burn ell of BalgrilHn was one of the warmest ad-^ 
herents of the ill-fated Thomas Fitzgerald, " the t^tlkeii lord." He 
was married lo a diiughler of the second Lord Gormanstoii. 

In 1537 GernUlj son of Edward Nugent, had a general livery 
of seisin and pardon of intrusion as to lands in Bddoylej Corbalk* 
Parndafe, Newton, Tawlaght, and Balgriffm.f 

111 1545 the king granted lo Conacius Earl of Tyrone, in con- 
sideration of his services, the town of Balgriffin, wilh all its mes- 
suagesj gardonst &c., exco(>l the mill an<l water courses, tho late 
esUte of John Ournell, attainted, to hold lo said earl for life* re- 
mainder to the Baron of Dungannnn in tail male, with a condi* 
lion of forfeiture in case of any confederacy agninstj or dtstur- 
banco of llio government by the earl, or any person in possession 
under the remainder* 

In 1560 Robert Burnell of this family was member of parlia- 
ment for Drogheda, as was Henry Burtiell for the county of Dub- 
lin in 1585. 

' In 1574 Queen Elizabeth, without noticing the patent of 1545 
to the Eail of Tyrone, granted to Thomas ^ the tenth Earl of Or- 
moud, the estates of John Burnell of BalgrifBn, " forfeited by ihe 
treason for which he had been lately eiecnted," That family did not, 
however, abandon tbcir opposition to the queen's government, and 

• Kgl. Pal. 15 Hen. VU. in Caac, Hik t Hot. In Cane. liib. 



accordingly in 1577 Sir Henry Sidney, writing to the lords of the 
council in England, says of one of them — " Of Burnell I will say 
httle, hut wbh he had hecn hetter occupied, for he is a man well 
spoken and towardly enough otherwise, if he would have i^iplied 
himself to his profession and followed his chents* causes, and not 
so busily have meddled with her majesty's prerogative, which is not 
limited by Magna Charta, nor found in Littleton's Tenures, nor 
written in the books of assizes, but registered in the remembrances 
of her majesty's exchequer, and remains in the roll of records in 
the tower as her majesty's treasure. It were good therefore he 
were taught to know it better, if he have not yet learned so far. 
And for the cess it is the queen's right, it is her royalty very long 
and of antienty continued, and found to have had a being by the 
name of cess and cessor in the antientest rolls of laws that arc ex- 
tant in this land, the impugners thereof are the more severely to 
be dealt withal, which I refer to your lordships' grave, wise, and 
honourable considerations." And in another despatch to the 
queen he says — << Burnell's father is alive, and an old man, but 
neither in youth nor age lived or was able to live in half that ap- 
pearance that this man doth. He thirsteth earnestly to see the 
English government withdrawn from hence." 

In 1580 John de Bathe of Drumcondra bequeathed a plough- 
land in Chapelizod to support an hospital for four poor men here. 

In 1599 Sir Thomas Fitzwilliam being seised, as it would ap- 
pear, as trustee of the Earl of Tyrone, of the manor, town, and 
lands of Balgriffin, three hundred acres, granted same to William 
Bathe in tail male ;* and accordingly a subsequent inquisition finds 
his heir, John Bathe, seised of said manor, &c., of Balgriflin, con- 
taining one castle, one water-mill, three hundred acres of arable 
land, &c., which he so held of the crown in capite by knight service. 

On the attainder of Hugh Earl of Tyrone, some doubt arising 
whether the estate of Balgriffin, with its appurtenances, so al- 
leged to have been previously conveyed by said Hugh to John 
Bathe, might not be involved in the consequent forfeitures, the 
Lord Deputy and Council, on the petition of said John, promised 
and undertook, that his Majesty, his heirs and successors, should 
from time to time, at the will and pleasure of said John, his heirs 

• Inquis. in Cane. Hib. 


and assigns, by new letters patent, without fine or other chargcs> 
grant to said John, his heirs or assigns, or their nominees, all said 
lands of Balgriflin, under such rents and reservations as said 
Hugh had reserved. And such their undertaking was enrolled in 
ihc! Cound! Book nnd in the Journals of Parliament, 

For a noike of Balgriflin \u 1C09» and the rights which the 
Piers family ibeii acquired it ere, see at *' Cabragh." 

At the time of the regal visitation in 1615, there were ihc 
ruins of a chapel yet remaining here, appcrtaimng^ as that rclufn 
stales, to St, Doulogli'^* Some obscure traces of this ccHiico ar© 
^till observable. 

In 1617 John Bathe passed patent for the entire manor of 
Balgriffin, stated to have been the estate of John BurneU, at- 
lainledj and ^conveyed as above to said Bathe, by Sir Thomaii 

About the close of the reign of Charles the First, flourished 
1 Icnry Bunioll, a descemlant of 1 his family, author of ** Langartha i 
n tragi -com cdy, presented in the new theatre in Dublin with good 
applause, being an ancient story. Dublin, 164L 4to,"* The plot 
was taken from the ancient Swedish and Danish historians j and it 
viits tlic last play performed at the old theatre in Werburgh-strcett 

In 1666 James Duke of York obtained a grant (iWtfr tilia) 
of 480 acres, pianlaiion measure, iii ** Ballygriffin/* 

llichard Earl of Tvrconncl subsequently resided at the castle 
here, having obtained a grant of tlic above 480 acres, which, on 
Ills attainder, were given to J«bn Forstcr of Dublin, subject to a 
lease for mncty-nlue years, to Thomas Stepney, Esq. the benefit 
of ^hicb interest said Stepney duinied at Chichester house ; and 
was allowed same with saving of the n»UU of ** the two parsons ut 

The next locality wortliy ofiiotkc \^ 


formerly tlic scat of Sir Edward NewcnUaufi, now that 

• WaUtcr's Uhl of the Irish Suge. 


of Mrs. Hawthorne, a large and handsome house, near 
which is a small tower, built in 1778, in honour of 
General Washington, and suitably inscribed. 

The windings of the road afford interesting vistas 
of the sea, Ireland's Eye, Howth, and the intervening 
shore. At left succeeds Clare Grove, the mansion of 
General Cuppage, previously called Annesley Lodge, 
having been the residence of Lord Annesley. At 
right is Darndale, formerly the estate of the Rev. 
John Jackson of Clonshaugh, in this county, who be- 
queathed it about the year 1787> subject to the life 
interest of his grand-nephew, Edward Bever, Esq. to 
the Incorporated Society for founding Protestant 
Schools, to the use of said charity for ever. 


the immediately succeeding village, gives its name to 
the parish and barony in which it is situated; the for- 
mer IS a vicarage in Finglas Deanery, the rectory and 
advowson of the vicarage being in the Marquis of 

The parish was assessed to the ancient subsidies, 
and, according to the road rates, as 1 199 acres, com- 
prised in ten townlands. Its estimate, under the mo- 
dem survey, has not yet been calculated. Its popu- 
lation in 1831 was 914 persons, while the number of 
its labourers is said to be about 170, of whom 140 get 
constant employment, and thirty occasional. Near the 
village is a small neat church, for the repair of which 
the Ecclesiastical Commissioners have recently granted 
£244 I8s, It is situated on the brow of a hill. In 


the parish is a glebe-house, with a glebe of 1 7a. 2 r. 25p. 
In the Catholic dispensation, Coolock is in the Union 
of Clontarf, and has a neat and commodious chapel, 
with a spacious vestry-room, in which a library is kept 
oF suitable books for the use of the Coolock Benefit 
There is here a Sunday and Day Protestant school, 
where at present are maintained three boarders, each 
paying £15 per annum, while about twenty girls and 
fifteen boys receive a daily education gratuitously. 
This establishment is supported by contributions from 
Lord Charlemont, Mr. Guinness^ the Rector, &c- 

The church contains no monument.s, and those in 
the cemetery are modern^ the oldest of note being to 
the memory of the Rev, Smyth Loft us, who died 
Vicar of Coolock, in 17G1- There are also monu- 
ments to the families of Ferguson and Jolly, t^ one of 
the Dalys of Loughrea, to Alderman Nugent, who 
died in 1834, another to the Rev. Nesbitt Scely, \vho 
died Vicar of luismagrath, in 1806, and an enclosure, 
funereally adorned with yews, and designated the 
grave of General Cuppage> though the general still 
" lives — a prosperous gentleman/' Sir Coraptoa 
Domvillc is the chief proprietor of the fee in this pa- 
rish. The rent of land vanes from £3 to £G per 
acre, that of a cabin, without land, from one to two 
shillings per week. 

In the neighbourhood of the village were several 
raths, or moats, of which some arc yet discernible, but 
now much cut down, and mixed vvitli the soil of the 
flur rounding fieldsp The nio&t perfect is on Mr. 


Staunton's ground, hence called Moatfield. There is 
another at Edenmore, near the church ; a third, at 
Damdale, Mr. Gogarty's, and another at Mr. White s 
of Bonnybrook. 

In the time of Archbishop Comyn, Coolock was a chapdry 
annexed to Swords,* and, according to the authority of a collation 
of Archbishop Fagan in 1733, was dedicated to St. Brendan of 
Kerr}', whom ancient chronicles style *' the great patriarch of 
monks and star of the western world," and who, having been the 
founder of the monastery at Clonfert, in which he spent the close 
of his life, was thence usually called Brendan of Clonfert. He 
was born in 484, studied theology under St. Jarlath of Tuam, 
founded various religious houses, died on the 16th of May, in the 
year 577, and was buried at Clonfert. 

In Allen's Roister is preserved a certificate of Archbishop 
Comyn, that he had admitted, about the year 1190, Walter 
Comyn to the parsonage of the church of Swords, with the ap- 
pendant chapels of Malahide, Kinsaly, BalgriHin, Coolock, &c. ; 
\yhile in the Repertorium Viride it is stated, that the church of 
Coolock had anciently been in the gift of the Baron de Nugent, 
but was afterwards appropriated to the priory of Lanthony near 
Gloucester, whose fraternity endowed a perpetual vicarage here 
of their own presentation. 

In 1207 Haket de Nugent gave sixty marks for liberty to 
bring a proceeding in the nature of an ejectment for three knights' 
fees with their appurtenances, which had been the property of 
Gilbert de Nugent his brother, situated in Coolock and its vici- 
nity, and then occupied by Richard de Capella. 

In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, the family of Holly- 
wood was seised of the manor of Coolock, of which the lands of 
Ballytra, Drynam, &c. were held.f Tliis property subsequently 
passed to the Talbots. 

In 1537, the king, by letters patent, which were confirmed by 
a private act of parliament, conferred upon John Bathe and Ed- 

' Allen'8 Register. t Rolls in Cane. Hib. 

cooLOCK. 223 

mund Griffin, (inter alioy) the parsonage of Coolock, which was 
afterwards rated to the First Fruits at £5 Is. Sd, 

In 1538 the prior of Kilmainham granted to Matthew King 
and Ehzabeth his wife, (inter a/to,) thirty acres of the wood of 
Coolock, and all other woods to the said town belonging. 

A I tlio dissolution, the prior of St, John's of Kilaiaiiiham wa* 
found seised of twenty-four acrca of underwood in Coobck, called 
the Prior's wood, annual value 6s~ 8(1.^ while the rectory, extend'- 
iiig over CouJock, KiJaiorc, Ncvvlown, and Darndale^ wi\s appro- 
priate to the abbey of Duleek. 

lu 1 579 MarmaJuke Middleton, who hml been Vicar of Coo- 
lock, succeeded to the sees of Water ford and Lisniorcp He was 
afterwards degraded, and deprived at Lambeth, before the High 
Commissi oncrSy not otdy by reading bis sentence in sniptiSf but 
by a formal divesting bim of hh episcopal robes and priestly \cst- 
mcnts* His offence appears to have been the contriving and pub- 
lishing of a forged wilb Wbon pressed lo answer art ides, he 
refused to do so upon oatb, claiming the privilege of a peer, to 
testify upon honour. He did not long survive his disgrace. 

Fn 1505 the king presented Edward Moore to the perpetual 
\icarage of Coolock, as then vacant by the death of Edward We- 
therby. — ^For notices in ICOS, as to the poaaessions of the Prior of 
Krlmainham here, see at <« Clontarf/' and in IGll see at " Clogh- 
ran," as to those of the Nugent family* 

In 1614 Garrett, Vismunt Moore, was seised of the rectory 
and tithes of Coobck^* for which he passed patents in ! 620 atid 
1G40. The regal visitation of 1Cj15 returns the vicarage as of the 
value of twenty marks^ and states that John Credland was then itt 

in IGIG Nicholas Lord Howtb died geised of one messuage 
and fourteen acres here, two messuage;* and eighty-five acrca in 
Wbitstou, Stc.^t vbich continue in bis descendant- At the time 
of the visi ration of 1630, Thomas Seele, who was afterwards Dean 
of St- Patrick's, filled the cures of Coolock and Ralheny, aud so 
continued to do do^n to 1043* 

In l(>73 James Lord Saulry died seised in ffee and common 

• Inqutt- in Caiw- llib* f i*f 


soccagc of thirty acres in Coolock, and leaving Ricliard bis son and 
heir.*— For notices of Coolock in 1682, see at « Feltriin," and 
in 1697 and 1732, see " Santry." 

In 1760 the church, then newly erected, was consecrated, the 
Rev. Smith Loftiis being minister. In 1817 it was rebuilt, or 
rather enlarged, and in 1818 Mrs. Anne Preston, before men- 
tioned, left £100 to the minister and churchwardens of the parish 
of Coolock, to be laid out at interest, and the annual proceeds 
applied for the use of the poor of said parish. The minister states 
that this bequest '<is vested in 8^ per cent, stock, and the interest 
put amongst Che other church collections, and accounted for ac- 

In 1832 a society was formed hereby Mr. Staunton, the proprie- 
tor of the Begitter newspaper, then and still resident at Moatfield 
within the parish, with the object of diverting from the ale-house 
the wages of the labourer's week, and establishing a fund for the 
relief and maintenance of the working people under the visitation 
of sickness, or want of employment. Persons paying one shilling 
per month were constituted members, not, however, to be entitled 
to the benefit of the fund, until such weekly payments amounted 
to one pound. As character, however, is an essential qualification 
to admission, so is it also to continuance in the fraternity ; and any 
member, whose viciousness has been marked by conviction in a 
court of justice, or been otherwise established, is in minor in- 
stances fined, and in more aggravated cases, solemnly expelled. 
The allowance to a sick member is 7s. per week, and to one un« 
employed 5«. per week, while every member is empowered to 
bequeath £5 at his decease out of the funds, and to have hb fune-^ 
ral expenses defrayed by the society. In consequence of the in* 
crease of its members, and the accumulation of the deposits, which 
were reguUrly lodged in a savings' bank, this institution has added 
to its objects, that of a loan fund for the necessities of its indus- 
trious members ; and under the influence of all these charitable 
exertions, this village has grown into comfort and morality. It is 
now further proposed, on the principle of the Monts de Piete, to 
accept any voluntary deposits, giving an interest of 3 per cent, for 
same, such investments to be afterwards lent out to the members 

* Inquis. in Cane. Ilib. 

ARTANE. 235 

of the society at £5 per cent.) the pofit to be of course appro- 
priated to the definite objects of the kistkution. This society at 
present comprises about three hundred members, principally of the 
class of agricultural labourers. There is, also, a little library fur- 
nished with fitting books upheld by the society, and lent out under 
the direction of a managing committee. 

A very pretty cross-road leads from Coolock by 
the church to Ratheny, pursuing the course of a 
little rivulet, which, winding in a valley at right 
through Brookville, the handsome seat of Mr. Law, 
and Edenmore, that of Mr, M^Conchy, glides by the 
church of Ratheny, as before mentioned, into the sea. 

The botany of Coolock exhibits lalhyrus praten- 
sis, yellow meadow vetchling ; vicia cracca, tufled 
vetch; senecio tenuifolius, hoary ragwort; hromus 
erecttis, upright brome-grass ; lolium perenne, ray 
grass. — In the watery places, epUoUum parviflorum, 
small flowered willow herb.— On the old ditches, 
comus sanguinea, dog wood ; rosa arvensis, white 
trailing dog rose ; ranunculus hederaceus, ivy crow- 
foot ; centaurea scdbiosa, greater knapweed ; while, 
in and on the ditches of a cross-road that leads hence 
to Santry, are found scahiosa arvensis, field scabious; 
myosotis palustris, forget-me-not ; oMsma ranuncu- 
hides, lesser water plantain ; verbena officinalis, ver- 
vain ; origanum vulgare, common marjoram, and a 
variety of the centaurea nigra, black knapweed with 
white flowers. 


the next locality, more anciently called Tartainc, was 
a chapelry, dedicated to St. Nicholas, and subservient 


to the church of Finglas.* In the Catholic arrange- 
ment it is annexed to the parish of Clontarf. It com- 
prises 953a. 2r. 8p. in two townlands; and its popu- 
lation (in 1831) was stated as 583 persons. 

Some inconsiderable ruins of the ancient church 
survive the desecration, that has appropriated its prin- 
cipal materials to the construction of a modern edifice. 
Within the mouldering fragments is a tombstone to 
Elizabeth, the daughter of John Talbot, of Malahide, 
and wife of Christopher Hollywood, who died in 1711* 
and to said Christopher, who died in 1718; while be- 
side it is a sarcophagus, without date, to Richard Co- 
noUy, Esq. of Elm Park. A barbarism, even greater 
than that which dilapidated the church, is observable 
in the shameless evidences of premature resurrections 
which the graveyard exhibits. 

Artane was for centuries the estate of the family of Holly- 
wood, or <* de Sa£ro Bosco ;" for particulars of whom see post, at 
" Hollywood." It seems to have been acquired by them in the 
fourteenth century, when Robert de Hollywood, one of the Re- 
membrancers, and afterwards a Baron of the Exchequer, paid forty 
shiUings for a license to acquire certain lands and tenements in 

In 1416 the king committed to Philip Charles and others the 
custody of Artane and all the other lands of which Christopher 
Hollywood died seised in Ireland, and which were then in the 
king's hands, according to the law of wardship, by reason of the 
minority of Robert, said Christopher's son and heir. 

In 1420 a similar grant passed to Richard Fitz Eustace, knight, 
of the custody of two parts of all the manors, &c. of said Christo- 
pher ; and which are therein described as lying in the counties of 

* Repert. Viride. 


Dublin, Meath, andJ^ootlT and continuing in the king's hands by 
reason of the minority of said Robert. 

In 1*435 said Robert having died, leaving three daughters mi- 
nors, the crown again became entitled to the possession of two- 
thirds of the manor of Artane, the other third being assigned for 
the widow's dower : and accordingly granted the custody thereof 
during their minority to their uncle.* On the marriage of one of 
those daughters with Robert Burnell, of Balgriffin, her proportion 
of the estate passed into that family .f 

In 1533 John Allen, Archbishop of Dublin, when intending 
to fly from the resentment of Thomas Fitzgerald, then in rebellion 
against King Henry, took boat from Dublin, but his Httle bark was 
driven on shore by contrary winds near Clontarf, whence he sought 
shelter in Artane, but being discovered, was dragged from his bed, 
and inhumanly murdered. The spot, where this deed was perpe- 
trated, is recorded to have been for a long time hedged in, over- 
grown with weeds, and unfrequented. This ill-fated prelate was 
the pupil of Wolsey, and trained up by him in political intrigue. 
He had served his ambitious patron as judge in his Icgatinc court 
with an assiduity and attention neither upright nor honourable ; 
and, though accused of misdemeanor, and dismissed from this 
office, he was still protected by the cardinal, and proved his useful 
and active agent in the suppression of monasteries. The jealousy 
of Gardiner, however, affected his removal to Ireland, where his 
adoption of his patron's prejudices agunst the Geraldines led to his 
destruction. — About the same time Richard Delahoyde and Tho- 
mas Howth, of Artane, had a grant, in consideration of 120 marks 
of silver, of all the hereditaments and possessions which the then 
late Thomas Hollywood held of the crown, in capUe, during the 
minority of Nicholas, son and heir of said Thomas; also the ward- 
ship and marriage of said Nicholas. Immediately after this event, 
Artane became the residence of Thomas Howth, alias St. Law- 
rence, a saving of whose rights is contained in the act of absentees 
of 1537. 

In 1539, the Prior of Kilmainham granted to Thomas Howth, 

• Rot Pat. 13 Hen. VI. in Cane. Hib. 
t Rot. Claus. 19 Hen. VI. in Cane. Hib. 

238 C&HSjy ^F DUBLIN. 

of Artane, for his good counsel alrea^^^-^en, and to be given, 
an annuity of twenty shillings ; while the Prior 9f Great Conall 
assigned to him a similar annuity, as did also the Abbot^f Oonard^ 
and the Prior of Ballybogan. 

At the dissolution, the titheis of Artane townland, with the al- 
tarages, were valued at £8, besides the curate's stipend, and the 
repairs of the chanceL 

About this time, according to the report of the Dunsany Ba- 
ronage, Elizabeth, the wife of Nicholas Hollywood, of Artane, and 
the heiress general of the first Baron of Dunsany, was passed over 
on the death of her father, and the peerage enjoyed by her uncle. 

In 1587 Nicholas Hollywood was seised of the manor and 
lands, &c. of Artane, containing one castle, six messuages, and 
190 acres of land, held of the king, in capUe^ by knight's service, 
and died seised thereof in 1629. This tract was valued on survey 
in 1663, at 14*. per acre.* 

For a notice in 1627, see at « Hollywood." In 1641 Luke 
Netterville, son of Lord Netterville, at the head of a body of roy- 
alists, possessed himself of the castle of Artane, and placed a gar- 
rison in it without opposition, Christopher Hollywood being one 
of his adherents. This Chrbtopher was afterwards one of the 
confederate Catholics who sat at Kilkenny. 

At the Court of Claims consequent upon the forfeitures of 
1641, John Hollywood, in relation to the attainder of Nicholas 
Hollywood, established his title in tail male to the manors of Ar- 
tane, otherwise Tartaine (then computed as 244 acres), and great 
Hollywoods, in Santry, with divers other lands in the counties of 
Dublin, Meath, and Wexford, with remainder to the crown on 
failure of his issue male. This John was one of the signers of the 
Roman Catholic Remonstrance. In 1680 bis Majesty granted 
his said estates to Sir Arthur Forbes, one of the commissioners of 
the Court of Claims, to hold to him and his heirs for a term of 
1000 years, at the yearly rent of three pence per acre, to com- 
mence from the expiration of Hollywood's interest. 

In 1697 the Rev. Mr. Cahill or Kale was returned as the Ro- 
man CathoUc Priest serving this parish, and resident at Mr. Hol- 

* Inqais. in Cane. Hib. 


ly wood's. He was also parish priest of Cloniarf, Santry, and Coo- 
lock. For a notice of Artane in 1732, see " Santry." 

In and previous to the year 1748, Artane, by the failure of the 
male line of John Hollywood, had rested in the Earl of Granard, 
under the grant of 1680, to hig ancestor, Sir Arthur Forbes. The 
manor is at present the property of L(ffd Maryborough, an absen- 
tee, who receives from £4 to £8 per acre out of it. 

In I8di2 Matthew Boyle, Esq.^ bequeathed £10 per annum 
for thirty-one years, towards the support of the master and mis- 
tress of the school here, which has since placed itself in connexion 
with the Natiomd Board, from whom it receives £25 per annum 
additional. The aumher of its pupils was in 1834, 140. 

Passing Artane, a road turns at Icfl to 


anciently called Quillestra, a curacy united to Clon- 
tarf in both the Catholic and Protestant arrangements, 
extending over 279a. 1r. 15p., comprised in the sin- 
gle denominatioffi of Killeater. Its tithes are payable 
to the economy of Christ Church. Its population in 
1831 was 113 persons, of whom 86 were Roman Ca- 

Within this townland may be traced, in the upper 
beds of limestone, impressions of organized bodies, 
but so obscure, that nothing more than tlieir vege- 
table nature can be inferred. 

The ruins of the chapel, which was one of those 
appendant to the church of Swords, exhibit two large 
gables and windows, with broken connecting walls, 
all thickly invested with ivy, enclosing and enclosed 
with elder trees. It was dedicated to St. Brigid, 
the virgin abbess, who was bom at Foghart near 


Dundalk, in the sixth century. She is otherwise 
called St. Bride, and is considered as the general 
patroness of Ireland, her festival being observed on 
the first of February. 

Here is a handsome seat, once the residence of 
Viscount Newcomen, now the property of General 
Luscombe. Its gardens were formerly much ad- 
mired. The hall is spacious, the reception-rooms 
good, and the demesne tastily laid out, displaying 
fine vistas of the bay and its southern shores, some 
winding wooded walks, and one straight arcade still 
termed " the nuns* walk." 

At tho time of the English invasion the prior of Christ Church 
was seised of the chapel) tithes, and lands of Killester ; the latter 
he demised in 1174 to Andrew Browne, (one of the early adven- 
turers who came in the suite of Henry the Second,) reserving 
thereout annually, on the feast of St. Michael, forty pence ster- 
ling and a pair of slippers* This interest was confirmed to the 
heir of said Andrew, on his paying yearly on the altar of Christ 
Church half an ounce of gold and a pair of boots for the prior, to- 
gether with the tithes of that land, and all other lands he might 
acquire.* In 1178 Archbishop O'Toole confirmed the right of 
Christ Church herein. 

In 1186 a bull of Pope Urban specifies Killester as of the pos- 
sessions of Christ Church, and in 1240 it was confirmed, with all 
its appurtenances and tithes, by Archbishop Luke, to that esta- 

In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries the Whites were th 
proprietors of this* locality under the dean and chapter of Christ 
Church ;f and in 1373 Richard White, as Lord of Killester, was 
summoned to a great council4 From them it passed to the Lords 

* Regist. Christ Church. t Rot. 46 Edw. IN. in Cane. Hib. 

X Rolls in Cane. Hib. 


of Howthy and accordingly a record of 1526 states that Lord 
Howth then held the manor of Killester from the priory of Christ 
Church, at the yearly rent of 3«. 4d. Some time previous to this, 
the chapelry had become one of the five subservient to Swords. 

For a notice in 1538, see at " Killbarrock." In 1547 the great 
tithes of this parish were valued at £13 6s, 8d^ and were so de- 

In 1593 Lord Howth demised to Patrick Taylor of Coolock, 
the town and lands of Killester, 140a. for sixty-one years, at the 
yearly rent of £23 £nglish. For a further notice in this year see 
ante the memoir of " The Family of St. Lawrence." 

An inquisition of 1621 6nds that Nicholas, Baron of Howth, 
died in 1606 seised of Killester, three messuages, and seventy-two 
acres, &c. 

Chidley Coote, second son of Sir Charles Coote, the repub- 
lican general, subsequently resided and died here, and bequeathed 
the estate of Killester to increase the jointure of his wife Anne. 
His interest was, however, derived from that of the Lord of Howth, 
in whose descendants the fee still continues. For notices in 1697, 
see at « Clonmethan,'* and in 1732, at " Santry ;" and for an ac- 
count of the Loan Fund Society established here in 1833, see at 
" Qontarf." 

Returning to the Coolock road the hamlet of 


interposes itself in the approach to the city. It is the 
property of the corporation of Dublin, under whom 
the Earl of Charlemont holds it at the yearly rent of 


The corporation acquired it on the dissolution of the priory of 
All Hallows, to whom it appertained from time immemorial, as 
haying been one of the townlands given by Dermot Mac Murrough 

• loquis. 38 Hen. VIU. 


in the twelfth century for the founding of that establishment « 
(See unU at Beldoyle.) 

In 1184 King Henry the Second confirmed the right of All 
Hallows to this denomination, and, at the time of the dissolutioni 
the (xrior of that house was found seised of a messuage, five cot. 
tages, one hundred and twenty acres of arable land, six of mea* 
dow, sixteen of pasture, and two of copse here.* 

In 1658 William Basils who had been the Irbh attorney-general 
previous to Cromwell's usurpation, and continued so during the 
Protectorate, acquired, by reasou of his situation and some d»cre- 
ditable services, a large property, including Donnycarney> which 
he obtained as a bribe, and on which he resided for some time. A 
considerable portion of these properties was reclaimed by the l^al 
owners on the Restoration, Donnycamey reverting to the corpora- 
tion of Dublin, who are still the proprietors of the fee. Martin 
Basil, a descendant of the said William, was, however, resident 
here in 1688, and was one of those attainted in King James's par- 
liament, as was also William Basil. 

A retired, pretty road leada^ from Donnycamey, 
skirting Lord Charlemont's wood at the lef^, to the 
old mansion of Hartfield, with its embattled walls ; 
thence, leaving Sion Hill at left, and Highgate and 
Drumcondra House at right, it turns into Richmond, 
where is a convent for nuns of the order of St. Do- 
minick,f who support a female charity school, at 
which ninety children are educated. Hence the 
tourist returns into the city by the village through 
which he emerged, at Ballybough Bridge. 

At Richmond the botanist will observe solanum 
nigrum^ garden nightshade ; erysimum aUiaria^ Jack 
of the hedge ; and by the river side, galanthics ni- 

* Inquis. xxx. Hen. VIIL in Ch. Rememb. Office. 
t See of this order at " Oxmantown." 


vcUis^ snow-drop, tlie summer harbinger, of which 
Darwin writes — 

<< Wann with sweet blushes bright Gralantha glows, 
And prints with frolic steps the melting snows ; 
Chides with her dulcet voice the tvdy spring, 
Bidi slumbering zephyr stretch his folded win^, 
Wnkes the hoarie cuckoo in his gloomy cave. 
And calls the wondering dormouse from hb grave : 
Bids the mute redbreast cheer the budding grovot 
And plaintive ringdove tune her note* to love/* 



conductsthe tourist through the suburb (^ 


a townland, which derived its name, i. e. the pliun of 
the Liffey, from its contiguity to the course of that 
river, which it bounded to the immediate vicinity of 

Henry the Second, while in Ireland, granted, or it would ra- 
ther appear confirmed, this denomination to the Cistercian abbey 
of the Blessed Virgin. 

The religions order of the Cistercians was founded towards 
the latter part of the eleventh century, by Robert, Abbot of Mo- 
leme in Burgundy, who, being unable to introduce his rules in 
his own monastery, retired with a few chosen monks to Citeaux, 
in the diocese of Chalons. This order, there by him established, 
soon acquired great eminence ; and> in the next century, under 
the care and labours of the illustrious St. Bernard, Abbot of 
Clainral, surpassed even the monks of Clugni in their reputation 
for sanctity and virtue, and, in consequence of the great improve- 
ment received from his discipline, the fraternity was distinguished 
in France and Germany by the title of Bemardin monks. 

The fundamental law of the order was the rule of St. Bene- 
dict, to which were added many other regulations and injunctions 
of the severest kinds, for the purpose of maintaining its authority, 
and enforcing its observance. They are said to have neither worn 
skins nor any kind of shirts, and to have eaten no flesh, except in 
sickness, to have abstained also from fish, eggs, milk, and cheese, 
and to have lain upon straw beds in their tunics and cowls. They 


always rose at midnight to prayers, and spent the day in Ubour, 
reading, and prayer, observing in all their exercises a continual 
silence. The habit of a Cistercian monk is a white robe in the 
form of a cassock, with a black scapulary and hood, and he is girt 
with a wooden girdle. The nuns of the order wear a white tunic 
with black scapulary and girdle. At the time of their dissolution 
they had forty-two religious establishments in Ireland, two of 
which were nunneries. 

About the year 1 185, John Earl of Morton granted to the 
above abbey a charter of coirfirmation of the lauds of Qonliffe, in 
which the abbey itself was stated to be situated, together with 
the chapel of ClonliSe^ This locality lay, consequently, beyond the 
bounds of the city jurisdiction and charters. For notices in 1376, 
see at " Ballybough," and in 1461, see at " Kilmalnham.^ 

Clonliffe continued to be part of the possessions of the abbey 
«f (he Blessed Virgin down to the time of the dissolution, when, 
by inqubition of 1541, the abbot of that house was found seised 
of a messuage, 123a. of arable, 8a. of meadow, and 10a. of pas- 
ture lands in the Grange here, annual value £7 6^. 2d,, and a mill 
with the watercourse, annual value 409, His rights having there- 
upon vested in the crown, a small portion thereof was granted to 
4anies Earl of Desmond in tail male, same being, as the rei^ord 
states, ^ reputed parcel of the demesne lands" of said monastery. 
For a notice in 1602, see « Dalkey." 

' In 1610 Henry King had a grant of the estates of St. Mary's 
abbey here. In 1614, however, Crarrett Viscount Moore was 
seised of the Grange of Clonliffe, fifteen messuages, fifteen gar- 
dens, 260a. arable and pasture, and 80a. of briars,* for which, 
together with the above-mentioned water-mill and water-course, 
he passed patent in 1618, and again in 1640. 

The lordship of St. Mary's abbey, and the Grange of Clonliffe 
subsequently vested in the Gardiner family, and were the object 
pf sundry private acts of parliament, legalizing settlements, leases, 
and charges thereof. That family, since ennobled in the person 
of Lord Mountjoy, now Earl of Blessington, still continue pro- 

• Rot in Cane Hib. 


piieiors of CIoiiIiffb» the general rent of which (biiildiiig ground 
e3Bcepted).i8 about £10 per «ere« 

Hence, crossing the Tolka, the road traverses 


a village of some interesting associations. 

The church) the first object of attention, is a plain 
edifice, standing on a swelling ground. It was erected 
by a sister of Doctor Marmaduke Coghill, and con- 
tains within it a very handsome mcmument to his me- 
mory. He had been Judge of the Prerogative Court, 
aftenrards a privy councillor, chancellor of the ex- 
chequer, commissioner of the revenue, and represen- 
tative of the University of Dublin in the Irish parlia- 
ment. It is the only memorial in the church, and 
represents him sitting in his robes as Chancellor of the 
Exchequer, while, with a curious hnpartiality towards 
Paganism and Christianity, the sculptor has placed at 
his right hand the statue of Minerva, and at his lefl 
that of religion^ both in white marble. Sir Marma- 
duke was born in Dublin in 1673> and died in 1738. 
A long inscription gives the chronology of his life and 
his pedigree from the Coghills of Coghill Hall, in 

The surrounding cemetery is crowded with the 
forgotten multitudes of ages, mouldering into one mass. 
The amlntion for preeminence, even in the grave, 
labours to exalt the mausoleum of the world's minions 
above the sod of the peasant ; but a few years over, and 
the very monuments crumble into the clay th^ were 


erected to commemoi^ate and distinguish. There are^ 
however, some sacred relics in this home of the dead, 
of which an Irish historian cannot be unmindful. 
Here, in 1791 5 were deposited the remains of Francis 

Grose* the antiquarian. He was the hvn of Mi. 
Francis Grose, of Richmond, the jeweller who fitted 
up tlie crowTi of George the Second, and died in 
1769- The antiquarian was bom in 1731, and early 
in life entered the Surrey Militia, of which he became 
Adjutant and Paymaster, His extravagance, or ra- 
ther improvidence, obliged him to resort to other 
pursuits ; and, commencing with the antiquities of 
England and Wales, and afterwards those of Scotland, 
he ultimately designed, in 1791f the illustration of 
Ireland, but died in the onset, in Dublin, of an 
apopleetic tit. It was to him, while engaged lu his 
labours in Scotland, that Burns alluded in the well- 
known lines, 

*' A cbiel's amang you taking not<?s. 
Ami faith he'll pretit it," 

Near Grose was buried, in 1827* Thomiis Furlong, 
a young man, wliose tiilents, in any other country, 
would have gained a high reputation. He was one of 
the principal translators engaged in that national com- 
pilation of Mr. Hardiman, *< The Irish Ministrelsy/* 
Here was likewise interred the celebrated aetor, Tho- 
mas Ryder, who died at Sandymount, in lyUl- 

In reference to the establishments for education, a 
mnon school formerly existed here, founded by Mr- 
George Purdon Drew, for children of every religious 
persuasion. It was opened in 1784, but has since 


ceased; as has also a Sunday school, designed for 
young sweeps. There is an existing seminary, how- 
ever, adapted for the education of 700 poor children 
of both sexes. It consists of two floors, which being 
inclined planes, the scholars are always under the su-' 
perintendence and eyes of the masters. It is well 
warmed and ventilated. Not more, however, than 
164 were on its books when inspected for the objects 
of this work, (26th May, 1836.) Each pupil pays 
one penny per week, and no religious distinction is 
known in the establishment. The master's salary is 
£50 per annum, the mistress's £30, while a small 
annual sum, amounting to.about £10, is distributed 
in premiums amongst the scholars. 

Of other charitable foundations a widows' alm^ 
house and a free school were founded here in 1820 by 
parochial subscription, and so maintained, but there 
are only eight widows now upon the foundation, and 
the free school has been discontinued. Here also is 
the Retreat, an asylum for the orphan and the widow, 
the homeless, the aged, and the infirm, under every 
species of unmerited distress. It was founded in 
1814, and is extending its benefits under the charita- 
ble care of the Misses Keman, who procure work for 
its inmates, the profits of which go to their mainte- 
nance and clothing, their lodging and education being 
gratuitously supplied. There are about twenty women 
and thirty children on its books. 

The large brick house here, called " Belvidere," 
has long been the residence of the Coghill family ; 
while that on the eastern side of the road was erected 


by Primate Rokeby. Opposite the latter, on a by- 
road that leads into Richmond, is Mr. Williams's seat, 
Drumcondra Castle, retaining only the name of the 
fortress that once existed here*. At the commence- 
ment of this century there were four flour mills in 
Drumcondra, there is now but one on a very small 
scale, and a woollen factory which employs about 
seven grown persons and four children. 

The parish is otherwise called Clonturk, alias 
Kanturk, perhaps most correctly Clon-tolk, that is, 
the plain of the Tolka, and, the rectory being wholly 
impropriate in the corporation of Dublin, ranks as but 
a curacy in the deanery of Finglas, donative in the 
Coghill family. In the Catholic dispensation it is ii| 
the union of Clontarf. It extends over 1244a. Or. 
Up., comprising seven denominations, aiid a popu- 
lation returned in 1834 as 2713 persons, of whom 
1,926 were Roman Catholics. The corporation of 
Dublin, under the grant before alluded to of the 
possessions of All Hallows monastery, are the chief 
proprietors of the fee, which they have leased to va- 
rious tenants^ exempt from the payment of tithes, at 
the annual rent of £1400. From the poorer occu- 
pying tenants an annual rent is reserved of from £5 
to £7 per acre, the rent of a cabin being 2^. per week, 
while the wages of labour is 8^. per week. 

** Clonturk" was one of the townlands given by Dermot Mac 
MuiTOUgh to his foundation of All Hallows (see ante^ at <<Bel« 
doyle,*^ and so subsequently confirmed by Henry the Second. 
In 1804 it was demised by the prior and convent of that house to 
John, the son of Thomas le Marshal, and soon afterwards the 
Symcock family were settled here. 


Archbishop Allen says that the priory of AH Hallows, in his 
Ume, received here the tithes of three carucates of land, which they 
enjoyed without the endowment of a vicarage. He also states* 
that the church appertained to that religious fraternity, who were 
at the dissolution found seised of six measuages^ six cottages, one 
hundred and fifty acres of land, four of meadow* thirteen of pn* 
tnre, two of copse, three of underwood, and a dove-house here.f 

In the sixteenth century the residence of John de Bathe, at- 
torney general, and afterwards chancellor of the exchequer of Ire- 
land, was in Drumcondra, where his ancestors had been settled 
fron a very early period. He had then a caAle, eix messuages, 
and sixty acres here, whkh he held by fealty only. 

The regal visitation of 1615 reported, that the church (which 
was dedicated to St. John the Baptist) was utterly ruinous and 
extinct, and without a curate. 

In 1646 Robert Bathe of Clonturk, was one of theconfedterate 
Catiioics who sat at Kilkenny. 

In 1666 James Duke of York, had a grant of the castle, town, 
and lands of Drumcondra, 200 acres plantation measure, and in 
the following year Robert Helton passed patent for 823 acres sta- 
tute measure in Clonturk, to hold for the residue of a lease for 
ninety-nine years from 1623, made by the city of DtiUin to John 
de Bathe. 

In 1700 CbichestOT Phillips claimed the benefit of a leasehold 
interest in part of the estate of King James the Second, for which 
he subsequently passed patent as 240 acres, and of which his heir, 
Wilfiam Phillips, was seised in 1748, exempt from the payment of 

Drumcondra was afterwards the residence of Lord Chancellor 
Bowes. He was a native of England, but ibUowed the profession 
of the law in this kingdom, and, having passed successively through 
the offices of solicitor general, attorney general, and lord chief 
baron, was, on the death of Lord Jocelyn, promoted to Uie peerag 
as Baron Bowes of Clonlyon, and subsequently appointed lor 
chancellor. On his death in 1767, the barony of Bowes of Clon- 

• Repert Viride. 

t Inqois. xxx. Hen. VJII. in Oh. Rememb. Offic 


lyon became exdnct. DrumooiHlra was immediately afterwards 
the residence of hb successor on the woolsack, Lord Lifford, and 
subsequently of Primate Rokeby, as before mentioned. In this 
village was also the seat of the &ther of the celebrated Michael 
Kelly, whfle'he was master of the ceremonies at the castle, and the 
scene of that actor's early life. 

At the close of the last century a number of ten houses were 
erected here for the recreation of the citizens, but the extension of 
the dty in this direction encroached upon the gardens, and amuse- 
ment having degenerated mto licentiousness and intemperance, as 
is too frequently the case in the pcqpukr diversions of Ireland, 
this resort was discouraged, and ultiomteiy discostinued. 

In 1804 Sir William Gleadowe Newcomen bequeathed to the 
minbter and churchwardens of this parish, (where hia << honoured 
father and mother were buried^") and to their successors, a Royal 
Canal debenture for £100, then bearing interest at 6 per cent, in 
trust to apply daid interest yearly in the purchase of tread and 
provisions for the poor of said parish. 

In 1811 the school, before alluded to as having been designed 
for seven hundred children, was founded here on a bequest of 
£5000, given by Miss Kellet of Fordstown, in the county Meath, 
hr that purpose. 

In 1812 (Oct 1) Mr. Sader ascended hence in his balloon 
irom Belvidere House at one o'clock, and in thirty-five minutes 
had sight of the mountains in Wales. He continued in the same 
direction until near three o'clock, when, being nearly over the Isle 
of Man, the wind blowing fresh, he found hhnself fast approachmg 
the Welch coast, and at four o'clock had a distinct view of the 
Skerry Hghihouse, and the prospect of consummating hb ardent 
hopes of a speedy arrival in Livei|)ooI. The wind, however, shift- 
ing, and night coming on, he precipitated himsdf into the sea, 
where, by his direction, a vessel having run her bowsprit through 
the balloon, he was extricated from the car, and taken on board. 

In 1817 the fine level road was formed through this village, 
amongst the improvements in the different avenoes leading into 
Dublin, effected at the total expense of nearly £19,000, raised by 
public subscription for the employment of the poor. In the same 
year the Whitworth Fever Hospital was founded on the adjacent 
banks of the Royal Canal. 


About this village ^he botanist will find avena flor 
vescensy yellow oat grass j lithospermum arvense, 
common gromwell; anagaUis arvensis^ common 
scarlet pimpernel ; verbascum thapstis^ great mullein ; 
papaver dubium^ long smooth-headed poppy ; sisyrn^ 
brium Sophia, fine-leaved hedge mustard ; geranium 
Pyrenaicum, mountain crane's bill ; Jumaria offici- 
nalis, common fumitory ; Jumaria capreolata, climb- 
ing fumitory, flowering nearly the whole year, with 
the singular property of its leaves performing the 
oflSce of tendrils or claspers, turning round whatever 
object they touch j tussilagojar/ara, colt's foot ; ana^ 
gallis mas, male red pimpernel. — On the old walls 
are seen gh/ceria rigida, hard sweet grass; lolium 
perenne, ray grass; antirrhinum majus, great snap- 
dragon; cheiranthusJru^iculosoSyVfBll flower. — In the 
waste grounds, carduus acanthaides, welted thistle ; 
euphorbia helioscopia,s}m spurge ; urticQ urens, ^mall 
nettle, (it is to be observed of this plant, that the Osti- 
achs, in Siberia, in lieu of flax and hemp, use a kind of 
cloth made of nettles, for curtains, stufis, and veils^ 
The ashes of the nettle and thistle are also said to be 
the best among herbs for bleaching linen ;) atriplexpor 
^t^,halbert-leaved orache ; atriplex angustifolia, nar- 
row-leaved orache. — In the fields, brassica campestris, 
wild naven ; sinapis arvensis, wild mustard; crysan- 
themum segetum, com marigold. It deserves remark, 
that the marigold was so called by the early botanists 
in the monastic gardens, from the circumstance of its 
being in blow at the times of all the festivals of the 
Blessed Virgin. — On the road sides are seen hor- 

SANTRY. 253 

deum murinuntf wall barley ; cardamine hirsutdy 
hairy lady's smock ; achillea ptarmica^ sneezcwort^ 
so called because the powder of its' dried leaves, when 
used as snuff, provokes sneezing. The bachelor's 
button is a variety of this plant. — While in the moist 
grounds, between a cross road that leads hence to 
Glasnevin and the river Tolka, grow spergida no- 
dosa^ knotted spurrey ; cocfdearia arinoracea^ horse 
radish ; MfoliumfrcLgiferuniy strawberry trefoil ; py- 
rethrum Partheniumi common feverfew ; carex pen- 
dula, pendulous sedge ; sagittaria sagittifoliaj arrow 
head, a beautiful aquatic, flowering in August ; the 
bulb of this species, at the lower part of the root, is a 
principal part of the food of the Chinese, and is cul- 
tivated as such by them. 

The road from Drumcondra to Cloghran, though 
once the great northern avenue, is now neglected and 
uninviting. From the accent to Highgate, however, 
a beautiful retrospective view of the city is presented, 
with all its steeples and domes, the Dublin and Wick- 
low mountains forming a fine semicircular termina- 

The first locality of importance on this line is 


a village of a few cottages, with the glebe-house in 
the centre, a little off the street. 

The church is of an humble order, but neat in 
the interior, with a belfry of double aperture, accord- 
ing to the fashion of this part of the county. Within 
it is a fine mural slab of white marble to the memory 


of several members of the Domville family from the 
year 1807» also a monument commemorating various 
persons of the Jackson family, and another to the 
Rev. John Bowden, who died minister of this parish 
in 1776» In the grave-yard, just at the entrance, is 
a lai^e horizontal stone, carved with ancient sculp- 
ture and armorials, intended to mislead inquiry as to 
the fate of Lord Santry, who in reality, as mentioned 
hereafter, died in Italy. 

There is a schooUhouse here for a few children, 
erected and partly maintained by the profit rent of 
the lands of Goulding's farm, containing forty acres, 
and held for 999 years, as devised by the Rev. Mr. 
Jackson. The Vicar of Santry for the time being is 
the trustee of this charity, out of which he pays £6 
per annum to the master of the school. Wakefield 
states the annual income of this charity as £20, aris- 
ing out of twenty acres of land. About a mile and 
a hdf from this is Santry charter-school for boys, to 
which belong thirty-two acres of ground, held at a 
rent of £37 6s. j the number on the establishment is 
at present about thirty-two, there being full accom- 
modation for one hundred and fifly. 

Sir Compton Domville is the lord of the fee of 
Santry, and is principally a resident there ; the rent 
charged by him to the occupying tenant averages 
from three to four guineas per acre on abatements 
allowed out of higher reserved rents. The grateful 
testimony of his tenantry is the best criterion that 
Sir Compton does not abuse this discretionary power, 
but, it may be remarked, that such is sometimes a 

8ANTRY. 255 

mistaken mode by which Irish landlords conceive 
they are serving their landholders; instead of esta- 
blishing fiwr, permanent reductions of rent, they ver- 
bally profess to allow abatements, while the prices of 
agricultural produce continue depreciated, and the 
best of them are disposed during that interval to re- 
ceive the rent so abated; but, if the tenant improves, 
or begins to look prosperous under this reasonable 
indulgence, the landlord too frequently considers he 
is then justified in proporti(mate exactions, even ulti- 
mately to the amount originally reserved. The ap- 
prehension of such a result clouds the prospective to 
the . struggling tenant ) he becomes indolent and 
dispirited, wears out the heart of the ground, over- 
whelms himself with all the embarrassments of misma- 
nagement and improvidence, presents in his whole 
person and household an appearance of that squalid 
nature which annihilates 8elf-respect» and finally 
plunges into all the guilty obliviousness of inebriety. 
The English feeling of lessening the rent of an im- 
proving tenant, it must be confessed, is utterly un- 
known in Ireland. 

The parish of Santry is in the deanery q( Swords, 
and ranks as an entire rectory in the gift of the crown. 
It comprises 4736a. in seventeen townlands, and had 
a population in 1834 of 1101 persons, of whom 893 
were Roman Catholics, the remainder Protestants. 
The extent of its rectorial and vicarial tithes has been 
defined by a parliamentary report of 1824. In the 
Catholic dispensation it is in the union of Clontarf. 


Immeduitely after the English invasion, Hugh de Lacy gave 
the lands of Santry, then accounted within his palatinate of Meath, 
to Adam de Phepoe, whose descendants long continued to inherit 
this place. 

In the middle of the fourteenth century it was demised by 
Johanna, the daughter of Francis de Phepoe, to Thomas Mare- 
ward,* afterwards Baron of Serine. In 1485 it is recorded as 
still of the possessions of the Phepoe family, the manor at that 
time extending over the lands of Ballymun, Shillok, little Bally- 
curry, Ballystrawan, &c.,f while, in several documents of the 
time, it gives its own name to the surrounding barony. 

ArchbiAop Allen states the church here as belonging in his 
time to the monks of St. Mary's near Dublin. It was dedicated 
to St. Pappan, of whom Hanmer writes, << There is at Santry, 
some three miles from Dublin, yearly remembrance of a holy man 
Pappan, that was born there; he travelled into France, buxlded 
there many monasteries, and preferred many men to govern them, 
became an abbot himself, and departed thb life in 1088, and Ijeth 
buried at Stabuletum in France where he governed." It is pro- 
bable the locality was so named from having been the residence 
of the saint. 

On the dissolution, the rectory, with a manse and a glebe, an- 
nual value £14 12#. Od.^ were found to be appropriate to the 
abbey of the Blessed Virgin,^ and were in 1547 surrendered to 
the crown, by the last abbot of that house. The tithes are sub- 
ject to a port com rent, for the nature of which, see " Ballybog- 

In the sixteenth century the manor of Santry passed from the 
Marewardsy who had previously acquired the fee^ to William 
Nugent, the second son of Richard, eighth Baron of Delvin, who 
had married Janet, the daughter and heiress of Walter Mareward, 
Baron of Serine. James Nugent, the son of this marriage, was 
Marshal of the confederate Catholic army. 

• Rot Pat 49 Edw. HI. in Cane. Hib. 
t Rot Pat 13 Hen. VI. in Cane. Hib. 
X Inquis. in Offic. Ch. Reroemb., Dub. 

SANTRY. 257 

From the Niigents it was transmitted to the family of Barry, 
and accordingly, in 1587, Robert Barnewall was found seised of 
sixty acres here, which, as the inquisition states, he held of Richard 
Barry by fealty.* For a notice in 1602, see « Dalkey." 

In 1609 the church was rebuilt, and became the burial-place 
of many members of the families of Barry and Domville* For a 
notice in 1611, see at << Cloghran." 

The regal visitittion of 1615 states William Savage to be then 
minister of Santry, and that the church was in good repair, but the 
chancel in ruins. In 1617, Richard Wiberow was promoted by 
the crown to the vicarage. 

In 1629 Andrew Goulding died seised in tail male of two 
messuages and forty acres here, which he held from Richard Barry 
by fealty .f Nicholas Hollywood was at the same time seised by 
similar tenure of sixty acres.^ 

In 1641, Luke Netterville and his adherents of the Pale hav- 
ing retreated to Swords, one of Sir Charles Coote's acts of habitual 
atrocitj was exercised here, in the burning of the village, and the 
slaughter of some rioters, as Leland adds, << without distinction of 
the innocent and criminal." The remonstrants thus described 
this transaction : ** Some foot companies did march in the night, 
by the direction of the Lords Justices, to the town of Santry, in 
Fingal, three miles off Dublin; a country that neither then, nor 
for the space of four or five hundred years before, did feel what 
troubles were, or war meant ; but it was too sweet and too near, 
and therefore fit to be forced to arms. In that town innocent 
husbandmen, some of them being Catholics, and some Protestants 
taken for CathoUcs, were murdered in their inn, and their heads 
carried triumphantly into Dublin. Next morning complaint being 
made of this, no redress was obtained therein." 

In 1653 Richard Barry, of Dublin, Alderman, was lord of this 
manor, as was recorded on the ancient bells of the church. He 
was afterwards Chief Justice of the King's Bench, and created 
Baron of Santry in 1660. For a notice of Santry immediately 
subsequent to this, and the rights of the Hollywood family therein, 
see "Artane." 

• Inquis. in Cane. Hib. t lb. t lb. 



In 1673 the tithes of corn and hay of various townhinda in this 
parish were granted to the Archbishop of Dublin and his sucoes* 
sors, in trust^for the incumbent, subject to a rent of £6 per annum. 
In 1678, the king presented Daniel Jadcson to the vicarage. 

In 1688 Richard Lord Baron of Santry was attainted in King 
James's parliament, as waa also William Barry, of Santry. 

In 1697 the Rev. Richard Cahill was returned as parish priest 
of Santry and Coolock, and resident at Artane, << in the parish of 

In 1706 the Rev* Mr. Jackson diedincvmbent of this parish. 
It is remarkable, that while his father preceded, his son succeeded 
him in this living. The latter held it until his death in 1751^ and 
was one of the legatees of the celebrated Dean Swif^ who be- 
queathed to him all his horses and mares, and all his horse furni-> 
lure ; <* lamenting,** he adds, '< that I had not credit enough with 
any chief governor (since the .change of times) to get some addi- 
tional preferment for so virtuous and worthy a gentleman. I also 
leave him my third best beaver hat." 

In 1732 died Nicholas Gemon, parish priest of Santry, where^ 
upon Andrew Tuite was ordained his. successor, by Doctor Luke 
Fagan, then Roman Catholic Archbishop of Dublin, who, jaro hoc 
vice, united to this the parishes of Coolock, Clontarf, Dnimcondra, 
Ratheny, Killester, Artane,. and Glasnevin. 

In 1738 the nobleman before alluded to,' who inherited the 
title of Santry with this locality, forfeited iiis lank by the murder 
of one of his own servants. He was at the dose of this year in- 
dicted and convicted for the, offence ; but his Ufe was saved by a 
stratagem of his undo, Sir Compton Domville, who being proprie- 
tor of Templeogue, from which Dublin was at the time exclusively 
supplied with water, when all interest and intercession failed, 
avowed his determination to withhold that necessary element, if 
the last sentence of the law were enforced against his nephew. The 
threat was effective, and the prisoner's escape connived at. He 
subsequently died in Italy, whereupon Sir Compton succeeded to 
his estates* 

In 1744 the charter-school was opened here for sixty girls, 
and was endowed with £50 per annum by the corporation of 
Dublin. The late Right Honourable Luke Gardiner gave one 

8ANTRY. 259 

acre of land, rent free in perpetuity for its use, and thirty acres 
more at £1 Ss. per annum for 999 years, while Primate Boulter 
expended above £400 on its erection. 

In 1 749 the king presented Mtddleton Cornyn to the *' vicar- 
age'* of Saiitry, In 1776 the Rev. John Dowden died rector of 
thij parish, and was succeeded by the Honourable and Reverend 
Jamea Hewitt, On his death in iho following year, Thomas 
Hastings was promoted to the benefice, and he was succeeded in 
1781 hy Doctor Thomas Smylh, all these preferments having oc- 
curred on royal pre5e»tation. 

In 1794 the aforesaid Doctor Smyth had a grant of the reclo- 
rial tithes of the parish, from the com missi oners of lib Majesty's 
revenue, during hb incumbency, at the annual rent of £25. 

The fee of Santry, has, within the present century, passed 
to the Scottish family of Pockhngtouj and in 1815 its present 
possessor, Sir Comptou PockUngton Domville, was created a ba- 
ronetj his father having, by royal license, assumed the name and 
arms of hb maternal uncle. 

After passing through the village, and resuming 
the northern road, the ancient mansion-house presents 
itself. It is a square and spacious brick building, of 
the "olden" arcliitecture with finishings of stone. 
The principal apartments are of ample dimensions, 
and contain some fine family portraits. The demesne 
is adorned with a spacious pond, and some fine old 
trees, and surrounded by a tall, massy, ivied wall, that 
could full many a tale unfold of deeds ofnightljr 
crime, perpetrated from its covert on the unguard- 
ed traveller, in the ages of a less efficient police- The 
echoes, however, that had been once busied with the 
shrill whistles of these lawless wood-rangers, were now 
weleomely responsive to the long and varied harmony 
of the frequent thrushes. 

In reference to its botanic habitats there are 

s 2 


found here aira ccBspitosa, turfy hair grass ; melica 
cceruleaj purple mcHc grass ; hromus erectics, upright 
brome grass ; lolium perenne, ray grass; triticum re- 
penSf couch grass, that test of badly cultivated or ne- 
glected farms; cardamine hirsutat hairy ladies' smock; 
lathyrus pratensis^ yellow meadow vetchling ; senecio 
tenuifolmsj hoary ragwort ; orchis viridisy frog or- 
chis ; bunium flexuosum^ pig-nut ; luciola campestris^ 
field wood-rush ; chlara perfoliaia^ perfoliate yellow- 
wort ; rosa arvensisy white trailing dog rose ; tor- 
mentilla reptans, trailing tormentil. — In the woods, 
festuca giganteaj tall fescue grass, a coarse grass, af- 
fording little nutrition to cattle, but its seeds are 
freely eaten by birds, and this appears to be its chief 
use ; festuca sylvatica^ slender wood fescue grass ; 
ulmus suherosa^ cork-barked elm ; sanicula Euro- 
pcBay wood sanicle ; viburnum opulus, guelder rose ; 
sambucus nigral common elder, a neglected but va- 
luable tree in all its component parts — a magazine of 
physic to rustic practitioners, and whose berries make 
an excellent domestic wine. It is also said, that if 
fruit-trees, flowering shrubs, corn, or other vegeta- 
bles, be whipped with the green leaves of the elder 
branches, insects will not attach to them. An infu- 
sion of these leaves is good to sprinkle over rose-buds 
and other flowers subject to blights and the devasta- 
tions of caterpillars. The wood of the old trees is so 
hard, and takes so fine a polish, that it is often used as 
a substitute for the box-tree. From its toughness, it 
suits for the tops of fishing-rods, needles for weaving 
nets, &c. ; while the Romans, according to Pliny, 

SANTRY. 261 

made pipes and trumpets of it. There are also found 
here various species of mushroom, as agaricus clavtis^ 
dgaricusplicatilis^ agaricus campanulatus ; chrysos^ 
plenimn oppositlfoliivm, opposite-leaved golden saxi- 
frage ; oxalis acetosella, wood sorrel ; agrimonia 
eiipataria^ agrimony; prumis spinosa, sloe» or black 
thorn ; rt/hus Ido'us, raspberry, deriving its classic ap- 
pellation of Ida^usj from its frequency on Mount. Ida; 
fragaria i^e^crt* strawberry ; geum urbanunh common 
avens ; tilia Europtsa, common lime tree ; anemone 
nernorom^ wood anemone, whose blossoms in fine clear 
weather expand to the sun, but in the evening, or wet 
weather, are closed, and hang down : it is, however, 
in some degree poisonous, and has been used in dye- 
ing ; ranunculus aurlcomtis^ goldilocks ; ajnga reptans^ 
common bugle; scrophularia nodosa^ knotted fig- 
wort ; car ex pendula^ pendulous sedge ; carejt re- 
mota^ remote sedge ; po/j/podium acufeatum^ prickly 
polypody ; h/pnum cuspidatum-, pointed hypnum. — 
In the watery places, epilobium parmfloTunh small- 
flowered willow herb ; geum rivale, water avens, the 
rich combination of whose dark-green wrhikled leaves, 
with the glowing red-brown of the stem and calyx, 
and singularly delicate colours of the petals, added to 
the graceful position of the flowers, render it one of 
the most picturesque of our native plants ; ranuncu- 
lus jlammula^ lesser spcerwort crowfoot \ sfachj/s pa- 
lustfis, marsh woundwort; hyper kum quadrangulum^ 
square St John's-wort; hyper hum perforatum, per- 
forated St. John's- wort ; hieracium patudosum^ sue* 
cory-leavcd hawk weed; cnicus palustrts, marsh plume 


thistle ; listera ovata^ common tway blade ; cares in- 
termedia^ soft sedge ; carex pendtU(h pendulous 
sedge. — In the meadows, orchis maculata^ spotted 
palmate orchis ; agaricus ebumeus, a ^ecies of mush- 
room, so called, because it has in every state the ap- 
pearance of ivory. — ^By the ditches, Valeriana officii 
naliSf great wild valerian, of the sceat of whose root 
cats are said to be very fond, and to seem intoxicated 
by it ; eleocharis paiustris^ creeping spike-rush ; cen- 
taureascabiasa^ greateT knapweed ; smymium olu,sa^ 
trunif Alexanders ; ranunculus hederaceusy ivy crow- 
foot; mentha hirsuta, hairy mint. — ^In the hedges, 
lomcera periclymenum, common honeysuckle ; vicia 
sepivmy common bush vetch, a vetch whose nutritive 
matter consists almost entirely of mucilage and sugar ; 
the latter, which exists in the nutritive matter of the 
leaves of all grasses, holds in this species a less pro- 
portion } hypericumandroscemum^ tutsal; hypericum 
hirsutum, hairy St. JohnVwort ; and on the trunks of 
the trees, lichen olivaceus^ olive lichen. 

Before reaching Tubber-Bunny, thejiext locality 
of any note, a more northerly road shoots out at left 
by Corbally, anciently the fee of the Hollywood fa- 
mily, and held by the Plunketts and Nugents succes- 
sively under them, as of the manor of Hollywood. It 
was a residence of the de la Hoyde family, in the 
sixteenth and the early part of the seventeenth cen- 
tury. They were also proprietors in free and com- 
mon soccage of half the townland.* The fee of 
the whole afterwards passed to Alderman Richard 

• Inquis. in Cane. Hib. 


Barry, before mentioned as proprietor of Santry, who 
died in 1686, seised thereof in free and common soe- 
cage. Near the house is a grotesque castellated lodge. 
This road afterwards passes into the townland of 
Forest, no longer exhibiting those trees of growth 
that gave it that denomination, but gay with groves 
of lilac and laburnum, and shaded with hawthorns 
of every variety. The fields too (12th June) pre* 
senting the loveliest carpet of variegated vegetation, 
the richest green ground spangled with red and white 
clover, daisies, primroses, and crowfoot, in their gay* 
est attire ^ while over all the most elegant and bril- 
liantly coloured of native birds, the goldfinches, were 
pouring their cheerful songs, and the robins were ex- 
ultiug in the sacred safety which in this country they 
are welcome to enjoy. 


otherwise Dardistown, succeeds % signifying in Eng» 
lish, «*thc well of milk ;" and so called from a spring 
there of peculiar softness, which was analyzed by Dr. 
Rutty, and is by him stated to be impregnated with a 
small quantity of an alkaline salt, combined with a 
calcareous matter and a pittance of sulphur. Here is 
a little village of scattered houses, " few and far be- 

The Taylors were in the fourteenth century pos- 
sessed of a great part of this denomination, of which 
Richard Foster obtained a grant after the forfeitures 
of 1641, 



the next locality, is a rectory in the deanery of Swords, 
and from an early period appropriated to the econo- 
my of St. Patrick's. It extends over 1579a., 3r., 34p., 
comprised in four townlands, with a population, re- 
turned in 1831 as 541 persons, of whom 475 were 
Roman Catholics. Its tithes have been compounded 
for at £184 12^. 3(/., per annum. Mr. Foster, an 
absentee, is the chief proprietor in the parish. Land 
within it is let at from £3 to £4 per acre, the wages 
of labour being, to those constantly employed seveu 
shillings per week, to occasional labourers eight shil- 

The church is situated on the high, stony steep 
that seems to have suggested the name of this Irish 
denomination, commanding most extensive prospects. 
Its belfry rises from the gable, and has three perfora- 
tions. Near it is the glebe house, with four acres of 
glebe attached, for the purchase of which the Board 
of First Fruits gave £400 in 1809, and contributed 
a like sum for building the glebe house, exclusive of 
a loan of £392, for the latter purpose. 

In the hollow, at the foot of the rock on which 
the church was built, a vein of lead and copper ores 
has been discovered, and worked for a short time. 
Beside it runs a little rivulet, the same that washes 
Kinsaly, and empties itself into the sea below Port- 

The church appears to have been dedicated to St. Doulogh, the 


son of Amalgad, whose festival is kept on the 17th of November. 
At a remote period it was enumerated amongst the cWpendencies 
of Swords, and, even in the time of Archbisb^'p Allen, the vicar 
of Swords enjoyed the right of-^epulture of all persons dying in 
this parish.* It was commonly called « Cloghran- Swords,*' to dis- 
tinguish it from Cloghran by Hiddart, hereafter mentioned. 

In the time of Henry the Second, according to Hanmer, Buryd, 
the son of Owen Gwynneth, Prince of Wales, was Lord of Qogb- 
ran, and it does appear by a close roll ip the Tower of London, 
that in 1222 Richard styled of << Wales'* gave homage, fealty, and 
relief to the king for six carucates of land, with the appurtenances, 
in Cloghran and Ballybren. In a roll of 1224 this Welch proprietor 
is again recognixed, but he is there named Roderick. He had 
also the advowson of the church of Cloghran, which was in 
1294 rated to the First Fruits as a distinct church, at four marks 

In the earlier part of the fourteenth century the Staunton 
family were the proprietors of thb denomination, one of them, 
Thomas Staunton, having married Johanna, a descendant of the 
before-mentioned Welchman, and having got his title confirmed 
by grant from Robert de Vere, Marquis of Dublin. Accordingly 
in 1887, Thomas Staunton and Johanna his wife, had license to 
lease one messuage and one hundred and forty acres here for lives, 
reserving, therefore, for the first thirteen years, the service of a rose 
on St. John's day, and an acreable rent of two shillings for every 
ensuing year.* A scion of this ancient Norman family, it may be 
remarked, was transplanted to Cork in the year 1310, whence it 
immediately extended itself into Connaught. Later in the four- 
teenth century it was a name of tenure in this county and in Kil- 
dare ; in the fifteenth the Stauntons were of high consequence in the 
counties of Meath and in the sixteenth and seventeenth are found 
in the counties of Clare, Kerry, Kilkenny, and Galway. At the 
dose of the fourteenth century Cloghran passed from their pos- 
session to the Taylors, and accordingly in 1399, William Taylor, 
chaplain, assigned all his rights in one hundred and forty acres 
of this townland, one hundred and eighty acres in Corbally and 

• Bepertorium Viride. t Rot. in Cane. Hib. 





Toberbunn^r, pareel of the manor of- Qogfaran, to trustees for cer- 
tmn terms ^nd uses, with rei^ersioa to hinis^. He afterwards 
conveyed this property absolutely to the Holiywoods. 

Archbishop Aliens in' the Hepertorium Virid^ states this rec- 
tory as of the patronage of ** the heirs of Hollywood, to wit, Barne- 
wall and Nugent jointly and not alternately f* but adds, that the 
Ticar of Swords had the sepulture of all dying within this parish. 
For more particular information as to the rights of that vicar, see 
«* Swords,** ad ann. 1489. 

In 15d& the rectory of Cloghran was rated to the First Fruits 
at £10 0#. 7d, Irish) whRe an inquisition of 1547 defines the ex- 
tent and value of the economy tithes herej which in 1588 the dean 
and chapter of St. Patrick's dembed as <* the tithes of com, hay, 
and furze of Cloghran-Swordsi'* for sixty^one years, at the annual 
rent of £2 6$.6d. 

In 1611 Christopher Nugent had a grant of one hundred and 
seven acres here, and other prembes, sixty-eight acres in Curragh, 
sixty-eight acres in the Rath of Killossery, six acres near Santry, 
twenty acres near Coolock wood, &c, aU being parcel of the estate 
of John Burnell attainted. In 1614 Christopher Seagerson and 
Walter Archbold were seised of a moiety of the town and lands 
of Cloghran, oontainingfour messuages and one hundred and forty 
aeres^ whioh they held of the king in capita, by knight's service.* 
Ardibold% portion was forfeited by hb heir, Rowland Archbold, 
in 1641. 

The regal' visitation of 1615 reports the annual value of thb 
church as' £24> and that its minister was James Keegan. In 1617 
Nidiolas Meyler was promoted by the crown to ^e rectory, as 
was Alexand^ Hatfield in 1640. 

In 1^68 the tithes of Kilbride, Ballymore, andCloghran-Swords, 
were -demised for twenty-one years, at the annual rent of £6. 

In 1669 Arthur, Viscount Ranelagh, died sebed in free and 
common soccage of half Cloghran, defined as containing I^Oa* 
2r. 20p., the other moiety being, it would appear, then vested 
in Richard Barry, who died seised thereof by similar tenure in 

* Inquis. in Cane. Hib. 


In 1674 the king presented Michael Hewetson to the rectories 
of Cioghran and Swords, in which he was succeeded by Garrett 
Barry in 1680, and this latter by Henry Scardeville in 1681. 

In 1685 the tithes of Cioghran were reported to be of the 
yearly value of £3, and in 1705 of £5 per annum. For a notice 
at 1G97, see '* Swords/* 

Id 1710 the king presented Richard Bambrick to this rectory, 
ill i7iJ3 promoted John Wynne to the same^ as also iho folio whig 
successive incumbeuts: — Joseph Davies in 1762^ Mark Wain* 
wrighL in 1780, Edward Synge in 1781, John Baird in 1782, Wm. 
LjsEerin 1804, and within the last few years Mr. Levifb, tUe pre- 
sent incumbent* 

Before leaving Cioghran it is to be observed, that 
the road, wl\ich ascends to the churchy follov^rs thenee 
a retired, rural course in view of Feltrini, through 
the village of B^iskins, by Clonshaugh, or as more 
descriptively termed in ancient deeds, Glynshaugh, 
where was once a church, which Pope Clement the 
Third confirmed in 1189 to the abbey of the Blessed 
Virgin ; thence by a grotesque old brick edifice, 
called Woodlands, now occupied by a Mr, Jervis, 
and through a very pretty defile having at left Shrubs' 
Hill, the highly ornamented seat of Mr. White, by 
Artane, and so into the city. 

The resumed course of this excursion from Ciogh- 
ran into Swords exhibits much natural beauty, passing 
over two hills and descending into the intermediate 
valleys, while the elevation commands splendid views 
of Howth, Feltrim Hill, Carrick Hill, Lambay, and 
all the azure circuit of sea ; Swords and its interesting 
ruins in front, apparently in a hollow, Brackcnstown 
and its winding stream at left, and the elevated plains 


of the northern part of this county in the remote per- 

All the preceding localities being situated in the 
barony of Coolock, the tourist, in his approach to 
Swords, here enters 


which seems to have derived its name from compris- 
ing the principal part of the Croceoe, or cross lands, 
lying in the northern portion of the county, and pre- 
sents the singular appearance, that such a circumstance 
must have (as before observed) necessitated, of six 
component districts distinctly insulated in other ba- 

The whole barony, according to the survey of 
1824, contains four parishes and parts of two others, 
civilly subdivided into 105 townlands, assessed to the 
ancient subsidies as 13,610 acres, of which 1012 
were then accounted as waste. The parishes stated 
are those of Swords, Portrane, Clonmethan, Finglas, 
and parts of Lusk and Killossery. The surface of 
this barony is level, the soil rich, entirely resting 
upon limestone, and the inhabitants occupied wholly 
in agricultural pursuits, especially tillage, for which 
the barony, being remote from the capital, is pecu- 
liarly appropriated. Ortelius's map places in this 
part of the county the ancient family of the Taylors, 
of whom a more particular account shall be given at 
" Swords." 

The lands forfeited herein in 1641 were returned as 8237 acres 

SWORDS. 269 

profitable, and 1 05 unprofitable, old Irish measure, while the com- 
mons, between forfeited and unforfeited lands, were set down as 
392 acres, and the glebe and^ church lands as 1759 acres. For a 
further notice of the church lands in this barony, see at that of 
« Coolock" in 1667. 

The first locality, that occurs in Ncthcrcross, U 


a smaH but very ancient town, of about 330 houses, 
and a population of 1727 persons, as returned in 
1824. It is situated about seven Irish miles from 
the metropolis, consists chiefly of one long wide street, 
and was a borough in the Irish parliament, to which 
it returned two members, the elective franchise being 
in the resident householders- The Anchor Tnn, 
which was the scene of the election contests on these 
occasions, still attracts the eye of the traveller by its 
ancient aspect. 

" The remains of the buildings at present to be 
seen here*'* says Bell, "are chiefly of the pointed 
gothlc order* but from its appearance it must have 
been one of the earliest specimens after its introduc- 
tion into Ireland, The arches, as was usual at that 
early period, are of a mixed stylcj some circular, others 
pointed, but generally of rude workmanship- The 
present walls enclose an area of great extent, and 
several parts indicate that they were founded as niiich 
for strength and protection as for any other purpose- 
They were strongly fortified with towers* and their 
exterior presents an embattled front, of an imposing 
appearance, and from the constant ravages which thin 


abbey siiffefr^d from their Danish neighbours, it is 
evident these fortifications were not uncalled for/' 
Here is also a round tower, with a perfect conical 
top, on which, however, triumphant Christianity has 
planted the cross. It is considered one of the plain- 
est of these interesting structures, is calculated to be 
seventy-three feet high, and stands about fifty feet 
distant from the church. In the instance of this 
tower, as in others, there is no projecting base, or if 
there should be, it is buried beneath the surface 
of the earth. Like a specimen at Brechin, in Scot- 
land, described by Mr. Gordon, it " seems to shoot 
out of the ground like a tree." The era and design 
of these edifices shall be more particularly treated of 
at the locality of " Rathmichael." 

The situation of this little town is exceedingly 
picturesque, and is best observed from the church- 
yard in which stand the ivied round tower, the square 
belfry of the old abbey beside it, (commanding from 
its summit a most extensive view,) and a neat, new 
church of cut stone in the pointed style, unfortunately, 
however, constructed of the materials and on the site 
of the ancient abbey. Over the communion-table of 
this church, is a painting of the leper cured in the 
pool of Bethsaida, while the window above it exhibits, 
in painted compartments, figures of Moses, Malachi, 
Ezekiel, Hosea, and Jeremiah. There are mural 
monuments near the communion table, one to Doctor 
Scardeville, Dean of Cloyne, who died in 1703, and 
to some members of his family ; another to Doctor 
Owen, Dean of Clonmacnoise, who died in 1761 j 

SWORDS. 271 

and a third to Christopher Hewetson, who diod in 
1694, Dean of Christ Church and Viear of Swords^ 
On the floor, at the foot of the communion-taUey is a 
tombstone of the date of 1587, to the memmy of James 
Blackney and Elizabeth Taylor his wife- There is 
also a mural slab near the entrance of the churcli to 
Captain Berkeley^ who died in 1803* In the grave- 
yard is a small but apparently a very aneient cross, 
hut no sepulchral monuments worthy of notice, with 
the exception of oue ancient stone commemorative of 
. the Taylor family. — Close to the church is the glebe- 
^ houscj with a glebe of 33a. 2r, 20p.* contiguous. 
Descending from the church, by a fine old village 
elm encircled with a scat of sodded stones, once sa* 
cred to village gaiety and gosaipping^ and crossing 
the little stream that waters this town, the visitor ap* 
proaches the embattled enclosure whicli yet presents 
considerable remains of the archiepiseopal palace, and 
of the old chapel dedicated to St. Columb, the war- 
der's walk round the castle walls, and several watch 
towers. On the line of the walls, at one side is the 
outer gable of a buildings popularly said to have been 
that in which parliaments have been assembled. Its 
window is very remarkable for the muUions and case- 
ments, which are all of a red sandstone unknown in 
this country. The whole interior of the edifice, as 
also of several others which were included in the ex- 

• It may be Femarked, tbat the acre able contents of glebes, miu 
tioT% and forfeitetl estates, arc staled tbronghout tbis work in the 
ancient Irish meaiurc, in respect to the documents wbtcli so respectively 
report them. 


isting walls, have been removed, and the circum- 
scribed area cultivated as an orchard. In front of the 
castle is the village draw-well, beside which are the 
stocks, intended for the refractory portion of the 
seneschaPs subjects, but now the usual roost of the 
village poultry. South of the main street is the 
Roman Catholic church, built about the year 1827) 
and having a conspicuous steeple seventy feet high. 

Four annual fairs are held in this town, but no mar- 
ket. Several houses still exhibit ancient escutcheons of 
inns, the Harp, the Anchor, the Black Bull, and above 
all the Royal Oak, with King Charles blazing in scarlet 
and gold through its ill furnished branches, and a 
whole regiment bivouacking at its foot. But these 
fair, outward signs, are but deceptive heralds as to 
any accommodation or entertainment within. The 
commons here comprised about 100 acres, while those 
at Drynam, within the liberties, contained twenty. 
Great encroachments, however, have taken place on 
both, and but a small proportion now remains unen- 
closed. The population of the town was in 1821 
calculated as 1727» and in 1831 as 2537» the num- 
ber of its houses was on the latter occasion stated as 
484. Mr. Taylor and Mr. Cobbe of Newbridge are 
its chief proprietors. The liberty of the manor com- 
prises 1227 acres of the old Irish measure, extending 
over the townlands of Bealingstown, New Grange, 
Loughmartin, Brownstown, Rathlucastown, Santers- 
town, alias Saucerstown, Rickanhore, Seatown, Ro- 
gerstown, Parnelstown, Lusk, Lispobel, Swords, 
RoUestown, &c. 

SWORDS. ^73 

The parish, in which it is situated, bears its name, 
constitutes a prebend in St Patrick's cathedral, and 
has been assessed to the ancient subsidies, and conse- 
quently under the road acts as 3535 acres, comprised 
in thirty-seven townlands. Its population, exclusive of 
the town, was returned as 1185 persons. The rectory 
is impropriate, one-third in the prebendary of Swords, 
one in its vicar, and the other third in the economy 
of St. Patrick's. The vicarage has been episcopally 
united since 1810 to the curacies of Killeigh and 
Killossery, the patronage being in the Archbishop of 
Dublin. The vicarial tithes of this have been com- 
pounded for at £252 per annum, while it is also to be 
observed, that the vicar has the control of the rents 
of the lands of the economy of St. Patrick's and their 
other possessions here, subject to the trust mentioned 
hereafter at the year 1431. He accounts annually 
for this fund to the Archbishop of Dublin. The 
prebendary has £102 annually, the rent reserved on 
380a. of excellent land, held together with his por- 
tion of the tithes of the parish by Sir Samuel Synge 
Hutchinson, under a lease for twenty-one years. The 
Down Survey and other ancient documents refer a 
portion of this parish to the barony of Coolock, but 
the survey and valuation return of 1824 classes it 
wholly in Nethercross. It was once a rural bishopric, 
and still gives its name to a deanery. The Roman 
Catholic union comprises the parishes of Swords, 
Malahide, and Lusk, having within its extent a cha- 
pel at each of those places, and a chapel of ease at 
Balheary. The fee in this parish principally belongs 


to the see of Dublin. The acreable rent varies from 
two to three guineas, while a cabin without land is 
usually let for £2 10*, per annum. The number of 
labourers in the whole Protestant union has been 
stated as about 700, of whom two-thirds get constant, 
and the remainder occasional employment; the wages 
of the former class being about seven shillings, that 
of the latter eight shillings per week. The lands are 
principally used in tillage. Fibrous malachite, of a 
grass-green colour, is met with here, as also copper- 
green, partly massive, partly disseminated, of various 
shades of green ; and specimens of abaethyst found in 
this neighbourhood, are in the museum of the Dublin 

According to the Annals of the Four Masters, one of the com- 
panions of Heremon founded a fortress here, called the High Rath 
of Swords. 

In 512 the church is said to have been founded by St. Columb* 
killo) who gave it a missal, written by himself; the edifice was ac- 
cordingly dedicated to him ; there were, besides, within the town, 
three chapels, one dedicated to St. Finian, which, with its adjoin- 
ing cemetery, was situated on the south side, near to the vicar's 
manse, on the road to Furrows ; one to St. Catherine, within the 
parochial church ; while St. Brigid's ch^el was on the north side 
of the town, adjoining to the prebendary's glebe, and not far from 
the gates of the old palace. The latter had two burgages attached 
to it, and near it was an ancient cross, called " Pardon Cross.** 
Traces are also to be found upon record, of a chapel dedicated to 
the Blessed Virgin, within the church of Swords, to which Hugo 
Blackton, Archdeacon of Dublin, was a benefactor in I486.* 
Here, likewise, yras a nunnery and a holy well. 

In 1012 Swords was burned by the Danes, and again in 1016. 

* Ma8on*8 Hist, of St. Patrick^s Cathedral, p. 49. 

SWORDS. 275 

After the battle of Clontarf, the bodies of Brian Boroimhe 
and his son Morrough, were conveyed in solemn procession hither, 
where they were deposited the first night amidst the prayers and 
chauntinga of the fraternity. The funeral proceeded on the fol- 
lowing day to Duleeky whence the monks of that establishment 
conducted the bodies to their sepulchral destination At Armagh. 

In 1020 the abbey was deatroyed by fire. 

In 1028 died FiU Patrick O'Flaherty, Bishop of Swords* 

In 1035 Sitric, the Danish King of Dublin, having devastated 
Ardbraccan, Conor O'Melaghlin, in retaliation laid waste Swords, 
« the city of Columb-kille."* 

In 1069 the town was greatly injured by fire, and again in 
1130, 1138, llfiO, and 1166, while in 1135 it was sacked, and 
nearly depopulated by O'Melaghlin, King of Meath ; the sacrilege 
was, however, avenged by the people of Lusk, who slew O'Me- 
laghlin. Immediately after the English invasion. Swords was 
granted to the see of Dublin, and so still continues annexed 
thereto. In 1182 the Pope confirmed it to the Archbishop of 
Dublin with its church and appurtenances, as previously granted 
by Prince John, a right which Pope Innocent farther ratified in 
1216. For a notice in 1227, see << Memoirs of the Archbbhops 
of Dublin.** 

In 1191 Archbishop Comyn granted to St. Patrick's church 
the tithes of all his mills, except those of Swords, which he had 
previously given to the monastery of Grace Dieu. The prebend 
of Swords was then one of the thirteen canonries annexed to St. 
Patrick's, as is recited in a Bull of Pope Celestine the Third, and 
Walter Comyn, most probably a relative of the archbishop, was its 
prebendary. It afterwards obtained the name of the golden prebend 
in consequence of its great value, arising out of considerable de- 
mesnes and tithes issuing from a large and fertile district. 

In 1192 a patent was granted to the Archbishop of Dubhn for 
an annual eight-day fair in the town of Swords, on the feast of St. 
Columb-kille, and in 1197 King Richard granted a charter to this 
place, by which each burgess was to pay for his burgage twelve 

• Annals of tlie Four Masters. 



pence annually. For a notice in 1227, see the <^ Memoirs of the 
Archbishops of Dublin." 

In 1280 Archbishop Luke allotted to the vicar of Swords the 
small tithes of the lands within the manor, with the obventions 
and altarages. In 1306 the prebend was valued at £40, and the 
vicarage at £5, and in 1326 an inquisition was taken as to the ex- 
tent of the manor. In the following year the Archbishop of Dublin 
had a con6rmation of his rights herein, as also in 1394 from King 
Richard during his sojourn in Dublin. In 1336 the celebrated 
William of Wykeham held this prebend, then taxed to the First 
Fruits at ninety marks, together with eleven benefices in England* 
He was afterwards Bishop of Winchester. 

In 1375 died Peter de Lacy, rector and prebendary of Swords, 
in remembrance of whom a monument and a brass effigy have been 
erected in the church of North Fleet, Kent. In 1378 the king 
confirmed the right of the Archbishop of Dublin to this manor. 

In 1386 John Netterville, Vicar of Swords, and Robert 
Cruce, prebendary thereof, had license to go into England, with- 
out incurring any diminution of their tithes under the penalties 
against absentees. In the following year the latter dignitary had 
a special permission from Robert de Vere, Marquis of Dublin, 
entitling him to export for sale, corn and fish appertaining to his 
prebend, to England, Wales, Bayonne, Bourdeaux, or Portugal. 
For a notice in 1387, see << Memoirs of the Archbishops of Dub- 
lin" at that year. 

In 1397 a chapel was dedicated, within the church of Swords, 
to the Holy Trinity, and endowed by a person of the name of 
Brown with a messuage, a garden, and four acres of ground in 
Rogerstown, for the pious celebration of his anniversary. In the 
same year John de Melton, clerk, preferred a petition to the 
privy council of England, claiming right to the prebend of Swords, 
of which John Taaffe had, as he alleged, possessed himself by 
force of bulls ^ostolic, although the same appertained to the 
patronage of the Archbishop of Dublin, and had become void by 
the death of Walter Bruges, the last prebendary. 

In 1411 the king granted to John Tanner, the prebend of St. 
Columb of Swords in the cathedral of St. Patrick's.* In 1418 

• Rot, Claus. 12 Hen. IV. in Cane. Hib. 

SWORDS. 277 

Walter Prendergast, Vicar of the church of St. Columb of Swords, 
being sued for two-thirds of the profits of his benefice, valued at 
five marks per annum, and forfeited by the act of absentees, 
pleaded the king's letters of license, and was accordingly released 
from the penalty. 

In 1423 Brande, Cardinal of Placentia, was nominated by the 
king to the prebend of Swords, and a writ was directed to the 
archbishop, commanding him to assign to the cardinal a stall ia 
the choir, and a voice in the chapter, and another likewise to the 
dean and chapter. In 1431 this prebend, which had been, as ob- 
served, called the golden prebend, was divided into three portions; 
one being assigned to the prebendary, another to the vicar, and a 
third to the economy of St. Patrick's cathedral, who were to 
maintain therewith six minor canons and six choristers, the residue 
to be expended in furnishing lights, in repairs, and in defraying 
other necessary expenses. This appropriation was confirmed by 
act of parliament in 1467. 

In 1461 Thomas Pollard, Vicar of Swords, had license to ab- 
sent himself from his parish for one year without incurring any 
forfeiture of his titlies. 

A return of a jury at Swords in 1465, finds that << the Arch- 
bishop of Dublin takes wrecks of the sea and weym, holds pleas 
de vetito namio, hues and bloodshed, holds Englishmen in prison, 
and levies fines on them, has the correction of bread and beer, 
and the ell weight, bushel, and gallon, by the king's standard and 
under his seal, holds all pleas in his court, except forestal, rape, 
arson, treasure-trove, has his own coroners, &c. within his Uberties." 

In 1474 a parliamentary grant of twenty shillings per annum 
was made to Datne Eleanora, Prioress of the nunnery of Swords, 
and her successors. 

In 1484 Doctor Walton, Archbishop of Dublin, being blipd 
and in an infirm state of health, voluntarily resigned his dignity, 
and reserved to himself for a maintenance the manor of Swords 
during his life, which reservation was confirmed to him by act of 
parliament in the following year. 

In 1489, after full hearing of a cause between the vicar of 
Swords and the dean and chapter of St. Patrick's, the Archbishop 
of Dublin made a final decree, whereby he decided that the vicar 


and his predecessors had always possessed the altarages of the 
parish' of Swords and crofts of the same, with half the mortuaries^ 
the wax and offerings of persons dying in the parishes of Malahide, 
Killossery, and Cloghran, also the tithes, great and small, of the 
whole demesne of Sederton and Crucefield, parcel of said demesne 
of little Farrow, and of the whole parish of Kinsaly, 

In the sixteenth century there were five exterior chapels 
subservient to the mother church of Swords : 1st, Kinsaly already 
spoken of ; 2nd, Lispobel near Clonmethan ; drd, Killeigh, 
which Allen calls the most stately of all the chapels of Swords ; 
4th, Killester ; and 5th, Malahide. It had also, in more ancient 
times, four other subseryient chapelries, which are now indepen* 
dent parishes : 1st, Cloghran-Swords ; 2nd, Dunabate; 3rd, Bal- 
griffin ; and 4th, Coolock. The registry of this monastery was 
in existence in the time of Ware, and is cited by him. 

In 1530 the vicar of Swords was entitled to all burial fees of 
persons dying within the parish. For a notice in 1533, see at 
" Grace Dieu." 

In 1535 Edward Bassenet was, on the death of Richard Fits 
Simons, promoted to this bene6ce, then in the gift of the crown, 
the see of Dublin being vacant by the murder of Archbishop Allen. 
In 1539 this prebend was taxed to the First Fruits at £32 14«. OcLy 
and the vicarage at £22 6s. Sd, Irish. 

In 1541 the Abbot of St. Mary's Abbey was by inquisition 
found seised of a close in the lands of Swords, extending from 
the highway from Swords to Lissenhall on the east, to the rivu- 
let called the ringwater on the west, from the road leading from 
the street of Swords to a passage across -the said rivulet, called 
Scottstones, on the south, and to the fields called the Spittle Acre 
on the north, comprising about two acres of land, and held under 
the see of Dublin by fealty and suit of court. 

In 1547 the Archbishop of Dublin, with the consent of his 
chapters, had license to convey to Robert Eustace, prebendary 
of Mullaghiddart and others, the office of constable of his castle 
and manor of Swords, whenever it should become vacant by the 
death of Thomas Fitz Simons of Swords, the profits and those of 
other detailed premises to be received by the trustees, to the use 
of Patrick Barnewall of Grace Dieu, Esq., in fee. In the^ same 

SWORDS. 279 

year an inquisition was taken as to the extent and value of this 
prebend, when it was found to possess the demesne called the 
Court of Lissenhally containing an orchard, a garden, 150 acres 
of land, together with sundry cottages and gardens, eight cottages 
in Swords, with eight acres of arable land, and eight gardens, to- 
gether with the tithes of certain townlands, and the altarages, (the 
oblations of all being left to the vicar.) See also a notice of 
Swords in the same year, at " Malahide«*' By a subsequent in- 
quisition it was found, that the priory of St, John the Baptist, of 
Dublin, was seised of a messuage and thirty acres of land in the 
townland of Rathengle, near Swords. The religious house of 
Grace Dieu was also seised of thirty acres here, called Francums- 
land. The petit canons of St. Patrick's had a portion of the 
tithes called the Burgage tithes, the precise extent of which was 
ascertained in 1657, by survey, directed by the parliamentary 
oommissioners, but those have been since relinquished. The vi- 
cars choral of St. Patrick's were abo entitled to certain tithes 
here ; and the prior of Holmpatrick was seised of four tenements 
with their gardens and eight acres of land in the town of Swords, 
which were, with other possessions of that house, granted to Jho- 
mas Fitz Williams. 

In 1554 Queen Mary presented Arthur St. Leger to this rec- 
tory, void by the death of John Derrick, and then in the gift of 
the crown by reason of the see being vacant. In 1564 Doctor 
Daly, Bishop of Kildare, held the vicarage with other preferments 
in commendam. 

In 1578 the queen issued a mandate for the better establish- 
ing of the corporation of Swords, and to make known the limits 
and bounds of the franchises and liberties thereof, and commis- 
sioners were thereupon appointed to settle the boundaries, two 
miles on every side from the town. The town was then accounted 
according to amcient records, one of the ** walled and good towns'* 
of the county. 

In 1585 Swords sent its first members to parliament, burgages 
having been assigned to its burgesses at twelve pence yearly pay- 
able out of each. In recurring to this parliamentary assemblage 
it is worthy to be noted, that it was the first that had any claim to 
be called Irish, the first that extended beyond the limiU of the 


English pale, the first that embraced the interests, and cherished 
the feelings of the ancient, as ^ell as of the new inhabitants of 

In 1598 the parsonage was demised for sixty years at the rent 
of £44 per annum. 

In 1613 William Blakeney and John Fitz Simons were the 
representatives for the borough of Swords, in the parliament that 
abolished the baneful distinction of English subjects and Irish ene- 
mies, which so long biassed the administration of justice, and fo- 
mented national disunion. The measure would have acted most 
beneficially, if the more unholy distinctions of recusant and loyal- 
ist. Catholic and Protestant, introduced in the time of James, 
were not upheld as substitutes for national animosities. 

The regal visitation of 1615 values the vicarage of Swords 
at 100 marks, Christopher Hewetson being then its vicar, and 
prebendary of Howth ; while it states the prebend of Swords 
to be worth £100 per annum. 

In 1620 George Taylor died seised of SOa. in Swords, called 
Francumsland, which had been parcel of the possessions of the 
monastery of Grace Dieu, twenty, two messuages, and 160a., Mar- 
shallstown, 40a., Greenock, two messuages and 100a.* For a 
notice in 1621, see the << Memoirs of the Archbishops of Dublin," 
^ that time. 

In 1637 Sir Edward Bolton had a demise for forty-three years 
of the prebend of Swords, the court, town and lands of Lissen- 
hall, all the tithes thereof, and all the tithes and glebe lands be- 
longing to said prebend, from the Archbishop. 

Here, in 1641, the first Irish army of the pale assembled, pre- 
paratory to the commencement of that civil war which desolated 
the land. (See potty at ** Corballis.") Amongst those who attend- 
ed on this occasion, were Luke Netterville of Corballis, George 
Blackney of Rickenhore, George King of Clontarf, Christopher 
Hollywood of Artane, John Talbot, Richard Goulding, Thomas 
Russell, Christopher Russell, Patrick Caddell, William Travers, 
Richard Barnewall, Laurence Sealing, &c. This assembly took 
place on the ninth of December, and on the following day .the 

* Inquis. in Cane Hib. 

SWORDS. 281 

Justiced issued their warrant, commaDding them << to separate on 
sight thereof, and that nine of the principal persons so assembled 
should appear before them at the Council Board, by ten of the 
clock the next morning, to shew the cause of their assembling to- 
gether in that manner." To this warrant they returned an answer, 
on the same day, to the following effect : '< That they were con- 
strained to meet there for the safety of their lives, which they 
conceived to be in no small danger, having been forced to forsake 
their dwellings on the last Tuesday at night, by the rising out of 
horse troops and foot companies, who, on the said night, killed 
four Catholics for no other reason but because they bore the 
name of that religion, and that they had' been before put into 
many fears by certain intelligence given them of unexpected at- 
tempts against their lives. Wherefore they desired ardently to 
be in some certain way assured by their Lordships of the safety 
of their lives, before they ran the hazard thereof, which was the 
only motive that hindered them from manifesting that obedience 
which they knew to be due to their Lordships' commands."* In 
consequence of which. Sir Charies Coote was sent hither by the 
Lords Justices with such forces as could be spared. << He found 
the access to the village straitly blocked up, yet so managed the 
attempt as he soon forced them to flight, beating them out of 
their fortifications, and killed two hundred of their men, without 
any considerable loss on his side^ more than Sir Lorenzo Carey, 
second son of the Lord Falkland, late lord deputy, a gentleman 
of excellent and ingenious parts, well-principled, and one whose 
virtues and resolution promised much happiness to the state. 
After settling of which place Sir Charles Coote returned to Dub- 

In the ensuing forfeitures Walter Jordan lost 41a. in this 
parish, John Cadell, 9a., George Blackney, a mansion-house, a 
water-mill, sundry messuages, and 200a., Christopher Russell, 
dd5A., Richard Goulding, 100a., Laurence Healing, 300a., and 
John Taylor, the mansion-house of Swords, and upwards of SOOa., 
in its vicinity. 

In 1642 John Taylor and George Blackney, Esqrs., the sit- 

♦ Curry*8 Histor. Rev. B. v. C. xiv. 
t Borlase*8 Irish Insurrection, p. 71* 


ting members of parliament for Swords, were removed from the 
house, by the puritan partj, on account of their attatehment to 
the kiog^s cause. 

In 1663 John Taylor was found to have a mansion-house, 
twenty messuages, and 190a. of land in Swords, and sundry other 
kmds in this county, of which he died seised in 1680** 

In 1666 Sir George Lane had a grant of 40a., plantation mea- 
sure^ here, as had the Archbishop of Dublin in the following year, 
of Jordan's land in Swords, 41a., forfeited in 1641 by Waher 
Jordan, and of Talbot's land in Swords, 50a., like measure, with 
various other lands in augmentation of the see. For a notice in 
1674, see " Cbghran." 

In 1675 the celebrated Andrew Sail obtained the prebend of 
Swords, with other preferments. He was born at Cashel, in tho 
county Tipperary, and educated from his infancy in the Boman 
Cathohc faith. In 1 639 he was sent abroad to complete his studies, 
and became Professor of Controversy in the College of Salamanca, 
and afterwards Professor of Divinity at Pampeluna, Pkcentia, and 
Tudela, having been previously admitted into the society of the 
Jesuits, among whom he took the fourth vow, and was made Pro- 
fessor of Moral Theology in their college at Salamanca. At length, 
being remtoded to Ireland, with the title of Superior of the mi»* 
ston of the Jesuits in that country, about the year 1673 he re* 
tired to Ca^el, ^ desiring," as he says himself in the preftu:e to 
one of his works, <* to spend the remnant of his days unknown, 
to prepare better for the long day of eternity." At this very 
time, however, under the instrumentality of Dr. Price, tlie Fro* 
testant Archbi^top of that province, he conceived and avowed in 
writing the intention of conforming to the communion of the £»• 
tablished Church. In May, 1674, he made a public declaration of 
such his conformity in the church of St. John at Cashel, and in 
July following preached in Christ Church, Dublin, before the Earl 
of Essex, on the reasons of his change of faith. While in Dublin, 
he was lodged in Trinity College, and was there admitted to the 
degree of Doctor of Divinity, when he published a Thesis, contlun- 
ing two conclusions touching the main points in controversy be- 

• Jnquis. in Cane. Hib. 

SWORDS. 283 

tween the two churches ;y?r«^ that out of the Roman Church there 
was a safe way for salvation, and^ecand^ that the way of the Church 
of England was safer to salvation than that of the Church of Rome. 
In 1675 he went to Oxford, and there also was created a Doctor 
of Divinity, and in 1677 was domestic chaplain to King Charles, 
about which time several works of controversy were published 
against him, to which he replied in a work entitled, « True Ca- 
tholic and Apostdic Faith maintained in the Church of England," 
which he dedicated to Lord Essex. Soon afterwards << he was 
rewarded,'' writes Dr. O'Conor,* "with the prebend of Swords^ 
the rectory of Ardmulchan, and the chantorship of Cashel ; and 
he, who would have died a beggar had he remained a Catholic, 
lived to 1682 in affluence purchased by the trade of religion." He 
resided at Cashel to the time of his death, which occurred in April, 
1682, in the 70th year of his age. He was buried in the Cathe- 
dral of St. Patrick, Dublin. 

In 1681 the archbishop decided what should be paid to the 
iHirate of Swords for serving the cures of its chapels, having pre- 
viously appointed a commission of inquiry to ascertain the real 
value of its tithes, as before-menUoned at " Malahide.** 

In 1683 George Viscount Lanesborough died, seised in free 
and common soccage of forty acres here.f . For a notice in 1685, 
see " Turvey." In 1689 Viscount Beamount of Swords was 
one of those attainted in King James's parliament. In the s«ne 
year that monarch renewed the charter of this borough, on which 
occasion Gerald Dillon, Esq., Prime Serjeant, was to be its port- 
reeve, with thirty-one burgesses, amongst whom appear the names 
of five Bamewalls, three Russells, John Stanley, Matthew Caddel, 
John Taylor, &c. 

lu 1697 Mr. Christopher Walsh was returned as parish priest 
of Swords, Cloghran, and Kin«ily, resident in Swords, and hav* 
tng Mr. John Jones as his curate. 

In 1700 the Archbishop of Dublin claimed an estate in fee in 
Seatown, and various lands in and about the town of Swords, as 
forfeited by Bartholomew Russell, and granted to the see of Dub- 

• Catalog. Biblioth. Stow. v. i. p. 270. 
t Tnquis. in Cane. Hib. 


11 n. His claim wasy however, postponed, he being a petitioner 
before the house of commons, but these lands were afterwards 
granted to the see. 

In 1703 Dean Scardeville bequeathed a sum of money, for the 
support of a school in this parish for the children of poor Protes- 
tants. The charity was sought to be recovered in 1779 by bill in 
chancery, but the suit was abandoned. In 1719 Archdeacon 
Hewetson granted to the incumbent of Swords and hb succes- 
sors for ever, << all that and those the lands whereon the mill 
stands, together with the said mill, for the sole use and support of 
a schoolmaster licensed by the Archbishop of Dublin and his suc- 
cessors from time to time for this parish," but neither has this en- 
dowment ever been so applied. 

In a lease of the prebendal lands of Swords in 1721, there is 
a special reservation of the benefit of the chancel and of the tithes 
of twenty acres glebe land assigned to the vicar. There is a do- 
cument of the year 1744 extant, defining the respective endow- 
ments of the prebendary and vicar of Swords, to which a map of 
the demesne lands is annexed. 

In 1786 the act was passed, alluded to at << Malahide," for the 
extension of a navigable canal from that town through Swords to 
the river of Fieldstown. 

In 1793 the Rev. James Verschoyle, afterwards Bishop of 
Killala, was the incumbent of Swords. 

In this borough, of notorious fame in the annals of bribery and 
corruption, the right of election was at this time vested in the 
Protestant inhabitants six months resident previous to the election. 
A writer, under the name of " Falkland," thus humorously de- 
scribes its political aspect in 1790. 

** General Massey some time since cast a longing eye on this 
borough, which he considered as a common open to any occupant, 
and, to secure the command of it to himself, he began to take and 
build tenements within its precincts, in which he placed many ve- 
teran soldiers, who, having served under him in war, were firmly 
attached to their ancient leader. Mr. Beresford, the first com- 
missioner of the revenue, who has a sharp look out for open places, 
had formed the same scheme with the General of securing this 
borough to himself, and a deluge of revenue officers was poured 

SWORDS. 285 

forth from the Custom-house to overflow th6 place, as all the arti- 
ficers of the new Custom-house had before been exported in the 
potato-boats of Dungarvan to storm that borough. The wary ge- 
neral took the alarm, and threatened his competitor, that, for every 
revenue officer appearing there, he would Introduce two old sol- 
diers, which somewhat cooled the first commissioner's usual ar- 
dour ; thus the matter rests at present, but, whether the legions of 
the arm/, or the locusts of the revenue, will finally remain masters 
of the field, or whether the rival chiefe, from an impossibility of 
effecting all they wish, will be content to go off like the two kings 
of Brentford, smelling at one rose, or whether Mr. Hatch's interest 
will preponderate in the scale, time alone can clearly ascertain." 

At the Union the compensation allowed for this 
borough (£15,000) was vested in trustees, (as it was 
of the class called potwalloping boroughs, and not 
private property,) for the purpose of educating and 
apprenticing the children of the humbler classes, 
without any religious distinction ; and a handsome and 
commodious school-house was erected at the cost of 
£2000. The school was opened in 1809, and is at 
present attended by about 300 children. The trus- 
tees, namely, the Chancellor, Archbishop of Dublin, 
Bishop of Kildare, Provost of Trinity College, Dean 
of St. Patrick's, and the Vicar of the parish, for the 
time being, were incorporated under the name of 
" the Governors of the School at Swords," on the 
trust of applying the surplus interest, afler paying all 
expenses of the school, in apprenticing the children, 
and any further surplus in premiums for the general 
encouragement of agriculture and manufactures. The 
salary of the superintendant is £70 per annum ; that 
of the schoolmaster fifty guineas, with certain allow- 
ances for servants and coals. There are six boys and 


six girls apprenticed out of it every year, and a sum 
of £12 paid with each apprentice. The physician 
to the dispensary has an allowance of £80 Irish per 
annum. Connected with this establishment, and sup- 
ported out of its funds, are a dispensary and coal-yard, 
for supplying with medicine, gratis, when wanted, and 
with coals at a reduced price, the parents of the poor- 
est children, who have regularly attended the school. 
The other indigent inhabitants of Swords, upon pro- 
pet recommendation, are entitled to the benefits both 
of the dispensary and of the coal-yard. There is also 
a national school here, which receives £15 annually 
from the Board of Education, the number of its pu- 
pils was 165 in 1834 ; and an infant school has been 
very recently established. 

At the commencement of this century, a corn 
mill, a windmill, and a watermill existed here, while 
there was also a corn mill at Balheary. 

The only public oflBcers, who have at any time 
exercised jurisdiction within the limits of this corpo- 
ration, were a portreeve, and the seneschal of the 
manor of St. Sepulchre, which is also part of the pos- 
sessions of the Archbishop of Dublin. The portreeve 
is appointed by the archbishop, and annually sworn 
at the Michaelmas court leet in Dublin, before the 
seneschal of St. Sepulchre. He has no salary, nor 
any emolument, except the annual profit of three 
acres of land lying near the town, for which he re- 
ceives about £8 per annum. The portreeve formerly 
held a court here once in the week, entertaining all 
claims within the manor, but otherwise, without limit. 

SWORDS. 387 

His authority, however, having been questioned, he 
has wholly discontinued to act, and the ordinary Petty 
Sessions court is now the only town jurisdiction. 

Swords gives the title of viscount to the family of 

The succession of members of parliament for this 
borough has been as follows : — 

1613 WilliaD9L Blakeney and John Fitzsimons ; 

William Blakeney and Robert CarweU. 
1639 John Taylor and George Blackney. 
1661 Sir W. Tichbome and John Povey ; 

Sir W, Tichborne and Denny Muschampe. 
1669 (King James's parliament) Francis Barnewall of Woodpark, 

county Meath, and Robert Russell of Drynham, Esqrs. 
1692 Richard Forster and John Reading. 
1695 John Reading and Thomas Ashe. 

1703 Right Honourable Robert Molesworth and James Peppard. 
1713 Right Honourable Robert Molesworth and Plunkett Plun- 

1715 Plunkett Plunkett and Richard Molesworth. 
1721 Plunkett Plunkett and Honourable Richard Molesworth. 
1727 Honourable Bysse Molesworth and Edward Bolton. 
1759 Honourable Bysse Molesworth and Thomas Cobbe. 
1761 Thomas Cobbe and Hamilton Gorges. 
1769 John Hatch and John Damer. 
1776 Thomas Cobbe and Charles King. 
1783 Charles Cobbe and John Hatch. 

1790 John Claudius Beresford and Lieutenant-General Eyre 

1797 Frauds Synge and Charles Cobbe, Esqrs. 

1798 Francis Synge, Esq. and Colonel Marcus Beresford. The 

former TOted against the Union. 

The succession of its prebendaries has been thus 
far ascertained : — 



1190 Walter Comyn, 

-^— Alanus. 

1227 Robert de Blond. 

1247 Iterius de Brochard. 

1302 William de Hothum. 

1366 William of Wickham. 

1375 Peter de Lacy. 

1378 Robert Cruce. 

1386 Walter Bruges. 

1397 John Taaffe. 

1411 John Tanner. 

1423 Brande, Cardinal of Pla- 

1431 William Cruise. 
— . Blackton. 

1468 Walter Kingdom. 
1496 Richard EusUce. 
1509 Edward St. Lawrence, 

alias Howth. 
1535 Christopher Vesey. 
Anthony Skeffington. 

1535 John Derrick. 

1554 Anthony St. Leger. 

1555 Patrick Byrne. 
1576 Edmund Enole. 
1598 William Pratt. 
1615 Richard Jones. 
1642 Samuel Pullein. 

1661 Roger Holmes. 

1662 WiUiam Williams. 
1664 John Rogan. 
1675 Andrew Sail. 
1682 Henry Scardeville. 
1703 Thomas King. 
1708 Robert Dougat. 
1715 John Wynne. 
1727 Hugh Wilson. 
1735 John Espin. 
1744 John Owen. 
1761 Fowler Comings. 
1783 Henry Lomax Walshe. 
1834 William Magee. 

The Family op Taylob, 

as having been so long identified with this locality, demand here 
some especial notice. Premising, that the escallops in their ar- 
morials afford faithful evidence, according to the interpretation of 
heraldry, of their achievements in the Holy Land ; they early 
passed over from France, and established themselves in the sister 
kingdom. In 1183 Ralph Taylor was returned by the Bishop of 
Durham as holding certain lands at Stanhope, as was Aldelm 
Taylor by the Bishop of Winchester, as resident in Winchester ; 
and other individuals of the name are traced at the same time 
flourishing in Norfolk, Suffolk, and Cambridgeshire. 

About the year 1250 Gilbert Taylor was sheriff of the latter 
county. In the middle of the thirteenth century they had ex- 
tended into Oxfordshire, Nottinghamshire, Shropshire, Lincoln- 


sbirey Essex, Kent, Herefordshire, Huntingdonshire, Somerset- \ 
shire, Wiltshire, Buckinghamshire, Northamptonshire, and York- \ 
shire. At Beverley, in the latter county more especially, \vas ^ 
established Edward Taylor, chief falconer to Henry the Third. i 

.In 1271 Isabel, relict of John Fitz Alan, impleaded Galfrid le 
Tayleur and Agatha his wife for a third part of the manor of Ro- 
dington, in Shropshire, and the Tayleurs of Buntingsdale, in that 
county, have flourished from that period in the highest respecta- 

In 1273 Nicholas, the second squ of the before-mentioned 
Edward Taylor of Beverley, passed into Ireland, where he had issue 
John, who had issue Walter, erroneously called William in some 
documents. In 1280 Alexander le Taylor had considerable grants 
of Jewish forfeitures in the city of York. 

In 1289 Philip de Taylor granted to his son Walter in fee his 
possessions in Erde, in Kent, which lay partly within the king's 
barony, and partly within the liberties of the archbishop* The 
above Phih'p de Taylor was about the same time Slnriff of 
London. In 1293 Roger de Taylor is mentioned as a landed 
proprietor in Hertfordshire, and styled << Dominus de Valencia.** 
In 1295 Walter le Taylor was burgess for Thresk in the parlia- 
ment at Westminster, as was William le Taylor for Truro in that 
held at York in 1298, in that of Westminster in 1300, and in that 
of Carlisle in 1307. In the commencement of the fourteenth 
century, John de Taylor is mentioned as of St. Alban's, another 
of the same appellation as burgess of Berwick, and branches of 
the family had taken root in Westmoreland, Surrey, Worcester- 
shire, and Sussex. In 1301 Robert Taylor was member of par- 
liament for Oakhampton, as was Thomas le Tailour for Wycpmb* 
In 1302 Benedict le Tailour was representative for the borough 
of Crediton, and Robert le Tailour for Helstone in the parliament 
of Carlisle in 1307. 

In 1309 John, the son of Thomas le Taylor, appears on re- 
cord in connexion with the lands of Rathosbem in Ireland ; and, 
in the following year, Thomas le Taillur was one of those sum- 
moned to attend the parliament of Kilkenny. 

In 1311 Edmund Taylor was one of the two warders ap- 
pointed and sworn to keep the keys of Aldgate during the distur- 



bances relative to OaTeston, while Hago le Taylor was burgesii 
for Ryegate, and William le Taylor for Carlisle in the parUamenl 
of London. In 1312 Geofl&ey Taylor was knigbt of the shire for 
Hertfordshire. In 1313 Reginald le Taylor was member of par* 
Hament for Helstone, as was Alan le Tailor for Worcester in the 
parliament of Westminster, and again in 1318 in that of York. 
Id 1316 Ralph le Taillour was certified to be lord of the town-* 
ship of Hyde, near Blandford in Dorsetshire, and in 1321 Wil** 
liam le Taillur was member of parliament for Shaftesbury. 

la 1^7 Richard le Tuyt had license to enfeoff William le 
Taylor, clerk, of the manors of KiUalwyn, Castlecor, and Fithenagh, 
in the county Mfeath, which were held of the king in capites 
while in 1342, and the four subsequent years, John Taylor mm 
one of the high bailifl^ of the city of Dublin, and in 1358 was its 
provost, aa the chief magistrale' was then called. In 1348 Wil- 
Ham, thjB son of John Taillour of Staniford Brieve, was seised 
of various lands in Yorkshire, which he hdd as of the manor of 
Pontelract. The Tullour family were aho at this time landed r 
proprietors in Cumberland and Lancadbire, in addition to iimt] 
former locations. 

In 1376 the abbot of the house of the Blessed Vu-gin of Duit- 
draynan ha Galway, on his leaving Ireland, had liberty to appoint 
as his attorney, during hb absence, Robert Loughborough and 
Adam Taylor. The same Adam was subsequently one of the 
attorneys for the parson -of Callan on a similar occasion. In 1382 
Thomaa Taillor, clerk^ was constituted a baron of the Exchequer 
in Irektndy and in 1386 another Thomas Taillor had license, for 
himself and his issue, to eiyoy the benefit of the law of England^ 
and yet another of the same name was appointed chief remem* 
brancer of the £schequ» in tkb country. In 1386 Thomas 
Taylor was constituted treasurer of the liberties of Kilkenny, and 
deputy seneschal thereof. 

In 1387 Walter Taylor of Swords, son of the John Tayler 
mentioned at the year 1273, had license and authority from 
Robert de Vere, Marquis of Dublin, to purchase fish of all kind 
in every harbour of the county Dublin, and to cq^port same, fet 
sale in Chester or Liverpool. This Walter was also seised of 
lands in Drogheda, and became the purchaser of Rathfeigh in th<i 


dounty Meath from the Bernard family. His eldest son and heir wbs 
Alexander Taylor of Swords,^of whom hereafter. In the same year, 
Henry Taillour is mentioned as of the county Kilkenny. In 1890, 
WUham Taylor was Vicar of Pierstown Laundy. In 1394 the 
executor of John Taylor deceased received from the treasury, a 
sum of £59 due of old hy King Edward the Third to Thomas 
MinoC, Archhishop of Dublin, whose claim had by various assign- 
ments passed to said John Taylor. In 1899 the Taylors were 
established in the counties of Carlow and Kildare, and in the same 
and the following year (1400), Richard Taylor was one of the high 
bailiflk of Dublin. 

In 1400 PhiHp Taillour of Bristol was one of those, to whom 
the king granted the extraordinary license, ** that they, with as 
many men-at-arms as they shall choose to have and provide at therr 
own expenses, may take their course for and pass over to our said 
realm of Ireland in four ships, and there make war against the re- 
bels and enemies of us, being in the town of Galway, which in times 
past was in our ligeance and obedience, until now of late that by 
one Sir William Burgh, knight, by the assent and treason of cer- 
tain traitors therein, the said town was taken in war, and also, the 
islands of Arran, which always be fuU of gallies, to ensnare, cap- 
ture, and plunder our liege English ; to the end and effeqt that if 
the aforesaid Philip Taillour, &c., shall be able by force and armed 
power to obtain and take the town and islands aforesaid, they may 
have, hold, and inhabit the same town and idands, taking to their 
own use and profit all and singular the property of the aforesaid 
rebels and enemies of us, and all that which they shall be able so 
to obtain and take ; the rights, rents, revenues, services, and other 
monies whatsoever to our royal prerogative there pertaining, al* 
ways saved unto us. Saving also the right of the son and heir of 
Roger le Mortimer, late Earl of March, being within age and in 
our wardship, kcJ* 

In 1408 John Taylor is mentioned as of Boystown in the 
county Kildare, while in the same year, Alexander Taylor of 
Swords was one of three, whom the king assigned to collect a sub- 
sidy withm the Crosslands of Dublin. This Alexander was the 
son of Walter as before-mentioned, and intermarried with Agnes, 
the daughter of William Swinock or Simcock, by whom he ac- 


292. COl/NTY OF 0UBL1N. 

Quired additional property in Drogbeda. He seems to have been, 
the purchaser of the inheritance at Swords> and to have built a. 
mansion house in that town. His eldest son and heir, John Tay- 
lor, married Margaret daughter of Thomas Brailes^ by whom he 

had issue John Taylor, married to Catherine, daughter of . 

Hamlin of Smithstown. The children of this last marriage were . 
Agnes Taylor, married to Thomas de la Field of Fieldstown, and 

James Taylor, who, by his first wife Anne, daughter of Se- 

grave of Ktlleglan, had issue Richard Taylor of Swords, hereafter 
mentioned^ and Robert Taylor, from whom descended the Taylors, 
of DubHn, aldermen and merchants of that city. James Taylor's <> 
second wife was Agnes Warren, by whom he had also issue. In 
] 406 the king conferred the dignity of Archdeacon of Ossory on 
Adam Taylor. In 1412 and the two following years, as also in 1422, 
Stephen Taylor was one of the high bsuhffs of the city of Dublin. 

In 1415 Edmund Taylor was one of the knights in the retinue 
of the Earl of Oxford at the battle of Agincourt. In 1520 in the 
royal appointment for the progress to Canterbury, and thence to Ca- 
lais and Guisnes, to meet the French king, Doctor Taylor was one 
of ten attendant chaplains, to each of whom six servants and four 
horses were allowed. The suite of Cardinal Wolsey alone, on this 
occasion, comprised twelve chaplains, fifty gentlemen, 238 ser- 
vants, and 150 horses. 

In 1539 Patrick Taylor was seised of Ballydowd near Lucan, 
which, having been afterwards the seat of Sir Edmund Sexton Perry, 
took the name of Edmundsbury, and is now the residence of Mr. 
Needham. In 1543 Richard Taylor of Swords, son of the before 
mentioned James Taylor, was joined in commission with said , 
Patrick, to try and decide what temporal and spiritual pos- 
sessions became, by the dissolution of monasteries, vested in the 
crown within the county of DubUn. He married Elizabeth 
Barnewall, daughter of Robert Barnewall of Riverstown, by whom 
he had issue four daughters, the eldest of whom, Catherine, was 
first married to Christopher de la Hoyde, Esq., Recorder of Dro- ^ 
gheda, and on his decease to Patrick, fourth Baron of Trimlestown. 
Richard had also a son, Robert Taylor of Swords, hereafter men- 

In 1 553 Dr. John Taylor, Bishop of Lincoln, was one of the 


English prelates deprived by Queen Mary. Amongst those Eng- 
lish gentlemen, who compounded for their estates during the 
Commonwealth, were John Taylor of Moscroft in Yofksliire, 
Richard Taylor of Ernley in Sussex, John Taylor of Brimstage in 
-Cheshire, John Taylor of Sandal in Yorkshire, John Taylor of 
Ichenor in Sussex, William Taylor and Richard Taylor of Clap- 
4iam in Bedfordshire, William Taylor of London, tlien late of 
Windsor, Thomas Taylor of Oclepichard in Herefordshire, John 
Taylor of Oldham in Lancashire, John Taylor of York, merchant, 
and John Taylor of Todcaster in Yorkshire. In 1557 John Taylor, 
clerki was constituted Master of the Rolls in England, and was 
afterwards Chancellor. 

In 1558 Robert Taylor, the son and heir of the before men- 
tioned Richard of Swords, was seised of Ballyowen in the county 
Dublin. He married Alice, daughter of Thomas Fitz Simons of 
Dublin, and had issue by her George Taylor his heir, and other 
children. George was Recorder of Dublin, and in the Irish par- 
liament of 1585 was one of its representatives. In 1586 Francis 
Taylor was one of the sheriflFs of the city of Dublin. 

About this time flourished in England, Doctor Thomas Taylor, 
Fellow of Christ's College, a zealous puritan divine of the Eliza- 
bethean age. In 1595 Francis Taylor was Mayor of Dublin, and 
at the same time, Mr. Joseph Taylor, the friend of Philip Mas- 
singer, appeared as the original actor of Hamlet, instructed by 
Shakspeare himself. He performed the part for upwards of forty- 
five years, was master of the revels to Charles the First, died in 
the year 1653, and was buried at Richmond. 

In 1602 Thomas Taylor was settled at Rigmore in Sussex, 
and from him has descended the line of the Marquis of Headfort, 
his grandson Thomas having, in the year 1653, come into Ire- 
land with the celebrated Sir William Petty, with whom he had 
contracted the strictest friendship. They conjointly undertook 
and perfected the Down Survey, although the maps were pub- 
lished in Sir William Petty's name only. In 1660 he disposed 
of his estates in England, and purchased in Ireland the town and 
townlands of Kells, and others of great extent in the county 
Meath. After the restoration of King Charles the Second, he 
was appointed a commissioner of the Court of Claims, and was 



also a comipissioneT of that held for persons irsaqported into 
Connaught and Clare in 1675. His only daughter married Snr 
Nicholas Acheson, ancestor to Viscount Gosford. His son, Tho- 
mas Taylor, was created a baronet of Ireland in 1704, and the 
grandson of this Sir Thomas was, in 1747, advanced to the peer- 
age by the title of Baron Headfort of Headfort» and created Earl 
of Bective in 1766, as was his son, Marquis of Headfort, ia 1800. 

In 1603 the before-mentioned George Taylor of Swords was 
a party in a recovery suffered of the Caddell estates in this coun-> 
ty. He died in 1620, seised, as mentioned at << Swords," and ai 
<< Newcastle." His eldest son and heir, by his first wife Johaiuia 
Jans, was Michael Taylor, who, at the time of said George's de^ 
cease, was Bg^A thirty-six, and married to the daughter of ■ 
Russell of Drynham, by whom he had issue John Taylor his heir» 
and four other sons. In 1618 John Taylor was one of the English 
undertakers or settlers in the county of Cavan, and had assigned 
to him 1500a., called Aghieduff, with a castle and bawn therein. 

In 1629 Francis Taylor, of the line of the before-mentioned 
Robert, was one of the aldermen of Dublin ; while in the par- 
liament of 1689 John Taylor, the heir of Michael of Swords, was 
one of the representatives of that borough. He married Mary 
the daughter of John Pagan of Feltrim, by whom he had issue John 
Taylor his heir, and two other sons. John, the elder, sustained the 
confiscations and losses mentioned at Swords ; and the sufferings 
of his son John the younger, under these privations, and his re- 
sistance to being transplanted into Connaught up to 1659, when 
he obtained a decree confirmatory of his old estate, are detailed 
in an interesting manuscript still preserved by the family. At 
the court of daims, consequent upon the forfeitures of this period. 
Captain Marmaduke Taylor was a claimant for lands in the coun- 
ty of Cork, Nathaniel Taylor in the counties of Cork and Tip- 
perary, Thomas Taylor in Cork, the Queen's County, and Meath, 
Timothy Taylor in the King's County, and Walter Taylor in the 
county of Galway. 

In the English parliament of 1641 Mr. Taylor, a barrister 
and representative for Windsor, was impeached for saying, in dis- 
paragement of the house, in reference to the Earl of Strafford's 
death, that << they had committed murder with the sword of justice;^ 


«ncl that he would not for a world have so much blood lie oti hib 
conscience, as did on theirs for that sentence ;** which words 
bein^ proved against him^ he was expelled the house and voted 
incapable of ever being a member. He was also committed to 
, the Tower during pleasure. 

At the surrender of Arundel Castle, Captain Thomas TaykHr 
Was one of the officers taken prisoner by Sir William Waller. In 
1652 Captfluns Taylor and Peacock, in two English frigates, eu* 
gaged two Dutch men-of-war on the coast of Flanders, took one 
and caused the other to be stranded. In 1654 died John Tay- 
lor, the water poet, of whom Pope says — 

** Taylor, their better Charon, lends an oar. 
Once swan of Thames, though now he sings no more.** 

He was a remarkable instance of uneducated genius, as himself 

^ I must confess I do want eloquence, 
And never scarce did learn my accidence ^ 
For having got from possum to posset, 
I there was gravelled, cou}d no forther get** 

In 1657 Nicholas Taylor, brother of the aforesaid John the 
elder, was found, on a parliamentary survey, seised of 160a. in 
Swords. His nephew, John the younger, heir of John the elder, 

married the daughter of Moore of Ballina, by whom he had 

issue Michael Taylor his heir, and other children. 

In 1660 Doctor Jeremy Taylor was promoted to the sees of 
Down and Connor, was soon afterwards made vice-chancellor of 
Trinity College, Dublin, for its special regulation, and had also 
the administration of the bishopric of Dromore conferred upon 

In 1680 John Taylor the younger, before-mentioned, died 
seised in tail male of the family estates in Swords, Marshabtown, 
Rathcoole, Greenock, &c., as did his eldest son, Michael Taylor, 
without issue male in 1684, leaving John Taylor his brother and 

heir, who subsequently married Alice, daughter of Browne 

of Clongowes- Wood, his first wife, by whom he had one daughter. 
By his second wife, Helen, daughter of Richard Fagan of Fel- 


trim^ hehadJohn Taylor his heir, and eight other children. This 
John also married twice. By his first wife, Miss Cusack of Rath* 
vddrony he had a daughter ; hy his second, Catherine Everard of 
Randalstown, he had Christopher his heir, George who died un- 
married, and Penelope married to EUiward Mapother of Kiltee« 
yan. Christopher married Ellen, daughter of John Caulfield, by 
iwhom he had ten children, of whom James Joseph Taylor is now 
the surviving heir, being of the seventeenth generation from the y 
above-mentioned Edward Taylor of Beverley. Jane Elizabeth 
Taylor, his sister, is married to Josiah Forster, Esq., formerly of V 
St. Croix in the West Indies, by whom she has issue, James 
Fitz Eustace Forster. \ 

In 1687 died Silas Taylor, an antiquary of much ability, bom 
at Harley in Shropshire. 

Amongst those attainted in King James's parliament, were 
Arthur Taylor of the county Tipperary, and Joseph Taylor of 
the county Kerry, while John Taylor was one of the burgesses in 
the new charter then granted to Swords, In 1692 Robert Tay- 
lor was one of the members of parliament for the borough of 

In 1703 that admirable scholar, the Rev. John Taylor, was 
born in Shrewsbury, where he received the early part of his edu- 
cation. He was afterwards chancellor of Lincoln, and author of 
various works. 

In 1716 was born in Ireland George Taylor, the son of a re- - 
spectable clergyman, who afterwards emigrated to America, and, 
having by prudent management and great industry amassed a 
large fortune, purchased a considerable estate there in the county 
of Northampton, which he represented in the provincial assembly 
that met at Philadelphia in 1764, and in 1776 he was one of those 
who signed the memorable declaration of American independence. 
About the commencement of this century another branch of the 
family settled in Gal way, of which town Walter Taylor was mayor 
in 1731, Anthony Taylor sheriff in 1735, and Thomas Taylor 
mayor in 1768. « 

In 1727 William Taylor was sheriff of Derbyshire, and in 1731 
died Doctor Brook Taylor, a native of Edmonton, in Middlesex, 
the intimate friend of Sir Isaac Newton, a very able mathemati- 


cian, and author of many scientific works. In 1766 died John 
Taylor, a learned critic and philologisti born at Shrewsbury, and 
about the same time died Doctor John Taylor, a learned dissent- 
ing teacher, born near Lancaster. 

In 1788 died Sir Robert Taylor, an eminent architect, and 
above all that of his own fortune. When he began life, he said 
\ke was not worth eighteen pence, and the accumulation of his pro- 
fessional labours amounted at the time of his decease to £180j000. 
There is a handsome monument to his memory in Westminster 
Abbey. In the same year appeared a very remarkable work on 
the Platonic docti^ne, from the pen of Mr. Thomas Taylor, the 
singular scope of which may be conjectured from the introductory 
avowal, that << the religion of t)ie heathens has, indeed^ for 
many centuries been the object of ridicule and contempt, yet the 
author of the present work is not ashamed to own, that he is a 
perfect convert to it in every particular, so far as it was understood 
and illustrated by the Pythagoric and Platonic philosophers.'' 

In 1809 Lieutenant Taylour of the Tigris commanded a ha- 
Eardous boat expedition in the Bay of Rosas, in which he had such 
signal success as to capture or burn all the vessel^ ^nd take or 
destroy the supplies destined for the French army in Spain. In 
1613 Captain Taylor of the Sparrow took possession of the Castfe, 
of Castro, on the Spanish shore of the Mediterranean, and in the 
same year Captain B. W. Taylor of the Apollo took the islands of 
Augusta and Carzolo, in the Mediterranean, and in the foUowing 
year that of Paxo, in the Adriatic. 

Other records of this family, in connexion with the county of 
Dublin, are scattered through this work, and may be traced by 
the General Index. 

Near Swords is Seatown, formerly an estate of the 
Russell family, and recognised as such in the Act of 
Settlement. It is now the residence of Mr. Arthur. 
Balheary, the ancient fee of the Lords Kingsland, Is 
also in the vicinity, and has a Roman Catholic chapel 
of ease, from which a remarkably straight and well 
shaded road leads to Lispobel and RoUestown. At 



about a mile from Swords, are the uninteresting 
ruins of a chapel, presenting a remarkably large, un- 
roofed, square apartment, with broad low windows 
slightly carved, but utterly without tombs or any 
traces of religious reverence. 

Il was more anciently called Glassmore, and, according to the 
calendary of Cashel, is memorable for the martyrdom of St. Cro- 
■an and all his monks, by a band of pirates in the commencement 
of the seventh century.* He is styled abbot and martyr, and hAi 
festival is kept on the 10th of February. Other authorities refer 
this event to a Glassmore in Munster.f St. Angus thus eulogises 
this holy man : — ** SteUa lucida, propago feHx, thesaurus aureus 
praefulgidds et ezimius, Cronanus sanctus absque macule, sol 
luddus Glasmorensis." Its tithes belonged to the petit canons of 
St. Patrick, and accordingly in 1759 the tithed of Taylor^s land, 
Hilltown, Moortown, &c. " commonly called and reputed to be 
the petty canons' and choristers' tithes ;" likewise all the tithes, 
great and small, of a certain part of the lands of Moortown were 
leased to Robert Wilson for twenty-one years at £20 per annum. 

This townland contains about one hundred and 
eighty acres, was the fee of Lord Trimlestown, and 
is now that of Mr. Cusack. 

Leaving Swords, and continuing the northern 
road, the handsome seat of Mr. Baker appears at 
lefib, with a pretty river flowing through it in graceful 
windings and over several artificial falls. Thence to 
the village of 

* Camden*8 Britannia, vol. iii. p. 561. 
t See Colgan*s AcU Sanctorum, p. 303. 

TUBVEY. 299 


the ancient estate of the Barnewalls, Lords Trlmles- 
town, and Barons of Turvey. 

A straight avenue, still scantily sentinelled with 
the survivors of a forest, conducts by the margin of a 
little stream to the family mansion, a plain but vene- 
rable building surrounded by some fine old trees. In 
it are some family portraits and other paintings. On 
this townland was formerly an excellent com mill, of 
which now scarcely a trace remains. It is also obser- 
vable that iron appears to manifest its presence here 
in a coarse reddish earth. 

In 1240 the prioress of Granj grauted to Master Richard de 
St. Martin the church of Turvey, alias Dunabate, for his natural 
life, at the annual rent of £10, he paying also in the name of the 
prioress a mark annually to the church of Swords.* 

In 1385 Hugh Bermingham was appointed seneschal of the 
manors and lordships of Turvey, Rush, Corduff, and Ballyscadan, 
with power to demise the same to farmers, and to remove such aa 
he pleased, and set the lands to others, to appoint receivers, and 
do all other things for the good government thereof which he 
should deem ezpedient.f The manor comprised the denomina- 
tions of Claffardstown, Danyestown, &c. 

In 1461 the king granted to Sir William Wellesley the office 
of chief butler of Ireland, with the manors of Turvey, Balscaddan^ 
and Rush, and other manors, for his life, at the service of a red 
rose. The grant recites that the same had belonged to James 
Botiller, late Earl of WilUhire.J 

By inquisition of 1515 Sir Thomas Butler, seventh Earl of Or- 
mond, was found to have died seised of the manors of Lusk, Tur- 
vey, Rush, and Balscaddaa. 

• Lib. " Crede Mihi," fo. 103. 

t Rot Pat in Cane Hib. X lb. 


In 1532, when King Henry notified that for certain arduous 
causes, with the consent of his lieutenant and the lords spiritual 
and temporal and council, he had determined to unfurl and 
display his banner at the hill of Owenstown^ in the county of 
Dublin, and summonses and distringases were issued against all 
those absent, who were bound to render scutage on such an occa- 
sion, amongst these, process issued from the exchequer to the 
Earl of Ossory, on account of his manor of Turvey. 

In 1556 Thomas Earl of Ormond granted this manor and its 
seneschalship io Sir Christopher Bamewall, a lawyer of considera- 
ble eminence, who was high sheriff of the county of Dublin in 1560, 
and died here in 1575. Turvey has since constituted a principal 
seat of his family, the present mansion-house having been erected 
by him, as appears by the arms and inscription over the west gate, 
** The arms of Sir Christopher Barnewall and Dame Marion Sherle, 
alias Churley, who made this house in anno 1565." 

In 1645 Nicholas Barnewall was created Baron of Turvey and 
Viscount Barnewall of Kingsland. 

In 1658 Cromwell directed by his letter that Lord Kingsland. 
should have a lease of his house at Turvey, and £500 per annum 
set apart for him, which was done accordingly. 

In 1685 Henry Lord Viscount Kingsland passed patent for 
Turvey and its subdenomi nations, 432 acres, and the mill thereto 
belonging, the towns and lands of Ballawley, Ballystroan, part of 
Hodgestown, Fieklstown, with the fair, &.c. the outlands of Swords, 
with part of the town of Swords in several parcels, 74 acres, the 
mill and mill race of Killossery, the town and lands of Grace . 
Dieu, with the tithes thereof, &tc., Drishogue 222 acres. Grange 
of Ballyboghill 395 acres, &c., Skiddow and Ballgeeth 360 acres, 
Rob's- Wall 115 acres, coneyburrow of Portmarnock and the mill 
thereunto belonging 336a. 1r. &c., also the tithes of the towixand 
lands of Rob's- Wall, the manor, town, lands and preceptory of 
Kilmaiohambeg, &c. 

In this demesne the writer of these pages witnessed 
the felling of a noble ancient tree, and surely there 
is truth in those philosophers who found ** tongues in 


treea." As this beauty of the wood, with all her leafy 
honours round her, tottered and groaned upon her. 
amputated roots, it seemed as if the Hamadryad was 
deeply complaining from her sylvan temple. With 
the enthusiasm of the ambassador, whom Livy pour- 
trays so affected as by the presiding intelligence of an 
oak of centuries, it was almost the first impulse to 
arrest the arm of the woodcutter, and certainly the 
confirmation of his deforming work could not be wit- 
nessed. In a remoter glade, and under the fantastic but 
richly furnished branches of a beech, as umbrageous as 
Tityrus himself could have enjoyed, it was more con- 
genial to muse upon the achievements of the noble 
name, on which Turvey has the honour of conferring 
one title. 

Th£ Family of Babnbwall. 

"It is a reverend thing/' says Bacon, "to see an ancient 
castle or building not in decay, or to see a fair timber tree sound 
and perfect, how much more to behold an ancient noble family, 
which hath stood against the waves and weathers of time." The 
incident, above alluded to, especially suggested the quotation, and 
to no line could it have been more justly applied, than to that 
which is the subject of this little memoir. " The Bamewalls,'' 
says Stanihurst, " came from little Britain, where they are at this 
day a great surname." In 1066 " le Sieur de Barneville^ was 
one of the knights in the train of William the Conqueror, as 
Bromton's list runs : 

Barneville et Berners, 

Cheyne et Chalers. 
In 1078 the Conqueror, having pursued the insurgent Saxons to 
the Roman wall, returned to York in triumph, and there bestowed 
upon Roger de Barneville the manor of Newton in Cleveland, and 
various other lands which his immediate descendants possessed 


until the fourteenth century. The aforesaid Roger, together with 
his brother Hugh, on the declaration of the Holy War at the 
Council of Clermont in 1095, hastened to receive upon their 
habits the consecrated cross. In the following year they joined 
the banner of Duke Robert, wintered in Apulia, and early in 1097 
sojourned for some days at Constantinople, where, in the Blan-* 
ch^mal palace, de BarneviUe and the rest of the Duke of Nor* 
mand/s retainers did homage to the Emperor Alexius, and 
received for this acknowledgment the most expensive presents. 
The subsequent achievements of de BarneviUe against the Sultan 
Kilidge Anslan, the Solyman of Tasso, are the theme of the most 
glowing eulogies from the Latin historians. Roger ultimately fell 
before the walls oi Antioch. His third son Roger was one of the 
military retainers of Robert de Bruce, and finally became a monk 
in the abbey of St. Sauveur le Vicomte. The family was also esta- 
blished in the twelfth century in Southamptonshire. 

Fn 1170 Jordan de BarneviUe was one of the knights bound to 
render military service for his possessions in the Duchy of Nor- 
mandy, which he lived to see subdued by Philip Augustus, to 
whom, in 1204, he vowed allegiance. At the dose of the twelfth 
century, the family is traced in the records of Essex, Suffolk, 
Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, Wiltshire, Middlesex, and a highly re<* 
spectable branch at Hockworthy in Devonshire. 

About the same time some of its members passed into Ireland, 
where, <' upon their first arrival,** says Stanihurst, <^ they won 
great possessions at Beerhaven, but were at length, by conspiracy 
of the Irish, headed by the O'Sullivans, all slain, except one young 
man, who then studied the common laws in England,** Hugh 
a^uu Ulfran de BarneviUe, to whom, on his return, King John, in 
1215, granted the lands of Drymnagh and Tyrenure in the Yale 
of DubUn, which his posterity held until the reign of James the 
First, when it was granted to Sir Adam Loft us. This Hugh gave 
twenty ounces of gold to the crown for the custody of the son of 
WiUiam Trum, and the daughter of Adam Rudipat, his wife, and 
of their lands during their minority, which was accordingly granted 
to him, saving the dower of Adam Rudipat's widow. Hugh died 
without issue, whereupon Reginald de BarneviUe, his brother, suc- 
ceeded as his heir, acquired considerable accession of property by 


royal gfint, and waa the direct ancestor of tbe Lords of Trim- 
lestowm About thb time the Augustinian monastery of Odder 
was founded by one of tbe funily. 

In 1277 and the immediate subsequent years, Gilbert de 
Barneval was summoned to perform military service ag^nsC 
X#leweUyn, Prince of Wales. Members of the £Bjnily were at thiir 
time considerable landed proprietors in Middlesex, Devonshire, 
and Yorkshire. In 1319 John de BemeviUe was knight of the 
shire for Somersetshire. 

In 1848 and previously, Sir Wdfran Bamewall was seised of 
I^lbrue in the county of Meath, with the advowson of its church, 
and about the same time Reginald de Bamewall was seised of 
Tyrequre in the vab of Dublin, as hereafter mentioned. In 1378 
John de Barneval, knight, was summoned to a great council to be 
hdd in Dublin. In 1438 John Bamewall, the ancestor of the 
Lords of Kingsland, was sheriff of the county of Meath. In 1485 
Christopher Bamewall of Crickstown, was Chief Justice of the 
King's Bench in Ireland, he was the son of Sir Wolfran de Barne^ 
wall by the daughter of the celebrated Lord Fumival. In 1462 
Robert Bamewall, for his good services to the king^s fiither when 
in Ireland, had a grant constituting him a baron of parhament, to 
hold said dignity to him and his heurs male by the title of Lord 
and Baron of Trimlestown, with an annuity of £10 payable by the 
Prior and Hospitallers of St. John of Jerusalem, out of the farms 
of the Sidmon-leap and Chapelisod ; and the further privilege of 
b?ing of the King's Council in Ireland during life. At the same 
period. Sir Nicholas Bamewall of Crickstown, the lineal ancestor 
of Sir Aylmer Bamewall, baronet, and brother of said Robert 
Lord Trimlestown, was Chief Justice of the Common Pleas in^ 

In 1474, when the brotherhood of St. George was constituted 
by parliament of thirteen of << the most noble and worthy per- 
sons within the four shires," Bamaby Bamewall, brother of Chris- 
topher of Crickstown, C. J. of the K. B., was one of the three 
for the county Meath. They were to assemble annually at Dub- 
lin, on St. George's day, to express their zeal for English govern- 
ment, and thence were styled the fratemity of St. George. To 
their c^tain, who was to be chpsen, for one year, on their anni-^^ 


versary, were assigned as his train 120 archers on horseback, and 
forty other horsemen with one attendant to each. The archers 
were to receive sixpence daily pay, the others, for themselves and 
their attendants, fivepence, with an annual stipend of four marks. 
Thus was the defence of the English pale entrusted to 200 men 
and thirteen officers, with such tumultuary levies as might be 
raised on any sudden emergency. To support this armament the 
fraternity was empowered to demand twelve pence in the pound 
out of all merchandises sold in Ireland, except hides and the 
goods of freemen of Dublin and Drogheda. They were also em- 
powered to make laws for the regulation of their society, to elect 
new members on vacancy, and their captain had authority to ap- 
prehend outlaws, rebels, and all who refused due obedience to 
law. In 1487 Christopher, the second Lord Trimlestown, was 
one of the Irish nobles deceived by the pretensions of Lambert 
Simnel, for which, however, he received pardon in 1488. Lord 
Trimlestown sat in the parUament of 1490, and, attending the Earl 
of Kildare into Con naught, was present at the battle of Knock- 
tow. In 1495 Thomas Barnewall was second Baron of the Exche- 
quer in England. 

In 1509 John (afterwards third Baron of Trimlestown) was no- 
minated second justice of the Court of King's Bench. In 1522 he 
was appointed Treasurer of Ireland^ and High Treasurer in 1524. 
In 1532 he received a fee-farm grant of certab lands in the 
county Louth, and in 1534 was constituted Lord High Chancel- 
lor of Ireland, which office he held till his decease. The annals 
of the Four Masters, speaking of the invasion of Munster, by the. 
Lord Deputy agadnst the O'Briens, in 1510, record an engagement 
which took place near O'Brien's Bridge, in which, amongst others 
" on the English side," fell Barnewall of Crickstown. In 1586 
the aforesaid Barnewall, Lord of Trimlestown, while chancellor 
of Ireland, was joined with Sir William Brabaion in a foray on the 
lands of O'Connor in Carbury. In 1537 he was one of those de- 
puted to parley with O'Neill, on which occasion he affected a 
peace with that chieftain. His son Peter was solicitor general of 
Ireland in 1534. In the parliament of 1541 the Baron of Trim- 
lestown was one of the sitting lords. In 1547 Patrick Barnewall, 
of the Kingsland line, was a sergeant-at-law, and in 1550 was 


created Master of the Rolls, while in 1559 James Barnewall was 
Attorney-General for Ireland. At the hosting of Tara, Robert 
Barnewall attended to do military service, in right of lands in the 
county of Dublin; and in 1560 Patrick Barnewall, Baron of 
Trimlestown, was one of the sitting lords in the parliament held 
by the Lord Deputy Sussex. 

In 1563 Sir Christopher Barnewall, whose political informa* 
lion was much esteemed, was the popular leader of the parlia- 
ment, and strongly resisted the suspension of Poy mug's law. In 
1568 he vehemently inveighed against the constitution of the 
Irish House of Commons. First, because there were certain bur- 
gesses returned for sundry towns, which were not corporate and had 
no lawful voice in the parliament. Secondly, because certain sherifib 
and certain mayors of towns corporate, had returned themselves ; 
and thirdly, because a number of EngUshmen were returned to be 
burgesses of such towns and corporations, which some of them 
never knew, and none at all were resident and dwelling in the 
same, according as by the laws was required. In 1572 "Robert 
Barnewall, Lord of Trimlestown, a rare nobleman, and endued 
with sundry good gifts, having wholly wedded himself to the re- 
formation of his miserable country, was resolved for the whet- 
ting of his wit, which, natheless, was pregnant and quick, by a 
short trade and method he took in his study, to have sipt up the 
very sap of the common law ; and, upon this determination, sail- 
ing into England, sickened shortly after at a worshipful matron's 
house, where he was, to the great grief of all his country, pierced 
with death, when the weal public had most need of his life." — 
Some years before his decease, this nobleman was joined in com- 
mission with Hugh, Archbishop of DubHn, for the preservation of 
the peace within the pale, against Shane O'Neill. In 1575 died 
at Turvey the before-mentioned " Sir Christopher Barnewall, 
knight, the lanthorn and light as well of his house as of that part 
of Ireland where he dwelt ; who, being sufficiently furnished as well 
with the knowledge of the Latin tongue as of the common laws of 
England, was zealously bent to the reformation of his country ; a 
deep and a wise gentleman, spare of speech and therewithal pithy, 
wholly addicted to gravity, being in any pleasant conceit rather 
given to simper than smile, very upright in dealing, measuring all 


his affairs with the safety of conscience, as true as steel, close and 
secret, fast to his friend, stout in a good quarrel, a great house- 
holder, sparing without pinching, spending without wasting, of 
nature mild, rather choosing to pleasure where he might harm, 
than willing to harm where he might pleasure." His is the mo- 
nument hereafter noted as still existing in the north able of the 
church of Lusk. 

In^the parliament^of 1585 Lord Trimlestown sat as a baron, 
while John Barnewall was one of the representatives for Drog- 
heda, Robert Barnewall for Ardee, and Richard Barnewall for 
the county Meath, Sir Patrick Barnewall ofCrickstown also sat in 
that parliament. At the general hosting at Tara in 1593, Sir Pa- 
trick Barnewall of Crickstown brought four archers on horse- 
back as his service, as did Sir Patrick of Turvey one archer for 
Turvey, and four for Grace Dieu in defence of the county Dub- 
lin ; this latter was a patentee to a great extent of monastic pro- 
perty in the counties of Dublin, Meath, Galway, Kildare, and 
Roscommon. He also was buried at Lusk. . In 1597 the Baron 
of Trimlestown and his son attended the standard of the Lord 
Deputy in his incursion on O'Neill. It was found necessary, 
however, to detach the latter with a thousand men to attack an 
English associate of O'Neill, named Tyrrel, who, affecting to fly, 
drew his enemies into a defile concealed by trees, where he was 
enabled to attack them in front and rere, utterly defeated their 
forces, sent their young commander prisoner to O'Neill, and gave 
his name to the locality of Tyrrelspass. 

In 1605 Sir Patrick Barnewall, the great agent of the Irish 
recusants, was, on account of his zeal in their behalf, by the king's 
command sent in custody into England, and committed to the 
tower of London. The Enghsh council, consisting of the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, Lord Chancellor Ellesmere, &c. thereupon 
required Sir Arthur Chichester, Lord Deputy of Ireland, and his 
council, to answer the accusations which Barnewall made against 
the said deputy, the most important of which they considered, that 
he complained of precepts being sent forth in Ireland under the 
great seal to compel men to go to church. About this time, Ro- 
bert Barnewall of the county Meath line, and a lawyer of Gray's 
Inn, published an abridgment of the second part of the Year Book 


of King Henry the Sixth, which, as it contained many cases con- 
cerning Irish affiurs, he dedicated to Sir Robert Gkurdiner, Lord 
Chief Justice of Ireland. In thb dedication he observes, << that 
among all the volumes of the law he had read, the second part of 
Henry the Sixth was the worthiest to be heeded by all who should 
intend the manner of proceeding of law in Ireland.** In 1606 
occurs a curious notice in reference to the daughter of the afore- 
said Sir Patrick Bamewall and Valerian Wellesley, who being a 
minor, his guardian contracted for his marriage with that lady ; on 
attaining, however, the age of fourteen, he came personally into 
the Court of Exchequer, and there in full court protested against 
the contract, as << being fully resolved in my own mind to keep 
myself at liberty, until God shall grant me best judgment to make 
choice for myself.** 

In 1612 Robert Liord Trimlestown was one of the six peers of 
the Pale who addressed, to a monarch habituated to the most ab- 
ject flattery, the honest remonstrance well known to every reader 
of Irish history, especially complaining of the deponng the most 
loyal of the magistrates for not taking the oath of supremacy, and 
also requiring a thorough corporate reform. << And so upon the 
knees of our loyal hearts we do humbly pray, that your highness 
will be graciously pleased not to give way to courses in the general 
opinion of your subjects here, so hard and exorbitant, as to erect 
towns and corporations of places consisting of some poor and beg- 
garly cottages, but that your highness will give direction that there 
be no more created till time, or traffic, or commerce, do make 
places in the remote and unsettled countries here fit to be incor- 
porated, and that your majesty will benignly content yourself with 
the service of understanding men, to come as knights of the^shires 
out of the chief countries to the parliament.'* And these noble- 
men offered to prove their allegations in person, and begged per* 
misaon so to do ; *< for we are those by the effusion of whose an- 
cestors* blood the foundation of your highnesafs empire over this 
kingdom was first hiid.** In the parliament of 1613 Robert Barne- 
wall was one of the representatives for the county Meath, and in 
1621 Patrick Barnewall of Shankhill, in the county Dublin, was 
abo seised of very considerable possessions in the county Wicklow. 

In the priorities of Lord Strafford's celebrated procession in 



1634, Lord Trimlestown walked after Lord Dunsany and before 
Lord Howth, the youngest being foremost. Lord Dunsany sub- 
sequently claimed precedence, but his petition was disallowed. In 
the parliament of 1639 Nicholas Barnewall of Turvey, and Peter 
Barnewall of Tyrenure were the representatives for the county of 
Dublin, while Sir Richard Barnewall of Crickstown was one of 
those for the county of Meath, and Patrick Barnewall of Kilbrew 
for the borough of Trim. This Sir Richard raised and command- 
ed one hundred horse at his own charges in the ensuing troubles^ 
and on one particular occasion despatched Christopher Barnewall 
of Crackenstown, and Andrew, son of Patrick Barnewall of Kil. 
brew, with two hundred men under their command, to defend the 
town of Kilsallaghan against the English army. 

In 1641 Barnewall of Rathesker, a colonel of the Irish army, 
and deputy custos rotulorum of the county Louth, was taken pri- 
soner by Lord Moore in the action of Tullyallen, and his castle 
with great store of provisions taken and plundered ; while about 
the same time, " Patrick Barnewall of Kilbrew, one of the most 
considerable gentlemen of the Pale, a venerable old man, a lover 
of quiet, and highly respected in his country, having surrendered 
himself to the Earl of Ormond, and received a safe conduct from 
Sir William Parsons, was nevertheless upon his arrival in Dublin 
imprisoned and put to the rack ; which," says Leland, " he endured 
with so steady an avowal of his innocence, and such abundant evi- 
dence was offered in his favour, that the Justices were ashamed of 
their cruelty, and to make some amends to the unhappy gentleman, 
he was permitted to reside in Dublin, and his estate protected 
from the general havoc of the soldiery." He had been one of 
those present at the great meeting on the hill of Crofty. At the 
same era of trouble. Lord Trimlestown attended the gathering on 
Tara Hill, and was one of the eight noblemen, who signed the 
letter of remonstrance against the intolerance of the Lords Justices^ 
In the subsequent measures, adopted by the confederate Catholics, 
for raising soldiers in the several baronies of the Pale, that of 
Navan was assigned to this nobleman, as were those of Ratoath 
and Dunboyne to Sir Richard Barnewall of Crickstown and Pa- 
trick Barnewall of Kilbrew. This general muster organized a 
force of upwards of 12,000 men, on the assembling of which Lord 


Trimlestown was one of the four peers who, from their camp near 
Drogheda, addressed the Marquis of Clanricarde, assigning the 
motives for thus taking up arms. " First, then, we declare unto 
your lordship, that the only scope and purpose of our taking up of 
arms b for the honour of God, to obtain a free exercise of the 
ancient Catholic Roman religion, so long and so constantly adhered 
unto by us and our progenitors in this kingdom, and whereof we 
have been threatened to be utterly deprived, and from which no- 
thing but death or utter extirpation shall remove us. Next, for 
restitution of the absolute sovereignty or prerogative royal of our 
most gracious king, whereof we to our great grief do behold him 
abridged by some ill affected subjects, aiming therein at their own 
private ends ; and, thirdly, for the liberty of this our country, 
which the parliament of England (our fellow-subjects) seeketh to 
captivate and enthral to themselves, the experience whereof we 
have for a long while found under the heavy pressures of the sub- 
ordinate governors placed over us, the particulars whereof, too 
tedious to be related, are sufficiently known to most parts 'of the 
Christian world, and yet obscured and concealed from the eyes and 
ears of our gracious king at home, because he should not commise- 
rate us to give order for our deliverance. These, then, and none 
other, we call God to witness, are the grounds and motives of the 
action we have in hand." His castle at Trimlestown, in the 
county of Meath, was soon afterwards taken by the Lord Deputy. 
On the breaking out of these troubles Nicholas Barnewall, 
then proprietor of Turvey, fled with his family to Wales, whence ho 
returned in 1643, and the king soon afterwards, being sensible of his 
loyalty, and taking a special notice both of his services in Ireland and 
those of his son Patrick in England, created him Baron of Turvey 
and Viscount Barnewall of Kingsland. He married the widow of 
O'Donnell Earl of Tyrconnel, and on his decease was also buried at 
Lusk. Amongst the confederate Catholics, who sat at Kilkenny in 
1646, were George Barnewall of Kingstown, Henry Barnewall of 
Castlerickard, and James Barnewall. Sir Richard Barnewall, the 
second baronet of Crickstown, was also one of the provincial coun- 
cil at Kilkenny, and was excepted from pardon for life and estate 
by Cromwell's act of parliament passed in August 1652. He was 
afterwards transplanted into Connaught, attainted, and deprived 


of all his estates until the Restoration, when, being one of the 
nominees mentioned in the Act of Settlement, he was restored to 
his mansion-house and 2000 acres adjoining, soon after which he 
died. In 1650 Mathias, the twelfth Lord Baron of Trimlestown, 
was also transplanted into Connaught by Cromwell, who gave him 
some less valuable estates in that province, in lieu of those which 
he had iiriierited in Lfeinster, although the said baron had taken 
no part in the civil wars, as was afterwards particularly declared in 
the Acts of Settlement and Explanation. 

In 1688 John Barnewall of Crickstown, was appointed se- 
cond Justice of the Exchequer. Viscount Kingsland, and Robert, 
the ninth Baron of Trimlestown, sat in the peerage of King James's 
parliament in 1689, while among the Commons on that occasion, 
were Francis Barnewall of Woodpark, county Meath, and Sir 
Patrick Barnewall, the third Baronet of Crickstown, one of the 
representatives for that county. King James at this time gave a 
warrant to Lord Trimlestown for the reversal of the outlawry that 
affected his title, but the process was interrupted by succeeding 
events. Nicholas, the third Viscount Kingsland, also espoused 
the cause of King James, and was outlawed accordingly. On the 
route at the Boyne he went to Limerick, where he continued 
until its surrender ; but, being comprehended within the Articles, 
he obtained a reversal of his outlawry. In King William's first 
parliament he delivered his writ of summons, and took the oath of 
allegiance, but, being required to subscribe the declaration accord- 
uig to the English act, he refused so to do, declaring it was 
not agreeable to his conscience, whereupon, the Lord Chancellor 
acquainted him, that the consequence of his refusal was, that he 
could not sit ii^ that house, upon which his lordship withdrew. 

In September, 1691, Mathias, the tenth Baron of Trimlestown, 
was one of the hostages from the Irish army, pending the Treaty 
of Limerick. He and his brother John followed the fortunes of 
the fallen monarch. The former had a commission under the 
Duke of Berwick, and fell in action against the Germans in 1692, 
whereupon the latter returned from Flanders to this country, re- 
covered the fainily estates, and had writ of summons to parliament 
as Baron of Trimlestown, but being a Roman Catholic, he applied 
to the then Lord Deputy in council to excuse him accordingly. 


In 169& Alexander Barnewall was lieutenant-colond in Clare's 
regiment of dragoons in the French service, while about the same 
time LfOrd Trimlestown had three sons in foreign service, Thomas 
in France, James in the Spanish service, and Anthony, who went 
into Germany at the age of seventeen, in General Hamilton's 
regiment of cuirassiers. He was engaged in every acticTn of note 
against the Turks, and in the memorable battle of Crotzka, in 
September, 1739, on the fall of his superior officer, twice led his 
regiment to the charge, bjut perished on the last occasiot, being 
surrounded and cut down by the enemy. In 1745 Lieutenant 
George Barnewall of Berwick's regiment, was taken prisoner off 
Montrose, on board the Louis the Fifteenth, by the Milford, as 
was another Lieutenant Barnewall on board the Charite in 1746, 
and Lieutenants William, Edward, and Basil Barnewall were also 
captured at sea, fighting in the same service. In the engage- 
ment which occurred in 1747 at Lauffield village near Maestricht, 
(^tain Brian Barnewall of Clare's regiment of the Irish Brigade 
was killed, as was Captain Edward Barnewall in Berwick's, and 
Captain Thomas Barnewall badly wounded. 

Thomas, the thirteenth Lord Trimlestown, was a Knight of 
Malta. In 1768 Nicholas, the fourteenth Baron of Trimlestowti, 
married the only daughter of Monsieur Joseph d'Augin, President 
of the Parliament of Tholouse, by whom he had issue the suc- 
ceeding lord, and one daughter who was married in 1795 to Peter, 
Count ly Alton. 

In 1793 John Thomas Barnewall, Esq. (the present Lord 
Trimlestown), only son to Count Barnewall, formerly of the king- 
dom of France, and cousin to the Lord Trimlestown of that day, 
^as married to Miss Kirwan, the eldest daughter of the celebrated 
Richard Kirwan, whose scientific acquirements were so highly es- 
teemed. In 1795 this nobleman obtained an absolute avoidance 
of the outlawry which affected the title in his line, and judgment 
of reversal was entered in the Court of King's Bench in Hilary 
term of that year as of Michaelmas term, 1689, when it had been 
intended to be granted by King James. 

From the back of Turvey house a bridle way 
leads by Beaverstown, also the estate of Lord Trim- 


lestown i between which and Rush is a tract of sand 
and mud, wide in the inside, but not more than 400 
yards across, at the neck where the tide enters, and 
which could consequently be easily recovered from 
the sea. Along the verge of this warren the way 
continues into 


the seat of Mr. George Evans, one of the present 
representatives for this county. His mansion-house 
is a spacious brick building, situated nearly in the 
centre of a fine deer-park. It commands prospects 
at the land side of nearly the whole of Fingal, while 
the seaward views are relieved and enlivened by the 
islands of Lambay and Ireland's Eye, the bold pro- 
montory of Howth, the projections of Portane and 
Rush, and the enchanting perspective of the Wicklow 
mountains. This demesne comprises some of the 
best lands in the county, and its plantations, though 
so much exposed, thrive with unusual vigour.' Pret- 
ty avenues and paths have been designed through the 
woods, but they are latterly much neglected. 

North of the demesne, on the shore, the thickly- 
ivied ruins of the church, and its large, square steeple, 
evince its former extent. Within the walls are the mo- 
numents of Mr. Adam Lynar, who died in 1722, and 
of Mr. Hampden Evans, who died in 1820, aged 80. 
The graveyard has no tombs of note. At a short 
distance hence a square tower of moderate dimensions 
marks the site of the old castle, formerly the resi- 
dence of a branch of the family of Cusack of Rathal- 


dron. The summit is attained by forty-eight stone 
steps, terminating in an angular watch tower which 
commands a most noble and extensive view. 

" The shore at Portrane presents partly a surface 
of strand and partly of rocks, worn into recesses and 
caves by the action of the tides. The pier, hereafter 
mentioned, lies in ruins and unfrequented. The 
neighbouring rocks afford the ulva IdctiLcch oyster 
green laver ; and the ulva umbilicalis navel laver ; 
which, when boiled in sea water, are packed in little 
earthen pots, and sold under the name of sloke, being 
in highest season in winter. 

" The rectory of Portrane being impropriate in 
William Ward and George Evans, the parish ranks 
as but a curacy. It extends over 2520a., 3r.,.15p., 
and has been episcopally united, from time immemo* 
rial, with the vicarage of Dunabate, in which latter 
parish the church of the union is situated. The 
Archbishop of Dublin is the patron. In 1834 its 
population was returned as 729 persons, of whom 718 
were Roman Catholics. This parish is chiefly laid 
out in tillage. The principal proprietors of the fee 
are Lord Trimlestown and the Archbishop of Dub- 
lin, Mr. Evans being but a tenant, of an expiring 
lease, under the see. The acreable rent, on modem 
lettings, is from £1 10^. to £2 per annum, the wages 
of labour only Qs. per week to those who get constant 
employment. A cabin without land is rented at about 
XI 10*. per annum. There is a corn-mill on the 
townland. Between the village and Dunabate is a 
grotesque edifice, erected by Mr. Evans, as a school- 


house for boys and girls, 130 of whom received edu* 
cation there in 1834L 

The chapel is situated at the junction of the two 
parishes of Portrane and Dunabate, which are also uni- 
ted in the Roman Catholic arrangement. This edifice 
is cruciform, situated in the centre of a burial ground, 
in which is a monument to the Rev. Peter Teeling, 
pastor during thirty years of this union, and who 
died in 1824 at the advanced age of 80. It was un- 
der hb auspices the chapel was erected. 

' '^Qn the shore, in a subterranean cave, is a spring 
well known by the name of Chink-well, from the 
virtue tradition ascribes to it in the cure of chin- 
coughs. In dribbling down the sides of the grotto 
this water forms, where it falls, stony incrustations of 
various figures and vast extent, which ferment strong-* 
ly with spirit of vitriol.* 

^* Portrane and Dunabate form nearly a peninsula, 
being flanked on the north and south by inlets from the 
dea. The former is the more considerable elevation 
of the two, being separated from the latter by an in* 
tervening hollow. The eastern part of the headland 
ef Portrane consists of transition rocks. In the south- 
ewtem quarter under Portrane house, the hollow, 
which winds towards Dunabate, is occupied by red 
sandstone conglomerate, and this rock appears to con- 
stitute the whole of the rising ground of Dunabate^ 
at the foot of which the new chapeL may be seen, 
founded upon the sandstone. To the westward of 
Dunabate the country consbts of floetz limestone, and 

• Rutty's Mineral Waters, p. 483. 


the western part of Portrane, on which the mansion 
stands, appears also to be composed in part of lime- 
stone, for in sinking a well there, seventy feet deep, 
fifty-nine feet passed through soil, and the last eleven 
feet were sunk in limestone ; but this ia probably 
connected with the transition rocks in the eastern 
qpturter. The actual contact of the rocks here no- 
ticed cannot be traced, but from their general posi- 
tion it may be inferred that the sandstone conglo- 
merate rests upon the transition series. 

** The north side of Portrane headland exhibits 
rugged rocks, composed of massy unstratified green- 
stone, which extend to the eastward about fifty yards 
beyond the quay. This greenstone is commonly acom- 
pact felspar, coloured by hornblende, varying from a 
greyish green to a dark, blackish green. Sometimes, 
however, it is reddish brown, or brick red, and in patches 
siskin green. In some places it acquires the charac- 
ter of clay-stone, and in others the rpck consists of 
ill-defined crystals of hornblende and felspar. Cal- 
careous spar appears also disseminated in spots, in- 
creasing occasionally so much as to constitute nearly 
the mass of the rock. Disseminated iron pyrites like- 
wise occur, and the greenstone is partly traversed 
by small, contemporaneous veins of calcareous spar and 
quartz, and in two instances by veins composed of f^ 
mixture of epidote and quartz. The greenstone is 
also porphyritic in some places, as near the western 
side of the quay. Proceeding along the coast the 
massy greenstone is perceived at low water, present* 
ing a face which declines to the southward under an 


angle of 46°9 and within a few feet of it is a stratified 
conglomerate in a similar position, which, no doubt, 
rests upon it, the line of range being 15** north of 
east and south of west. This conglomerate consists 
of a base of compact greenstone slate merging into 
clay slate, and involving rounded and angular frag- 
ments of limestone, greenstone, and calcareous spar, 
and also pebbles of a mixture of greenstone and cal- 
careous spar, and of conglomerate analogous in com- 
position to that of the whole mass. Through the 
base a good deal ofcalcareous spar is disseminated, 
and sometimes also quartz. Some of the fragments 
are of the size of the head, and in general they affect 
a flattened form with rounded angles, but many of 
them appear as complete pebbles. 

"This conglomerate or coarse greywacke, presents 
a rough aspect in the parts adjacent to the greenstone, 
but in proceeding to the south-eastward, we observe it 
to acquire a finer grain, though occasionally intermixed 
with a coarser-grained, and passing into a greywacke 
slate. It is succeeded by beds, which alternate with 
each other from a few inches to six and eight inches 
thick, composed of coarse-grained conglomerate green- 
stone and finer-grained conglomerate, all analogous 
in composition to those already discVibed. We now 
encounter a conglomerate composed of angular and 
rounded masses of greenstone, cemented by calcareous 
spar, and this is succeeded by slaty, fine-grained con- 
glomerate, into which it seems to pass. Limestone 
thus appears at first intermingled with greenstone 
and greywacke slate, and afterwards alternating with 
the latter rock. The range of the beds in this spot 


is north-east and south-west, and the dip 20° south- 
east. The intermixture of limestone with the grey- 
wacke slate, is very distinct in the vertical section of 
the cliff, south of the martello tower, where we per- 
ceive numerous boulders, pebbles, and masses of lime- 
stone scattered through the rock, frequently affecting 
a nearly rectilinear disposition across the strata, and 
nearly at right angles with the dip. 

^^ In a similar cliff adjoining on the south, this 
arrangement is still more striking, the limestone 
pebbles appearing in clustered masses of an irregular 
form, and occupying a space from a few inches to 
five and six feet wide, but also affecting a disposition 
at right angles with the dip of the greywacke slate. 
In a cave a little farther south, the limestone is seen 
in thin layers, seldom exceeding four or five inches 
in thickness, repeatedly alternating with the grey- 
wacke slate. The range is here l(f west of north 
and east of south, and the dip 50° towards the east. 
Farther south the alternating beds of limestone gra- 
dually acquire a greater thickness, but even here 
some of the beds consist of conglomerate, composed 
of large pebbles and angular fragments of limestone, 
cemented by greywacke slate. Limestone now pre- 
dominates in massy strata, some of which are several 
feet in thickness, ranging 20° east of north and west 
of south, and dipping 50° towards the east. On these 
massy strata are incumbent, alternating beds of lime- 
stone and greywacke slate, some beds of the former 
substance being even four, five, and six feet thick. 
These rocks are much contorted, and, indeed, inflec- 


tions prevail throughout the eastern part of this coast, 
whence arise the various range and dip already ob- 
served. In this quarter the beds lie almost horizon- 
tally, while the superior gradually acquire the high 
angle of 50". 

** In a cove to the south a conglomerate appears, 
the base of which is a mixture of clay slate and lime-^ 
stone, enveloping pebbles and even boulders (two and 
three feet in diameter) of limestone, and of coarse 
grey wacke, which consists of a clay slate base contain- 
ing much limestone, calcareous spar, quartz, clay slate, 
and greywacke itself. In the southern part of this 
cove the limestone is seen supporting ma^sy strata of 
fine-grained greywacke, four and five feet thick, and 
forming cliffs forty and fifty feet in height, but some 
of the strata are only a few inches or one or two feet 
thick. The line of junction is well marked by a thin 
seam of calcareous spar rising from the south to the 
north under an angle of 15**. In the lower strata 
the greywacke is a firm, compact rock, of fine grain, 
containing numerous small scales of silvery mica dis- 
persed in all directions, sometimes also disseminated 
iron pyrites, and occasionally small fragments of clay 
slate. In the upper strata it merges into greywacke 
slate, and into clay slate. These slaty rocks fre- 
quently alternate with thin layers of limestone, from 
one inch to one-eighth or one-tenth of an inch in 
thickness, and they are also traversed by numerous 
small contemporaneous veins and strings of calcareous 
spar and quartz. 

" The diffusion of calcareous matter is so general 


through the greywacke^ greenstone, and slaty rocks 
of this coast, that few varieties can be found which 
do not effervesce with acids, even when nothing cal- 
careous is visible to the eye. Rocks of this descrip- 
tion, gi'eywacke slate and clay slate, with thin layers 
of limestone apd fine-grained greywacke, with massy 
beds of limestone and limestone conglomerate, now 
occupy the coast for a considerable distance to the 
southward in undulated stratifications, the slaty rocks 
forming the predominant superincumbent mass, while 
the general range is nearly east and west throughout. 
Compact greenstone now appears near the southerly 
martello tower, some of which is porphyritic, and tra- 
versed by numerous contemporaneous veins of quartz. 
It is succeeded by fine-grained greenstone slate pasa- 
ing into clay slate, which contains fragments and spots 
of clay slate, quartz, and calcareous spar. This rock 
rests upon the compact greenstone, ranging east and 
west, and dipping 45^ south. More south is met 
compact greenstone again resting upon the green- 
stone slate. It is porphyritic, and about one hundred 
yards from the martello tower, it consists entirely of 
greenstone porphyry, in which the felspar crystals are 
closely crowded together. But immediately under the 
tower we have greenstone slate again, similar to that 
before described. It seems nearly allied to the coarse 
clay slate or greenstone conglomerate, into which it 
probably passes, is of a mottled aspect,' greenish or 
purplish in colour, and of this description is the whole 
rock south-east of the martello tower to the sea. To 
the south of the martello tower the beach is lined 


with sand hillocks, which extend to the inlet from 
the sea that leads up to Malahide. 

" In the higher grounds of Portrane, as in the 
park and toward the house, are perceived only rocks 
of «n analogous description, the general range of 
which appears to be nearly east and west, agreeing 
with that on the coast, although in some places in- 
flected. The prevailing dip is to the south, varying 
from 50^ to an almost horizontal position, being also 
in some parts inflected. The limestone on this coast 
is bluish grey, and even blackish grey, and of a va- 
rying texture, compact, partly foliated, and even 
nearly granularly foliated. In its fracture it exhibits 
no distinct petrifactions, yet when examined below 
the line where it has been acted upon by the sea, or- 
ganic remains are displayed in the most marked man- 
ner protruding above the surface of the wasted stone. 
They consist principally of zoophites, with some bi- 
valves. In the conglomerate rock under the pigeon- 
house at the park, (the base of which is a mixture 
of limestone and greenstone enveloping pebbles of 
limestone and greenstone,) bivalves, trochites, and 
madreporites may be observed."* 

In 1040, according to the Black Book of Christ Giurch, Sitric, . 
King of Dublin, gave to that establishment and to Donatus, Bishop 
of Dublin, a place where the arches or vaults were founded, to 
build the church of the Holy Trinity upon, and also endowed it 
with the lands of Beldoyle and Portrane, with their villeins, cattle, 
and corn. 

In 1170 Earl Strongbow confirmed this grant, as did Arch- 
bishop Laurence O'Toole in 1178. Portrane is accordingly enu- 

• Trans, of the Geolog. Sec. vol. v. p. 222, &c. 


merated among the possessions of Christ Church in Pope Urban's 
bull of 1186. Pope Clement the Third, however, appears to have 
granted it to the see of Dublin, and, the archbishop having there- 
upon in 1197 asserted his claims, the canons of Christ Church 
compromised their title, on condition of receiving one hundred 
rabbits yearly out of the warren of Portrane, and in 1204 Patrick, 
the sub-prior of Christ Church, relinquished all rights of his house 
in Portrane and Lambay to Archbishop Corny n, on obtaining in 
lieu thereof Tilach, Dromin, and Ballochegan, and one carucate 
in Theholock.* Soon after which the church of Portrane was appro- 
priated by John, Archbishop of Dublin, for the proper uses of the 
Prioress of Grace Dieu,f and Archbishop Walter increased its 
revenues by grants of a hou^e, a court, and a farm called Bally- 

In 121 6 Pope Innocent the Third confirmed to the see of Dublin 
(inter alia) Portrane, with its appurtenances, as did King Edward 
in 1337, and King Richard while in Dublin in 1394. Accord- 
ingly in 1403 Thomas, Archbishop of Dublin, was found seised 
in his demesne as of fee in right of his church, of divers lands, rents^ 
and services in Finglas, Rollestown, Portrane, Culleyn, &c4 

In 1536 Sir John Barnewall, third Baron of Trimlestown, 
was constituted seneschal and receiver of a moiety of this with 
other manors, and the property, then acquired by him and by Sir Pa- 
trick Barnewall (ancestor of the Lords Kingsland) in this parish, is 
still in their family. For a notice of Portrane in 1637, see " Rush.'* 
An inquisition of 1541 finds, that the last Abbess of Graco 
Dieu was seised, with other possessions, of the following rectories 
appropriated to her house, viz. Grace Dieu, annual value £3 ; Port- 
rane, with a messuage and eighteen acres of land in Portrane 
belonging to the rectory, annual value £9 lOs. A subsequent 
inquisition states her having a castle here, with divers buildings 
called the threshing-house, &c., with the parsonage, hemp-yard, 
and haggard. At this time a branch of the Cusack family was 
resident here. 

In 1576 the queen granted to Francis Agard, Esq., one of the 

• Regist of Christ Church. t Repert Viride. 

X Rot Pat. in Cane. Hib. 


privy cbuncily the ohureh and rectory of Porirane» and all aii4 
lingular castles, manors, tithes, and all hereditaments spiritual 
and tJemporat to said rectory belonging, at the annual rent 
of £8, and the render of a rose on 8t. John's day. At that 
time eighteen acres of land appertained to this rectory, there was^ 
also the castle in Pcnrtrane, a close east ef the caslle, and a house 
in ruins north of the old hall, a range of stables, the slaughter- 
house of the manor, also the kitchen, and ^ a long stretch of houses 
ealted the Ne# Hall, in the south comer of which the chaplain to 
the said prioress had his chamber, and celebrated divine service ia 
the parish church/* 

In 1608 Sir Henry Harrington of Grai^e^Con conveyed and 
assigned to Nicholas Bdl of Dublin, aldertnan, the churdi and 
rectory of Portrane, with all tithes, &C thereto appertaining, to 
hold to htm and his heirs for ever. 

In the Regal Visitation Book of 1615 Portrane is described 
as "a rectory and vicarage impropriate, church and chancel in 
good repair, the profits sequestered kr want of a curate." In the 
same year the king granted to Robert Kennedy and William 
Rowles of Dublin, as assignees of David Viscount Roche and 
Fermoy, (inter alia) Monangeragh, within the manor of £sker> 
I 5a., the tithes of fish and lands of Portrane, parcel of the estate 
of the late monastery of Grace Dieu, 8a. in Miltown-Regis, within 
the manor of Newcastle, near the mill, with common of pasture 
and turbary.* 

Acoor(hng to the surveys taken at the time of the common- 
wealth, there were then 105a., plantation measure, of commons 
here. Tliis tract has been sinoe enclosed. 

In 1665 William Usher was seised of the tithes of the fishery 
of Portrane, held of the king in free and common soecage, at an 
annual rent.f The whole tithes of the parish subsequently vested 
in the Ball family, and by the marriage of a daughter of that 
house with Richard Archbold of Eadstown, passed to him and his 
descendants. For a notice in 1697 see post, at " Dunabate.** 

In 1712 Portrane was the residence of the ill-fated Stella. 
Soon afterwards Eyre Evans, Esq., M. P. for the county of Li- 

* Rot. Pat in Cone. Hib. t loquis. in Cane. Hib. 

C0BBALLIE8. 323 

loeriok, settled her^ and from him has the preset proprietor de* 

Ifi 1775 the Irish parliament granted £500 for a pier and quay 
here at the instance of Mr. Evans* At this period, the creeks and 
chores of Portrane were filled with smugglers to such a daring 
•xtent, that in 1771, in one seisure, seventy-five chests and twenty 
easks of green and bohea teas, and one hundred and eleven casks 
of brandy were taken there, while in the island of Dunabate eight 
tiundred casks of tea and brandy were seized on the same ocol* 
aion« The revenue officers and their assistants wore besieged 
during twenty-four hours, in the bams where they stored their 
priJBes, by upwards of &ye hundred smugglers completely armed, 
siith white cockades in their hats, and carrying a white flag. A 
Captain Luske, however, whose vessel was off the neighbouring 
poast, getting intelligence of the transaction, landed a considerable 
part of his crew, defeated and dispersed the smagglers, and carried 
the seizure to the king's stores. 

A private act of 1804 authorized the enclosing of the com- 
mons here and at Dunabate. 

From Portrane house, a shadjr, wooded road winds 
through evergreens down into Dunabate. Pursuing, 
however, another direction, unguided by road or path, 
the historian will seek the locality of 


situated in this parish, the estate of the Bamewalls in the four- 
ieebth century, afterwards that of John Bumell of Balgriffin, 
and in the seventeenth century the residence of Luke NetterviUo, 
the second son of Viscount Netterville, who in 1641, by proclan^a- 
tion made at the market place of Lusk, assembled on four days' no- 
tice, an armed militia of 1200 men at Swords. The Lords Justices 
required them on their aUegiance to appear at the Castle, but they 
returned for answer, *^ that they were constrained to meet there 
together for the safety of their lives, that they were put in such 
great terror by the rising out of some horse-troops and foot-com- 



panies at PubliDi vrho killed four Catholics for no other reason 
than that they bore the name of that religion, that they durst 
not as they pretended stay in their houses, and therefore re- 
solved to continue together till they were assured by their lord- 
ships of the safety of their lives, before they run the hazard thereof^ 
by manifesting their obedience due. unto their lordships."* The 
Lords Justices and Council subsequently offered a reward of £400 
for the head of Netlerville. He died during the civil war, leaving 
issue by his wife Mabel, daughter of Sir Patrick Barnewall of 
Turvey, two sons, Richard, who died young, and Francis, a colonel 
in the Irish army, whose issue also failed. On the death of their 
father, the parliament in 1648 granted the capital messuage, town, 
and lands of Corballies, with so much of his estate adjoining as 
should amount to £400 per annum English, to Anne, Lady Har- 
court, widow of Sir Simon Harcourt, who lost his life in that war, 
and it is now part of the estate of Mr. Cobbe. 


succeeds, with the fine remains of its church and cas- 
tle. The latter is a single square, situated in the 
churchyard, and thickly overgrown with ivy. The 
former was dedicated to St. Patrick. In its ruins 
are several sepulchral monuments, particularly one to 
the memory of Patrick Barnewall of Staffordstown, and 
his wife Begnet de la Hoyde, dated 1592, and ano- 
ther to Christopher Barnewall of Rathesker, who 
died in 1 66 1, and which also bears inscriptions to his 
wife and their children. Near it in the same enclo- 
sure is a flat tombstone to Mr. Richard Fitz Simon, 
who died in 1709- 

The present church which adjoins it is in tolerable 
order, the Ecclesiastical Commissioners having granted 

• Temple's Irish Rebellion. 


£84 7^* 6d. for its repair. It is situated on such a 
commanding eminence, as is always found in Irish 
denominations beginning with " Dun ;" this of Dun- 
na-bate signifies the high fortress of the bay. The 
interior is remarkably neat, the gallery has a hand* 
somely-stuccoed cieling, and is appropriated for Mr. 
Cobbe's family. There is also a pew with the Trim- 
lestown escutcheon over it. Within this church is a 
handsome marble monument to the memory of Doctor 
Cobbe, Archbishop of Dublin, who died in 1765 ; of 
whom see the "Memoirs of the Archbishops of Dub- 
lin." Adjacent to the church-yard is a glebe of about 
three acres, on which a glebe-house has been built by 
a grant of £100, and a loan of £320 from the Board 
of First Fruits. 

The rectory being impropriate in the Rev. Mr. 
Hamilton, this parish ranks as but a vicarage in the 
deanery of Swords, episcopally united from time im- 
memorial with the curacy of Portrane, and in the gift 
of the Archbishop of Dublin. It compounded for its 
tithes at £220 per annum, of which £153 6s. 8d. was 
made payable to the lay impropriator, and the residue 
to the incumbent. The parish comprises 364 1 a. Or. 23p. 
chiefly used in tillage, while its population was re- 
turned in 1834 as 405 persons, of whom 337 were 
Roman Catholics. The number of labourers in the 
two parishes of Dunabate and Portrane are said to be 
160, most of whom have constant employment. The 
wages of labour is from six to eight shillings per week. 
The rent of land here varies from £l 10*. to £2 per 
acre; that of a cabin, without land, is about £l 10^. 


per annum. Mr. Cobbe and Lord Trinilestowrt hve 
the chief proprietors of the fee. The soil may be said 
to rest upon clay slate. 

About the year 1230 Dunabate, which was theretofore a cba- 
jpelry annexed to Swords, was disunited therefrom by Archbi- 
shop Luke, and the rectory granted by him to the monastery of 
(jrane.* The vicarage was at that time indifferently called Tur* 
vey or Dunabate, and with such an alias is it described in 1240 
in the presentation of Richard de St. Martin thereto, by the Arch- 
bishop of Dublin. See ante at " Turvey." 

In 1310 the king, during the vacancy of the See of Dublin^ 
presented William de Bathe to the vicarage of Duuabate.t 

In 1419 Henry Marleburgh was vicar of Dunabate. He wad 
so called as having been born at Marleburgh in Wiltshire. He 
wrote Annals of Ireland in Latin, which have since been translated 
into English, and are to be found at the close of Hanmer's Chro- 

Archbishop Allen in the Repertorium Viride states this church 
as then still appropriate to the nuns of Grane. In 1539 the vi- 
carage was rated to the First Fruits at £7 6s. 8(/., Irish. 

At the dissolution Egidia Wale, the last prioress of Grane, 
was found to have been seised of the rectories of Dunabate, Kilma- 
cud, and Bray, which, with their tithes and emoluments, were, bb 
the inquisition states, appropriated to said house. For a notice of 
the possessions of the de la Hoyde family in this parish, see at 
« Lough Shinny" in 1542. 

In this and the following century the Luttrels had the rectory 
of Dunabate and the advowson of its church.f The Regal Visita- 
tion of 1615 reports the value of the vicarage as £15 per annum f 
John Ethridge being then its incumbent. 

In the rebellion of 1641 Nicholas Hollywood forfeited his 
life interest in Balcarrick and Baltra in this parish comprising 
264a., which passed in remainder to John Hollywood.§ 

In 1672 Charles, Viscount Fitz Harding, died seised of 117a. 

• Repertoriwn Viride. t Rot. Pat in Cimc, Hib. 

X Inquis. in Cane. Hib. § lb. 

LISSE:f-HALL. 327 

in Duna(bate> which he held in free and coainion soccage** For 
a notice in 1673, see at " Eaker." 

la 1697 the Reverend Charles Teman was returned as parish 
priest of the parishes of Dunabate and Portrane, and resident it 
Turvey. For a notice in 1804, see at « Portrane." 

From Dunabate a pretty road leads by the shore 
of the M^ahide creek, beyond which that village is 
seen, in white cottages scattered over its eminence. 
Presently Newbridge, the seat of Mr. Cobbe, ap- 
pears at right, with the Turvey stream deepened into 
a river as it passes through it. Within this demesne 
are the ivied ruins of Laundestown Castle, while at a 
small distance to the left is the old burying-place of 
Ballymacdrought, near which was an ancient resi- 
dence of the Walsh family. 


next invites attention, a spacious house on the brink 
of a small creek. 

. A memorial of the lords of the Pale to King Henry the Fifth 
is 141 7,f contains the following interesting passage referable to 
this loodity. <« On Monday in the WhitsunWeek, at Lissenh^l, 
Maufice O'Keating, chieftain of hb natioh, traitor and rebel to 
you our gracious Lord^ for the great £ear which he had of your 
said lieutenant, (Lord Fufnifal), for himself aDd his nation, yielded 
himself to the same your lieutenant without any condition, with 
his breast against hb sword-point and a cord about hb neck, then 
delivering to your said lieutenant, without ransom, the Englbh 
prisoners which he had taken before, to whom grace was granted 
by indenture and hb eldest son given in pledge, to be loyal lieges 
from thenceforward to you our Sovereign Lord." 

t— ; — —.-I- , *- • ' ' • 

• Inquis. in Cane. Hib. 

t Ellis's Letters, New Series, vol. i. p. 60. 


In and previous to this year, the Morres family were settled 
here. Subsequently, on the occasion of an Inquisition taken as. 
to the possessions of the prebend or rectory of Swords, it was shewn 
that the demesne appropriated thereto was the Court of Lissen- 
hall, with its orchard, garden, and lands. The lands of << big Lis- 
senhall" were then accounted as 150a., while those of little Lis- 
senhall were stated as 200. 

For further notices of LissenhaU about this period, see antSf 
at « Swords," in the years 1541 and 1637. 

In 1800 the glebe lands here were leased for£l 12 per annum. 

Passing through Swords a picturesque road leads 
to Brazeel, at first ascending at the south of the 
churchyard, then passing on the edge of a terrace that 
overhangs the little river and glen of Brackenstown, 
with its mills in the depth of the wooded valley, and 
its mansion-house seen on the opposite ascent from 
the glen. 

This house was formerly the residence of Viscount Moles- 
worth, whose ancestor, Robert Molesworth of Brackenstown was 
one of those attieunted in King James's parliament. He subse- 
quently filled the office of ambassador from King William to the 
Court of Denmark, and ultimately was elevated to the Irish peer- 
age by King George the First. He was the author of " An Ac- 
eount of Denmark," and more especially of « Considerations on 
the Agriculture and Employment of the Poor of Ireland." In 
this pamphlet his lordship deprecates the ruinous consequences 
of a tenant being suffered to deal with his fai*m as he pleases, for 
•* that is what his laziness, his ignorance, or dishonesty prompts 
him to without regard to covenants." He recommends enact- 
ments restrictive of the courses of husbandry, the duration of 
leases, the extent of farms, the abolition of subletting, landjobbing 
and tithejobbing, the enclosure of commons, the establishment of 
agricultural schools in every county, the distribution of premiums 
to the best husbandmen, and the curtailment of holidays. On all 
which points he makes some very pertinent observations. " In 


England/' he says, "it is taken for granted that a tenant, who 
comes into a farm of good land with the grass side uppermost, at 
the usual rent of corn land in that country, and obtains liberty to 
break it up or make his best of it by ploughing it, has a profit 
during the first four years equal to the value of the inheritance 
of the land. Few landlords in this kingdom are sensible of this, 
and therefore do not provide accordingly.*' 

In reference to the extent of farms, " twenty acres," he re- 
mxurks, " rightly dbtributed and well husbanded, shall yield more 
profit to the tenant, and do no harm to the landlord, than a hun- 
dred acres, managed as in Ireland, with infinite damage to both.'* 
He strongly recommends the erection of public granaries, to pre- 
vent the ruinous advance in the price of provisions when years of 
scarcity occur, and where he speaks of the agricultural schoob, he 
suggests that Tusser's old book of husbandry should be taught to 
the boys, as " the very best English book of good husbandry and 
housewifery that ever was published, fitted for the use of humble 
men and farmers, and ordinary families. In these schools," he 
says, " I would not have any precepts, difference, or distinction 
of religions taken notice of, and nothing taught but only husbandry 
and good manners, and that the children should daily serve God 
according to their own religions, this school not being the proper 
place to make proselytes in." 

On his death in 1725 his eldest son, John, who had been en- 
voy to the Duke of Tuscany in 1710, and to the King of Sardi- 
nia in 1720, acquired the title as second Viscount, but dying in 
the same year was succeeded by his brother Richard, the third 
viscount, who became a field marshal in the army^ and general 
and commander-in chief of the forces in Ireland. He entered a 
volunteer in Queen Anne's reign, in 1702 received a commission 
in the Earl of Orkney's regiment, whose colours he carried at 
the battle of Blenheim, and on the eve of the battle of Ramillies 
was appointed aid-de-camp to the Duke of Marlborough, whom 
he rescued from the French, by mounting him on his horse, when 
run down by their cavalry. After a campaign of active and suc- 
cessful service, he was appointed a colonel in 1710, and with his 
regiment was sent into Spain where he fought under the Duke of 
Argyle and the great Staremberg, and on the breaking up of that 


regknent at Minorca, his lotdship defoled the remdnd^r of His Kfe 
to stud J. Thd water works at Chelsea were at this time carried 
en under his direction. In 1715 he was agiun called into military 
service, fought and was wounded at the battle of Preston. HfJ 
died in 1758 and wad succeeded in the title by his only son Richard, 
Uie fourth viscount. 

Passing from Brackenstown, the ruins of the house 
of Brazeel appear at right. 

On this townlaod, on the night of the battle of the Boyne, the 
Duke of Berwick rallied about 7000 foot, << of which he sent toac« 
quaint King James, then in Dublin, and desired he would please to 
i^nd him some horse and dragoons to enable him to make his re*^ 
treat. The king accordingly ordered six troops of LuttrelFs re* 
giment of di'agoons, and three of Abercom's horse, (which were 
all he had but those newly arrived with the king), to march to 
the Duke's relief; but, as soon as it was night, that general found 
most of his gathering dispersed again, of which he sent an a&» 

Brazeel became subsequently the property of the Bolton fa« 
tnily) of whom Edward Bolton, the founder of this line, was, for 
bis attachment to the cause of King William, attainted in James's 
parliament, as was also Richard Bolton. The mansion was de-^ 
stroyed by fire some years since, at which time a unique portrait 
of Sir Richard Bolton b said to have been burned. He was for« 
merly Lord Chancellor of Ireland, and in 1640 was impeached 
In the House of Commons as having assisted in the introduction 
of arbitrary government, by the assistance and countenance of 
the Earl of Strafford. In 1661, however, all records of this trans-^ 
action were voted to be expunged, " inasmuch as they seemed to 
be an entrenchment upon the honour, worth, and integrity of ho- 
nourable persons, whose memory this house cannot in justice suf* 
fer to be sulHed with the least stain of evil report." 

In November, 1647, Owen Roe O'Neill and Sir Thomas Es- 
raonde, with their royalist forces, encamped here. See at " Cas- 

Beyond this 

* Clarke's Life of James the Second, vol. ii. p. 402. 



presents the deserted remains of a once good inn and a 
large brick mansion, now inhabited by a Mrs. Ann- 
gier, overhanging a pretty glen watered by a winding 

Here is a very remarkable circular moat, from 
which the locality derives its name, Knocksedan, i. e* 
the hill of the quicksand. It is elevated about fifty 
feet over the river, and commands a most extensive 
view. Ware, in reference to this object in his time, 
says, ^^ Numbers of human bon^ are now to be seen 
lying promiscuously in this mount, which was opened 
for gravel some years ago by the orders of Mr. Blair^ 
on whose land it stands. Some curious gentlemen,'* 
he adds, *^ about two years ago discovered in it A 
human skeleton of a monstrous size, which measured 
from the ankle bone to the top of the cranium eight 
feet four inches, so that, allowing a proportionable 
extension from the ankle to the sole of the foot, and 
for the skin and fiesh covering the cranium, as well 
as for the space occupied by the cartilages between 
the several bones in a living body, the person, to 
whom this body belonged, must have been not far 
short of nine feet high. The scull in the most solid 
part was better than a quarter of an inch thick, and 
the bones of the big toe were each of them two inches? 
long, and three inches and a quarter in circumference. 
The dentes molares, or grinders, were also enor- 
mously big, and the tibia above twenty inches long. 


The position of the head was to the north and south, 
and all the bones except the teeth were in a crumbling 
and decayed condition."* He conjectures that these 
remains were deposited there after the battle of Clon- 
tarf. There are two similar mounts within half a 
mile of this place. 

These funeral mounts, so much resembling the 
raths, and equally numerous over the country, are by 
the Irish Annals, particularly those of the Four Mas- 
ters, ascribed to the very highest antiquity. Indeed, 
they are " modelled after such a manner as wisely and 
effectually to answer the ends for which they were 
first designed, defying the injuries of the weather, 
and all the usual assaults of devouring time. They 
are raised on a large base, and gradually diminish as 
they advance upward, until at length they terminate 
at the top in a flat surface, and in the whole have the 
appearance of a cone. They differ in their dimen- 
sions and heights, according to the quality of the per- 
son for whom they were raised, as they do also in the 
materials composing them, some being made of earth 
only heaped together, and others of small, round 
paving stones with sand or earth mixed, and piled up 
in a high cone covered with a coat of green sods."f 

As they were often thrown up over those who 
fell in war, they became commemorative of places 
where battles were fought. The practice of raising 
such monuments over the dead, is one of the many 
aboriginal principles, which adhered to the different 
societies that diverged from the confusion of Babel ; 

• Antiquities of Ireland, p. 150. t lb. p. 135. 


such was the tomb of Patroclus, as described in the 
twenty-third book of the Iliad, such were the barrows 
of Achilles, Antilochus, Peneleus, Ajax Telamon, 
iEsytes, &c., such were the mounts mentioned by 
Herodotus as raised over the Scythian kings, such 
those described by Strabo as constructed by the 
Myrsians and Phrygians over the dead, such the mo- 
nument of Dercennus who governed Laurentum be- 
fore the arrival of JEneas in Italy, such the royal 
mounts noticed by Lucan, such the pile erected over 
Damaratus the Corinthian, as recorded by Plutarch 
in his life of Alexander, such the tomb on the banks 
of the Wolga mentioned by Adam Olearius in his 
travels into Muscovy and Persia, and the tombs in 
Westphalia and Friesland described by Keisler in his 
Northern Antiquities, and such were the funeral piles 
of earth erected by the Danes over their kings and 
heroes, and which, during the long establishment of 
that people in Ireland, became mixed with the cor- 
responding memorials of the natives. 

About the glen of Brackenstown and in its woods, 
the botanist will find rosa arvensis, white trailing 
dog-rose ; tilia Europcea^ common lime tree ; ranun- 
culus auricomus, goldylocks; stocky s palustris, marsh 
woundwort ; geranium rotundifolium^ round leaved 
crane's-bill ; ulex EuropcBUS^ common furze, the best 
fuel for heating ovens; cares remota^ remote sedge; 
carex pendula^ pendulous sedge ; carex pseudo-cy- 
peruSy bastard cypress sedge ; polj/podium aculeatuniy 
prickly polypody ; meruleus umbilliferuSj a delicate 
and minute species of mushroom ; agaricus elephan- 


tinuSf which, when in perfection, is almost white* 
when cut becomes red, and when left to gradual de^ 
cay becomes as black as if burned into charcoal; 
various other species of the agaricns, or mushroom i 
boletus bovinusy cow-spunk, the young plants of which 
are eaten as a great delicacy in Italy ; the Russians, 
Poles, and Germans, also account them a dounty ; bole- 
tus igniarius, touchwood spunk, used for tinder in 
some parts of Englimd as also in Germany, while the 
Laplanders bum it round their habitations to keep off 
^e gadfly from the young rein-deer, and the natives 
of Franconia are said to beat the inner substance into 
the form of leather and sew it together for garments; 
boletus olivaoeuSi lichen olivaceusy and scrophularia 
aquaticai water figwort, in the wet ditches. 

More immediately near Knocksed^i grow, silene 
inflata, bladder catchfly; tilm Europaea^ common 
lime tree ; and the prunus cerastes^ wild cherry tree. 
The chen7 tree obtained its name from having been 
brought into Europe from Cerasus, a city of Pontus, 
by Lucullus the Roman General, after his conquests 
in Asia, and was, perhaps, the only substantial fruit 
of the Mithridatic war. 

At Knocksedan, a bold bridge of a single, tall, 
narrow arch is erected over the glen. At one side 
of it a bad bridle road, but carried over a terrace 
that prettily overhangs the continuation of the glen 
already alluded to, crosses the rivulet by a worse than 
Al-Sirat bridge, and, passing by an ancient mill, leads 
into the holy solitude of 



a little ruinous village^ on an uncultivated eminence, 
although within seven miles of the metropolis. Were 
the viciqity of this ^ot wooded, and its approaches 
made more praotieable, it should be visited as a scene 
ef m\]ch beairiiy and interest ^ in its present stateit is 
utterly unknown. Sir Thomas Staples has the fee 
of this townland, which he lets at the acreable rent of 
£l 10^. per annum. 

The ruins of the church present chancel and 
nave, divided by a csreular arch, with doorways, 
also circularly arched. The length of the chancel 
is ten yards, of the nave fifteen, the width of each 
being five yards. Ash trees flank and overhang the 
ruin, but, neither within its walls nor in the surround- 
ing grave-yard, is there any tomb worthy of notice. 

The churches of the ancient Christians, it may be 
here observed, were always divided into two parts, 
viz. the nave or body of the church, and the sacra- 
rium, since called the chancel, from its being divided 
from the nave by cancelH latices^ or cross-bars. The 
nave was common to all the people, the chancel was 
peculiar to the priests and sacred officers, and was al- 
ways placed at the east end of the church. In the 
chancel, the altar or communion-table was placed, 
which none were allowed to approach but such as 
were in holy orders, and the admission of the laity 
during the service, was expressly forbidden in the 
Greek church by the nineteenth canon of the Council 


of Laodicea. In the service of the liturgy in the 
fifth year of Edward the Sixth, a clause was added at 
the end of the first Rubric, expressly enjoining that 
the chancels should remain as they had done in times 
past. It is, however, to be observed, that the right 
of a seat and sepulchre in the chancel, was a privilege 
appertaining to every founder of a church. 

The parish, in which this place is situated, takes 
its name ; comprises 807a. 2r. 4p. in three townlands, 
and was returned in 1834 as having a population 
of 166 persons, all Roman Catholics. The rectory 
being impropriate in the dean and chapter of St. 
Patiick*s, this parish ranks as a curacy in the deanery 
and union of Swords. 

At a very remote period this was one of the chapelries sub- 
servient to Swords, but, about the fifteenth century, was erected 
into a parish church, while its tithes were early appropriated to 
the economy of St. Patrick's. 

In 1414 Robert Luttrel was the proprietor of lands in thb 
parish) of which he was deprived by William Ashbourne and 
Richard Maddocks, who were subsequently convicted thereof and 
outlawed.* The manor of Killeigh soon afterwards vested in the 
Hollywood family, and, on the marriage of Margaret, daughter of 
Sir Robert Hollywood, passed to her husband Robert BumelLf 

In 1530 Allen styles Killeigh, « the most stately of all the 
chapels of Swords."} 

An inquisition of 1547 defines the extent of the tithes of the 
economy here, and computes their annual value as £4 IBs, 4d, 

The regal visitation of 1615 states this rectory to be impro- 
priate. At which time, and previously, the Dillon family were the 
chief proprietors here, but in 1641 the inheritor, Luke Dillon, 
having joined the lords of the Pale, forfeited the whole townland 

• Hot in Cane. Hib. t Tb. J Repertorium Viride. 


of KOleigh, containing 160 acres, together with the water-mill 
there ;* the manor, however, continued to be in the Hollywood 
family. For a notice of Killeigh in 1627, see at << Holly wood.** 

In 1648 the tithes of Killeigh were demised to John Pue, Al- 
derman and Mayor of Dublin, for twenty-one years ; and in 1663 
Lord Chief Baron Bysse obtained a lease, for twenty-one years, 
. of << the tithe of corn and hay, and the small tithes of Killeigh 

In 1666 John Hollywood, son and heir of Nicholas Hollywood 
of Artane, deceased, passed patent for Ballcarrig 375a., Baltra 
67a., Westrew 68a., and the Moate of Killeigh 129a. sUtute 
measure ; and in 1669, Lord Kingston had a grant of 80a. plan- 
tation measure here, with a water-mill and water-course. 

For a notice of the tithes of Killeigh in 1681, see ante at 
" Malahide." In 1683 they were demised, with those of Skidow, 
to Henry ScardeviUe, Prebendary of Swords, with a saving to the 
curate, of the burials and £10 per annum salary. 

A Wild pathway, commencing at the before men- 
tioned mill-head, leads hence to Chapel Midway, 
through a glen waving (12th of June) with scentless 
but graceful aquatic flowers, and overhung about mid- 
way by the ruinous remains of the old mansion-house 
of Westrew. Returning, however, through Knockse- 
dan, crossing the lofty arch of its bridge, and leaving 
Brackenstown, and the now serrated walls, that once 
enclosed its demesne, at left, the course of the present 
excursion proceeds by some extensive remains of an old 
family mansion>house at Forest, which once belonged 
to the Armstrong family. Its ancient great doorcase 
is embodied in a farm-house. Beyond it at left is 
Fosterstown, formerly the seat of that true patriot 
Baron Hamilton, from which a bleak road conducts to 

Inquis. in Cane. Hib. 



In 1359 Sir Elias Ashbourne was seised of various lands in Bar- 
baderstown, Gadstown, ^ Pycotstoif n,'* Colwellstown, Brdidens- 
town, (Brackenstown,) Colyncoght, and Rath near KiUossery, 
with certain premises in Cook-street, which were then estreated 
for debts due to the crown. 

In the commencement of the serenteenth century, Robert 
Bamewall of Dunbroe, was seised of Pickerstown, CowHree, and 
Baiberstown, three messuages and eighty-two acres, which he held 
from the Archbbhop of Dublin by fealty.* 

Hence to 


anciently parcel of the manor of Santry. Here is one 
of the four Roman Catholic chapels in the union of 
Clontarf, and near it a school-house for children of 
both sexes. Here also a charter-school is still sup- 
ported, the only one now existing in this county. 
(See antey at " Santry.**) Close to this a shady 
avenue leads into Santry. 

For a notice of Ballymnn in 1435, see ^* Santry." 

In 1642 Edmund Bamewall died seised, by inheritance and in 

tail male, of the town and lands of Ballymun, four messuages and 

160 acres, which he held of the king in capite by knight's service.f 
In 1673 the tithes of Bdlymun were granted to the Arch-* 

bishop (^ Dublin and his successors, in trust for the incumbent, 

subject to the yearly rent of £1 10*. 

The botany of Ballymun presents the adra cespi- 
tosay turfy hair grass ; triticum repens^ couch grass ; 

• Inquis. in Cane. Hib. t lb. 


erythrcBu ceniaurium, eommon eentmry; chenopo- 
dhim albtmiy white goosefbot ; snan nodiflorvm^ 
procumbent water parsnip; pimpmeUa saxifraga^ 
oommon burnet saidfrage ; geranimn Pyrenaicunh 
fountain crane's bill ; geranium rotundifolium, 
round-leaved crane's bill ;. tdex EurofMUS, common 
£irze ; iathynts pratensiSf yellow meadow vetchling ; 
trifolium^li/arme, slender yellow trefoil ; lotus carnu 
culatus^ common bird's-foot trefoil ; hypericum qua- 
drangultmh square St. John's wort ; hypericum 
perforatum^ perforated St. John's wort ; apargia 
autumnaUs, autumnal hawk-bit; senecio tenuifolvus^ 
hoary ragwort. — In the ditches and hedges along the 
road sides, festuca sylvatioa^ slender wood fescue 
grass; euonynms JSurop^Bus^ common spindle tree, 
the fruit of which is used in many places to decorate 
churches and rustic kitchens ; vinca minor, lesser 
perriwinkle ; bunium flexttosum, pig-wort; ranun- 
cukes hederaceusj ivy crowfoot ; lonicera perich/me- 
num, common honeysuckle, of which Darwin writes : 

'< Fair Lonicera prints the dewy lawn, 
And decks with brighter blush the vernal dawn ; 
Windfl^ round the shadowy rocks and pansied vales ; 
And scents wi4> sweeter brAath the summer gales ;" 

sanicula Europcea^ wood sanicle ; smymvum olusor 
trum, Alexanders ; "prunv^ spinosa, sloe ; pyrus 
aucuparia^ mountain ash, with its beautiful clusters of 
orange berries ; rosa canina, dog rose, perhaps the 
most elegant of our roses ; ruhus corylifoliusj hazel- 
leaved bramble ; fragaria vescch strawberry ; ajuga 
reptans^ common bugle ; vida sepiumy common bush 



vetch ; ht/pericum androscemuniy tutsal ; sparganium 
ramosunii branched bur-reed. — In the fields, loKum 
perenney rye-grass; allium vinealey crow garlic; luciola 
campestri^i field wood-rush; lychnis flos cucuH^ rag- 
ged robin j gcUeopsis tetrahit^ common hemp-bane ; 
euphorbia eangtui, dwarf spurge. — In the woods, 
geum urbanum, common avens ; iilia Europcea^ com- 
mon lime-tree; ranunculus auricomus^ goldilocks: 
and on the old walls and roofs of houses, hedera helix, 
ivy ; glechoma hederacea, ground ivy ; sempervivum 
tectarum, house-leek. 

Proceeding from Ballymun to Glasnevin, in a 
sweet situation at the right off the road is Claremount 
Deaf and Dumb Institution, founded in 1816. It is 
a large and commodious establishment, with eighteen 
acres and a half of ground attached, for which £220 
annual rent is paid. The master has a salary of £125 
per annum with apartments, the assistant £40 with 
board and lodging. The charge here for pupils is at 
the highest £22 155., but the majority are supported 
gratuitously. In 1826 there were reported, as on this 
establishment, twenty-six males and nineteen females, 
of which total, eleven were Protestants, one Presby- 
terian, and thirty-one Roman Catholics, if, indeed, 
such religious distinctions could be attributed to per- 
sons of their capacities. New schoolrooms and dor- 
mitories have been since erected, and the Institution 
can now accommodate about 160, a number which 
it may be considered as having, as the candidates for 
admission, together with the 120 now (May, 1836) in 
the house, actually exceed that number. 


In 1828 George Devoy willed, that the interest 
of two 6 per cent. Grand Canal debentures should be 
applied for the use of this establishment; and in 1832 
George Nugent made a similar bequest of the in- 
terest of £50. 

Out of school hours the pupils are employed in 
useful works, contributing either to their health or to 
the formation of industrious habits. The boys in 
gardening, farming, tailoring, shoemaking, and other 
mechanical labours ; the girls in needlework, house- 
wifery, laundry work, and dairy management. The 
buildings, yards, and grounds are so arranged, that the 
boys and girls in the poor establishment have distinct 
schoolrooms and playgrounds, besides the master has 
entirely separate apartments and walks for his own 
family, and for private pupils of both sexes, who are 
either deaf and dumb, or afflicted with impediments 
in speech. 

Although the calamity of the visitation is scarcely 
perceptible in the facility, with which those affected 
by it here communicate and receive ideas, and although 
even the inanimate countenance and languid look, 
which peculiarly accompany their privations, are not 
here observable, yet is the appearance of a silent 
school and dumb preceptors an object too unique, to 
fail exciting the deepest interest. Numbers of pupils 
have already passed through this institution into the 
world, and are now taking their part in the industry 
and enjoyments of this life, and pursuing those moral 
duties and exercises, which will insure their welfare in 
the next. 

342 COUNTY or dublik. 

The Abb6 de TEpee, one of those plow and ex* 
cellent men whimi heaven designed to bl^ss itiankiKd> 
was the founder of the first estiiblishment for the rdtef 
of this cbiss of persons, and the inventor, to a greafit 
degree, of the system for their education^ A very 
remarkable account, connected with his benevolent 
practice in this line, afforded the plot of a little 
French play, since translated into the English, and 
entitled, <<Deaf and Dumb." Passing hence by 
Hampstead, where within the last eight years Doctor 
Eustace established a lunatic asylumibr a few patients^ 
the tourist reaches the classical village of 


once the residence of the celebrated Doctor Delany^ 
where that learned divine assembled his coterie of 
wits in the Augustan age of Queen Anne ; where the 
patriot Dean and the beautiful and enduring Stella 
have charmed the feast; where Southern has fre*^ 
quently sojourned ; and in whose immediate vicinity 
Addison, Sheridan, Famell, and Tickell have resided. 
This village may be considered as divided into 
the old and the new town, both sweetly situated ; but 
the former, though once so recommended^ and frer 
quented for the salubrity of its air, is, with the except 
tion of four or five houses, a range of ruins. The 
river Tolka, over which there is a fine bridge, divides 
them ; the new being on the Dublin and improving 
side : the great objects of interest are, however, in 
the old. 


The church is a plain edifice, but the identical 
one» with little alteration, in which Dean Delany offi- 
ciated. A flag in the wall, ne«r the entrance, statei 
that it was rebuilt in 1707. On the floor near the 
communion table, is a stone commemorative of An* 
drew CaldwelU who died in 1 710 ; and in the adjacent 
part i^the outer church-yard are the tombstones of 
several of his descendants. Within the church are 
Iso mu ral slabs, one of white marble, to the memory 
of George Cockbum, who died in 1773; ttdd near it 
another for William Orr Hamilton, barrister at law, 
who died in 1817, aged thirty-six. 

In the grave-yard are very many monuments wor-^ 
thy of notice : one to the once well known Doctor 
Barret, a man no less learned than eccentric. He 
wrote memoirs of Swift, principally in reference to 
his progress through that only world of the Doctor's 
contemplation. Trinity College. By his will in 1821, 
after bequeathing certain pecuniary legacies and an- 
nuities therein particularly mentioned, he devised the 
whole residue of his property, which was very consi- 
derable, to trustees, " for the purpose of contributing 
towards the relief of the sick and indigent, the poor 
and naked, without favour or partiality." Near him 
lies Sir Henry Jebb, a physician of the leas guilty 
class, who contributed radier to the births than the 
deaths of the community. Llserted in the outer ga- 
ble wall of the church is a slab, to the memory of 
George Clayton, who died in 1695, and to Walter 
Pitz Simons, who died in 1699; while in a comer 
of the church-yard is a large monumental stone, com- 


memorative of the befor&-inentioDed Doctor Delany 
and his lady. She had been first married to Richard 
Tenison, imd died in 1741. The Doctor had been a 
Senior Fellow of Trinity College, afterwards Dean 
of Down,, and died in 1768. The position of this 
monument is singularly impressive. It is inserted in 
the boundary wall, that divides the Doctor's ancient 
demesne from the grave-yard ; in the side wall of that 
very temple hereafter mentioned, which his wife had 
so affectionately decorated, and where they both had 
passed the happiest hours of social and domestic en- 
joyment. Poussin 8 celebrated picture of Arcadia, 
the moral sublimity of the tomb in its perspective, and 
the touching epitaph, ** 1 too was in Arcadia," could 
not be more powerfully illustrated than on this occa- 
sion. It was a scene to affect the deepest feelings, 
and, as the foot glided through the luxuriant herbage 
of the churchyard, a tremulous and awful sensation 
seemed to suggest, that the matter, which once com- 
posed the frames of those whose graves were beneath, 
was now, by some vegetable transmigration, freshen- 
ing in the grass, blooming in the flowers, or drooping 
in the shrubs above them. 

On the central elevation of this deserted village 
is Delville House, the classic residence alluded to. A 
tall close gate and wall conceal it from the view of 
prying curiosity ; but these obstacles once removed, 
and the mind's eye is rapidly attracted by the ancient 
edifice with its bower window ; — the old garden walls 
thickly flowering with the wild snap dragon ; — ^the 
gracefully undulated grounds; — the broad terrace on 


which the peripatetics of another day have glided and 
philosophized ; — the magnificent trees on the brink 
of the rivulet ; — ^the fine mount and the turret over- 
looking the business of the distant city, the beauties 
of the intervening country, and more solemnly glanc- 
ing over the churchyard where its remembered owner 
lies ; — ^the dark vault beneath that turret, where the 
first impression of the Legion Club is supposed to 
have been printed ; — ^the temple, with its fresco paint- 
ing of St. Paul, and its medallion of the bust of Stella, 
by Mrs. Delany; — the inscription on the frieze at its 
front, " Fastigia despicit urbis,'* attributed to Swift, 
and supposed to allude to the situation of this villa; — 
the temples scattered through the little demesne ; — 
the rustic bridges; — ^the bath; — ^the lonely willow, 
dropping its feathery wreaths into the water, amidst 
the lilies that floated around it ; — the venerable mul- 
berry tree ; — its surrounding compeers of aged elms 
and yews and ever-green oaks — all powerfully marked 
the taste and elegance that formed and enlivened this 

Yet could not Dean Swift's mock description of 
the whole, addressed to its proprietor, be wholly for- 
gotten : — 

" Would you that DelvUle I describe ? — 
Believe me, Sir, I will not gibe ; 
For who would be satirical 
Upon a thing so very small ! 
You sparce upon the borders enter, 
Before you're at the very centre. 
A single crow would make it night, 
If o'er your farm he took his flight : 


Yet in the narrow compass we 

Observe a vast variety i 

Both walks, walls, meadows, and parterres, 

Windows and doors, and rooms and stairs, 

And hills and vales, and woods and fields. 

And hay, and grass, and com it yields ; 

All to your haggard brought so cheap in, 

Without the mowing or the reaping ; 

A razor, though to say't Pm loth. 

Might shave you and your meadow both. 

Tho* small your farm, yet here's a house 

Full larger — to entertain a mouse, 

But where a rat is dreaded more 

Than furious Caledonian boar ; 

For if 'tis entered by a rat, 

There is no room to bring the cat. 

A little riv'let seems to steal 

Along a thing you call a vale. 

Like tears a-down a wrinkled cheek, 

Like rain along a blade of leek ; 

And this you call your sweet meander, 

Which might be suck'd up by a gander. 

Could he but force his rustling bill 

To scoop the channel of the rill ; 

I'm sure you'd make a mighty clutter. 

Were it as big as city gutter. 

Next come I to your kitchen garden, 

Which one poor mouse would fare but hard in ; 

And round this garden is a walk 

No longer than a tailor's chalk ; 

Thus I compute what space is in it, 

A snail creeps o'er it in a minute ! 

One lettuce makes a shift to squeeze 

Up through a tuft you call your trees ; 

And once a year a single rose 

Peeps from the bud, but never blows : 

In vain then you expect its bloom ; 

It cannot blow for want of room. 



lb short, in aU yotir boasted seat 
There's nothing but yourself is — ^great." 

Notwithstanding the ridicule of this description^ 
those gardens and walks were laid out by Doctor 
Delany, in concert with the celebrated Doctor Hel- 
sham ; while Walker praises the demesne, as the first 
'< in which the obdurate and straight line of the 
Dutch was softened into a curve, the terrace melted 
into a swelling bank, and the walks opened to catch 
the vicinal country." 

In 1732 Swift, writing to Pope, makes the fol- 
lowing' mention of Doctor Delany*s mode of living 
here, aft«r his marriage with the Widow Tenison. — 
•* Doctor Delany behaves himself very commendably, 
converses only with his former friends, makes no pa* ' 
rade, but entertains them constantly at an elegant, 
plentiful table, walks the streets as usual by daylight, 
does many acts of charity and generosity, cultivates a 
country-house about two miles distant, and is one of 
those very few within my knowledge, on whom a great 
access of fortune hath made no manner of change, 
and particularly, he is as often without money as he 

was before." And again : " Doctor Delany is the 

only gentleman I know who keeps one certain day in 
the week to entertain seven or eight friends at dinner, 
and to pass the evening, where there is nothing of 
excess either in eating or drink.'* In a letter of the 
following year, the Dean writes to Mrs. Pendarves, 
" The cold weather, I suppose, has gathered together 
Doctor Delany's set ; the next time you meet, may I 
beg the favour to make my compliments acceptable. 


I recollect no entertainment with so much pleasure as 
ivhat I received from that company. It has made me 
very sincerely lament the many hours of my life that 
I have lost in insignificant conversation." The win- 
ter meetings were, however, principally held at the 
Doctor's town residence in Stafford-street, as appears 
from a letter of Mrs. Pendarves in 1735; "I am 
sorry the sociable Thursdays, that used to bring toge- 
ther so many agreeable friends at Doctor Delany's, 
are broke up. Though Delville has its beauties, it is 
more out of the way than Stafford-street." 

With all these eloquent appeals of sensation and 
reflection, the spectator seems influenced by a spell 
that wafts him up the stream of time, leads him into 
• a bygone century, and even identifies the rustic seat, 
on which he moralizes, with the same era of " auld 
lang syne." The graves give up their dead, and 
Banquo*s chair was not so spiritually filled, as that 
same seat on which he fancies the silent worthies 
crowding, as erst in life they might have crowded. 
The Athenian madman, however, was not more 
vexatiously undeceived, than was the author of these 
pages, when, with the full and wilful enjoyment of 
this luxury, the unlettered gardener, referring his 
uncontrollable admiration to the ingenious structure 
of the seat itself, proudly announced it as the recent 
production of his own hands. It was the dissolution 
of a spell, and. 

-" What seemed corporal 

Melted as breath intp the wind." 

Even with such a repulse from the former man- 

GLASNEVm. 349 

sion of the Dean, there is yet another object in the 
village, which perpetuates his memory, — a small, cir- 
cular building of two stories, near the bridge, con- 
taining a male and female school, with a small endow- 
ment from his bounty. There is also a Sunday-school 
here for children of both sexes, to which the Bishop 
of Kildare allows £10 per annum. The number of 
pupils in the latter establishment was reported in 
1834 to be thirty-five. Opposite the latter structure 
is an alms-house, established in 1723, where four poor 
widows are lodged, and receive each 1^. 6d. weekly. 

Near this, on the bank of the river, are quarries 
of that species of limestone called blackstone or calp, 
a substance in some measure peculiar to the county of 
Dublin, and supposed to form the general sub-soil of 
the city. It is usually found under a bed of vegetable 
mould and layer of limestone gravel, and commences 
with black limestone, in some places separated by 
layers of argillaceous schist, which descends into calp 
by an imperceptible transition. 

At the Dublin side of the village is a weaving 
establishment of twelve looms for sail-cloth and 

Half the rectory of Glasnevin being impropriate 
in the precentor, and the other half in the chancellor 
of Christ Church, the parish ranks as but a curacy in 
the deanery of Finglas, to which those dignitaries 
alternately present. It extends over 999a. 3r. 21p. 
plantation measure, comprising three townlands, and 
has compounded for its tithes at so high a rate as 
£184 per annum, some parts being assessed thereto 


at Ss. 2d. per acre. In the Catholic di^ensation the 
parish is in the union of Clontarf. Its population 
in 1834 was returned as 964 persons^ of whom 565 
were Roman Catholics. The great part of the land 
IB the parish belongs to the Bishop of Kildare as 
Dean of Christ Church5 from which, and even earlier 
appropriaiions of the denomination to the uses of the 
churchf it appears to have derived its name of Glas- 
nevin, i. e. the verdant consecrate(l ground. The 
aereable rent is seven guineas in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of the village, lessening in the more remote 
parts to £3; the wages of labour is from seven to nine 
shillings per week. 

As to the extent of the manor of Glasnevin, see 
post at " Grangegonnan," by which name it is more 
usually called. 

In 544 the Annals of the Four Masters record the death of 
Bercbaoy Abhot of Glasnoidfaen,* to whom are ascribed some 
Irish prof^ecies, and a small poem in praise of &. Brigid. 

In 745, say the Annals of Ulster, died Cialltrogh, Abbot of 
« Gksnoidhen/' 

In 1178 Archbishop Laurence O' Toole granted to the church 
of the Holy Trinity, i. e. Christ Church (inter o/ui), a third part 
of Cloghnei, a third part of Killallin and Lesluan, << Glasneoden,** 
Magduroia, &c^ which gift was confirmed in 1179 by Pq>e Alex- 
ander the Third, as of « Glasneden with the mill/' Accordingly 
in Pope Urban's Bull of the year 1186, Glasnoiden, with its 
church, is enumerated amongst the possessions of Christ Church, 
and its right thereto was confirmed by King John in 1200, and by 
Archbishop Luke in 1240, as " the Grange of Glasnevin, with the 
church and appurtenances." This church was dedicated to St. 
Maplas, or as the Repertorium Viride styles him, St. Movus. 

• This locality is, however, by 8<»ne referred to tlie county Kildare. 


In the taxatioQ of the reveoues of Christ Churdi in I3O69 the 
manor of Glasnevin, therein stated as contuomg three canicates 
of land, was rated with its tithes at forty-eight shillings,* and it is 
observable, that it is there rated <&tinetly from « the Grange of 

In 1610 John Bflilie had a grant of certain premises here, 
the tithes being q^^ecially excepted. 

The regsl visitation of 1615 states the rectory as still impro- 
jpriate to the church of the Holy Trinity, that Richard Wyburne 
mtm curate, and that the church and chancel were then in good 

In 1634 John Bathe died seised of /eighty acres in Glasnevin 
alias Clonmell, which he held by fealty only.f 

In 1666 James Duke of York had a grant of Glasnevin 230a. 
plantation measure, Stuckcoole 120a. like measure, &c. &c. 

in 1708 the administratrix of Maurice Berkley made claim (at 
Chichester House), and was allowed a leaBehold interest in part of 

In 1703 Isaac Hobroyd of Dublin, merchant, had a grant of 
the residue of a term for years of the lands called Draycot's farm 
in Glasnevin 41a., the estate of Midiael Chamberlain attainted. 
For a notice of Glasnevin in 1782, see " Santry." 

Some time since, in removing the lumber in one of the out 
offices of DekiUe house, a printing-press was discovered concealed 
among it, which, according to tradition, was used here in 1735 in 
giving to^the world the first edition of Swift's << Legion Club.** 
It is generally understood, that this bitter satire was not printed 
in Dublin, as no one there would undertake its publication, and, as 
the Dam pwsed the summer of 1735 at Delvffle, and the work 
appeared in 1736, the tradition appears to have some foundation* 

In 1759 the Right Honourable Henry Singleton, Master of the 
Rolls, and who had previously been Chief Justice of the Common 
Pleas in Ireland, was interred here. 

In 1785 Mr. John Rogerson, in his bequest to the Incorpo- 
ratfd Soc^y (before albded to in the « General History of the 

• Black Book of Christ Church. t Inquis. in Cane Hib. 


County of Dublin'*), left about sixteen acres in Glasnevin (inter 
alia) for that object. 

In reference to its indigenous botany, Glasnevin 
presents salvia verbenaca, wild clary; avena ftaves- 
censy yellow oat grass, perhaps some of the finest 
pasturage of the meadow ; with its most congenial 
companion, hordeum pratense^ meadow barley ; iriti- 
cum repenSf couch grass; scabiosa sucdsoy deviPs 
bit scabious ; sherardia arvensis^ little field madder ; 
galiuin paiicstrei "white water bed-straw; galium apc^ 
rinei goose grass ; alchemilla arverms^ parsley piert; 
potamogeton pusiUum^ small pond weed, floating on 
the surface of the water, and affording an agreeable 
shelter to the fish; myosotis palitstrisy forget-me-not; 
myosotis arvensis^ field scorpion-grass ; lithospermum 
arvensey corn gromwell, flowering in May, the bark 
of its root tinges wax and oil of a beautiful red ; 
primula vulgaris^ common primrose — ^its leaves are 
found to serve for feeding silkworms ; primvla verts, 
cowslip ; anagallis arvensis, common scarlet pimper- 
nel ; convolvulics sepium, great bindweed ; viola tri- 
color, pansy violet ; verbascum thapsus, great mullein, 
which is said to intoxicate fish, so that they may be 
caught with the hand ; the down also is used for tin- 
der ; chenopodium bonzes Henricus, mercury goose- 
foot ; torilis nodosa, knotted hedge parsley ; scandix 
pecten veneris, shepherd's needle ;ywmarta officinalis, 
common fumitory ; Jiimaria capredlata, climbing fu- 
mitory ; vicia cracca, tufted vetch ; tri/olium fili-^ 
forme, slender yellow trefoil ; lotiis corniculatits, 
common bird's-foot trefoil ; ertphorbia helioscopia. 


sun spurge ; alchemiUa mdgarisy lady's mantle ; bUium 
perenney English mercury ; Tierctcleiim spondyliunh 
cow parsnip, the stalks of which the Russians not only 
prepare for food, but also procure from them a very 
intoxicating spirit ; aUivm carinatumj mountain gar- 
lic ; allium vinealey crow garlic, which communicates 
a rank taste to the milk and butter ; rumex crispw, 
curled dock, a troublesome and unprofitable weed } 
rumex acutus^ sharp dock ; rvmex acetoseUoj sheep's 
sorrel ;jpo^^on2^m amphtbium, amphibious persicaria; 
polffgonimi perstcctrioy spotted persicaria ; polygortum 
canvolvulusj black bind weed ; lythrum scUicartOf 
purple loose strife ; pi/ncs maJus^ wild apple-tree ; 
spinsa ulmaria^ meadow sweet ; nibus corylifoliusj 
hazel-leaved bramble ; papaver somniferumj white 
poppy ; anemone Appenntna, mountain anemone, flow- 
ering in March, a very ornamental plant ; ranunctUtis 
a^uricomuSf goldilocks ; lamiztm amplesica/uley henbit 
dead-nettle; clinopodium viUgare, common basil; 
thlaspi arvenset pennycress ; sist/mbrium sophia^ 
fine-leaved hedge mustards 

In the adjoining ditches, the unproductive ex- 
hausting agrosHs alba^ marsh bent grass } the luxu- 
riant sweet and succulent aira aqtcaticch water hair 
grass, the grass which is supposed to contribute chiefly 
to the sweetness of Cottenham cheese, and the fine- 
ness of Cambridge butter ; sium nodiflorum, pro- 
cumbent water parsnip ; epUobium hirsutunh great 
hairy willow herb; myrrhis temulenta, rough cow 
parsley ; smyrnium olusatrumi Alexanders ; vibumtmi 
opuluSf guelder rose, which, when in bloom, exhibits 



a sin^larly 6De appearance ; mnunculus flammuhtf 
lesser spearwort crowfoot ; mentha hirsuta, hairy 
mint; hypericum quddrangtUttm^ square St. Joha'a 
wort ; sparganiitm ramomm^ branched bur reed.— 
On the walls and dry grounds, veronica arvensis^ wall 
speedwell; valeriaita rubra, red valerian; glyceria 
figidoy hard sweet grass; parietaria qffidmUis, wall 
pellttory ; hedera helis^ ivy ; rumes sctUatuSy Frendi 
or garden sorrel, its leaves are of a gratefully acid 
flavour ; antirrhinum majus, great snap-dragon ; chei^ 
rafOhus JruHcuiosuss wall flower.^ — In the hedges^ 
melica tmiflora^ wood melic grass, a beautiful little 
sylvan plant, and perhaps the earliest of our grasses; 
9Qlamim dulcamara^ woody nightshade or bitter sweety 
flowering in September ; lonicera periclymervum, 
common honeysuckle ; geum urhanum, common 
avens; geranium Robertianumf herb Robert; hy^ 
pericum androscemum, tutsal ; stachys sylvaUca^ 
hedge woundwort; mctasepiumy common bush-vetch; 
—On the road sides and banks, centaurea nigra^ 
black knap-weed; arum maxmlaium, cuckow pint; 
centa/urea scabiosa, greater knap-weed ; orchis pyra^ 
midaliSj pyramidal orchis. 

In the meadow pastures and cultivated fields^ 
veronica serpyUifolia, smooth speedwell; veronica 
agresHe, germander chickweed j^^ta olitoria^ lamVft 
lettuce ; aira ccespiiosOj turfy hair grass, the rough* 
est and coarsest grass that grows in pastures and mea^ 
dows ; chenopodium album, white goosefoot ; che* 
nopodium ficifolivm, fig-leaved goosefoot; hunivm 
flearaomm, pig-nut; orchiz maculatch spotted pahnate 
orchis ; eupl$arbia peptus, petty spurge ; stachys am- 



i^na, ambiguous woundwort. — In the waste grounds, 

veronica hederifoHa^ ivy-leaved speedwell; sagina 

procutnbensy procumbent pearl-wort ; cardutis acmir 

thmdeSy welted thistle; gnaphaUum germarucum^ 

common cudweed ; anthemis cotuloj fetid chamomile ; 

urtica urensj small nettle j atriplex patula, halbert- 

leaved orache j airiplex cmgustifolia^ narrow-leaved 

orache ; reseda luteola^ yellow weed; papaver duhtnm^ 

long smooth^headed poppy ; lamium albmn^ white 

dead nettle ; cochlearia armoraceay horse radish ; 

brassicanapttSj rape; crepis tectorwm^ smooth hawk^s 

beard. — In the watery places and streams, angelica 

^Ivestris^ wild angelica ; allium ursirmm^ ramsons ; 

cnictis palustriSi marsh plume-thistle ; tussUago far- 

Jhra, colt's foot. — In the Bishop of Kildare's woods, 

festuca sylvoHca^ slender wood fescue grass j bromus 

erectusj upright brome grass ; bromus aspert wood 

brome grass ; rumex sanguineus^ red-veined dock. — 

In the adjacent old quarries, convolvulus arvensis^ 

small bind weed ; daticics carota^ wild carrot ; cBgo-^ 

podium podagrariai herb gerarde ; pimpinella saxir 

Jraga^ common bumet saxifrage ; trifolium procum- 

hensj hop trefoil. — In shady places, glechoma hedC' 

racea^ ground ivy. 

In the com fields, brassica campestris^ wild naven ; 
sinapis arvensisy wild mustard ; raphanus rapharm- 
trum^ wild radish ; gcdedpsis tetrahity common hemp- 
nettle. — On the road sides, potentilla reptans, creep- 
ing cinquefoil ; senebiera coronopus^ swine^s cress ; 
cardamine hirsute^ hairy ladies' smock ; sisymbrium 
iriSf London wild rocket, so called, because it was 

2 A 2 


supposed to have been generated about London by tbc 

great fire in 1666; bromus mollis^ soft brome grass, 

the common ofl^pring of bad husbandry and exhausted 

soils ; brormis sterilise barren brome grass ; avena 

pubescensy downy oat grass ; hordeum murinum, 

wall barley, a plant, which, when it intrudes in upland 

grass fields, is most destructive, and the hay in such 

cases is almost rejected by cattle, as the sharp spines 

that constitute the beard attach themselves to the 

mouth of the animal, causing irritation and pain, and 

teaze the beast, instead of nourishing him ; galium 

verum^ yellow bedstraw ; equisetum arvense^ com 

hoi-se-tail ; centaur ea nigra^ black knapweed ; arum 

maculaium^ cuckow pint. — On the banks of the river, 

between Glasnevin and Drumcondra, vinca major ^ 

greater periwinkle : and, on the ditches between this 

and Finglas Bridge, campanula tracheliumj nattle- 

leaved bell flower ; vinca major ^ greater periwinkle ; 

torilis anthriscusy upright hedge parsley ; rubusglan- 

duhsusj glandular bramble. 

At the city side of the village are 


of the Royal Dublin Society, a most interesting ob- 
ject, situated where was once the demesne of Tickell 
the poet, the literary executor of Addison, and who 
came to Ireland as his assistant, when he was secretary 
to the Eari of Sutherland in 1714. In 1725 Tickell 
was himself appointed secretary, an oflBce which he 
filled until his death in 1740. This place was pur- 



chased, subject to a ground rent, for the sum of 
£2000, from his representatives, for the scientific ob- 
jects to which it is devoted. 

The entrance lodges and connecting gates were 
erected by a donation of £700 from Mr. Pleasants, 
and are very handsome. The gardens and their ap- 
pendages occupy a space of thirty acres, the river 
Tolka forming a sweeping boundary at one side. 
They stand on limestone gravel with a very thin co- 
vering of soil, and are enriched with almost every 
known species of flowers, shrubs, trees, and plants^ 
arranged in their proper classes, and also contain a 
curious collection of exotics, preserved in glass-houses 
heated to the temperature of their respective consti- 
tutions. " One of these," says the present able Pro- 
fessor of Botany, Doctor Litton, in a letter which he 
has*communicated on the subject, " has been enlarged, 
and exhibits one of the most beautiful groups of the 
vegetable forms that can be seen. Many valuable 
herbaceous plants,'' he adds, '^ and some beautiful trees 
have recently been introduced into the open ground, 
which, it is hoped, will, in a few years, add as much 
to the scientific value as to the picturesque beauty of 
the garden.'' 

Doctor Wade may be said to have been the foun- 
der of this establishment. He drew up a memorial 
to the Irish parliament, upon which various sums 
have been granted for the object, and acts passed for 
its maintenance and regulation, from the thirtieth to 
the thirty-eighth year of the reign of George the 
Third. Certainly no institution could have been de- 


vised more important, in a medical and agricultural 
view, than this colony of plants and flowers. Its uti- 
lity had been long previously experienced in Sweden^ 
where, with a climate and soil so unfavourable, by 
the philosophy of Linnsus's botanical garden, they 
naturalized a greater variety of trees, shrubs, com, and 
grasses, than has been effected in most of the south- 
em climates. 

<< The plants," says Cromwell, in his excursions 
through Ireland, " are tastefully subdivided into com- 
partments, insulated in green swards, and communica- 
ting by pathways, the intervals being filled with scat- 
tered shrubs, so that, while the most regular classifi- 
cation is actually preserved, and all the series follow 
in such succession, that the most minute can be imme- 
diately found, the whole presents an appearance of 
unstudied yet beautiful confusion." The arrange- 
ment and contents of the entire grounds may be con-- 
ceived from the following detail, as chiefly supplied 
by Doctor Litton. 


divided into plantce herhacecB Bndjmcticetum et or-- 
boretuniy comprising not less than six acres, and situ- 
ated in the centre of the groimds, admirably illustrat- 
ing the system of the great naturalist whose name it 

2. HoRTUs Britannicus. 

affords an extensive collection of plants indigenous 
in the British islands. 




devoted to the experimental cultivation of such plants 
as are adapted to culinary purposes, and subdivided 
into those used for their roots, stalks or leaves, flowers, 
fruit or seeds, or for their leguments or pods. <' This 
department," says Doctor Litton, << has been latterly 
much improved, and an orchard added, containing a 
good collection of the hardy fruit trees, with most of 
their important varieties.** 


containing every plant considered to possess medical 


subdivided into natural and artificial grasses. 

0. Aquarium licustrb bt palustrb, 

a comparatively recent addition. A sheet of water 
200 yards in length, but of irregular breadth, has been 
obtained by excavating the bank of the Tolka, and 
admitting its water into a little pond covered with 
aquatics, as are its swampy shores with marsh plants 
atid heaths. American pines and other natives of a 
transatlantic soil flourish on the banks of this inte- 
resting aquarium, and of another, yet more modem, 
filled by the hydraulic machine hereafter mentioned. 

7. Cryptooamia. 
The results in this division of the garden have not 

300 cbUKTt OF DUBLW* 

been commensuFate with the expectations originally 
formed, although the spot selected, being a bank de* 
scending rapidly to the river, and stadded with high 
trees to an actually gloomy degree, appears as adapted 
to the natural propensities of this tribe of plants, as 
any that could be chosen. 

8. Flowbb Gabdbn, 

not remarkable either for the beauty or variety of it» 

9. Hot Houses and Consbrvatoribs fob Exotics. 

The contents of this department are no less remark-^ 
able for variety than beauty : the Cactus Grandiflora, 
which blows only in the night, and the Domboeia or 
Fine of Norfolk Island, which, in its native soil, at- 
tains the altitude of 200 feet, are, perhaps, the most 
deserving of remark. A dome has been constructed 
round the latter, capable of any degree of elevation to 
which the plant can rise. 

The appearance of the grounds and arrangement 
of the plants have latterly undergone some advantar 
geous alteration. An hydraulic engine has been con- 
structed for raising water from the river for the use 
of the grounds ; many new walks have been formed^ 
and the old reduced so as to afford more space for cul- 
tivation; and rock work has also been formed in many 
parts, for exhibiting the species appropriated to this 
class of stations. A spot, called the Mill Field, on 
the north side of the river Tolka, has been recently 



coBnected with these gardens, partially planted with 
willows as a salicetum, and otherwise employed for 
agricultural purposes. The Professor's house, which 
contuns the hotanical lecture room, and which was 
the residence of Tickell, happily remains unchanged. 
The annual expense of supporting these gardens has 
been stated as varying from £1500 to £2000 per an- 
num, including salaries to the Professor, superintend- 
ant, two assistants, twelve gardeners, six apprentices, 
rent, and casual expenditure for alterations, repturs^ 
the purchase of plants, tools, &;c. &c. 

There is not a scene in the vicinity of Dublin 
more instructively pleasing than this. Even he, who 
is unlearned in the science of botany, must admire the 
beautiful arrangement of the grounds, — the charming 
imdulations, — the fairy glens, — the mounts, — ^the rock 
works appropriately furnished, — the ponds and their 
lovely aquatic occupants, — the fountain, — the river 
walk, terminating in that traditionally marked as Ad- 
dison*s favourite, and where Tickell is said to have 
composed his ballad of Colin and Lucy ; — the clumps 
of venerable elms, — the solemn rookery, — the vistas 
of the city and the bay, and above all the monitory 
watch towers of that adjacent city of the dead, 


And well indeed may the visiter, who treads the 
mazes of its monuments, deem it a city of the dead. 
Already, though only open about four years, it is 
said to contain upwards of 16,000 bodies. It com- 


prises nine British acres, handsomely planted and 
laid out with gravel walks, having in the centre a 
chapel, where prayers are oflfered for the deceased 
there interred, while at each comer of the ground in 
a watdi tower, in which guards are nightly kept to 
prevent the violation of the graves. The Botanic 
Gardens, living with the beauties of the vegetaUe 
creation, and animated by the human groups that fre- 
quent them, form at one side a boundary of such 
striking contrast to this magazine of mortality, as can* 
not but affect the most thoughtless visitant. There 
all is laughing, life, and joyous hope, — ^here lies the 
youth, once happy too, who looked as confidently to 
a sunny future — this world is now closed above him. 
Here the ambition, that possibly in life would have 
wept to be bounded even by the widest speculations, 
is straitened in a narrow sodded pit ; the pride, 
that dazzled in its days of nature, is coldly wrapt in 
the mouldering winding sheet ; the worm is nurtured 
in the cheek whose smile was once so joyfully attrac- 
tive ; the infant, whose lisp was a parent's best prized 
eloquence, lies cradled in the premature embrace of 
death. The lovers, the friends, the relatives that 
worshipped each other through life, now haply slum- 
ber side by side, yet know no reciprocity of feeling, 
no touch of sympathy, no pulse of kindred. If to all 
those natural reflections the visiter superadds the ho- 
liness of solitude and magic of moonlight, they can- 
not fail to inspire the most chastening reflections, and, 
like the wand of the prophet, draw tears from the 
most flinty heart. 


The eflPect of the scene is, however, impaired by 
the arithmetical gradations of the burial compart* 
ment8» which are arranged according to the fees paid, 
and yet more by the letters and figures that mark the 
walls and tombstones, referring the inquirer, as by 
longitude and latitude, to the registry of every indivi- 
dual grave. 

The road here passes over the 


a line of inland navigation, which commences about a 
mile beyond this point. It was constituted under the 
29 Geo. III. c. 33 ; the 30 Geo. IH. c. 20; 32 Geo. 
IIL c. 26; 38 Geo. III. cs. 54 & 79; 43 Geo. III. 
(Loc. & Pers.) c. xxii; 53 Geo. III. c. 101 ; 55 Geo. 
III. c. 182; and 58 Geo. III. c. 35; and, having 
been carried far into the county of Westmeath by the 
original company, was, on their failure, completed to 
the Shannon at the expense of government. Through- 
out its course it is forty-two feet wide at the surface, 
twenty-four at the bottom, and has locks and a depth 
of water calculated for boats of from forty to fifty tons 
burden. At its extremity beyond Phibsborough, there 
is an extensive basin, entered by an aqueduct, for the 
use of the boats trading on the line, while at the en- 
trance of that village, a branch communicates with 
the river Liffey by sea-locks, capable of admitting 
ships of 150 tons burden. 

From the point where these two cuts unite, this 
line of navigation passes inland near Castleknock^ 


Lucan, and Leixlip, and crosses the Rye, one of the 
Liffey*s tributaries, on an aqueduct of one arch, sup- 
porting a yast body of earth, on the summit of which 
the canal and trackways pass at an elevation of near 
100 feet above the river. It next visits Carton, May- 
nooth, and Kilcock, crosses the Boyne on a plain but 
elegant aqueduct of three arches, passes near Kinnc- 
gad, encompasses MuUingar, thence by Coolnahay 
and Ballinacarrig, and in the neighbourhood of Bally- 
mahon, into the Shannon at Tarmonbarry. 

Crossing this canal, and leaving at left a strip of 
land, anciently called << Glasmanogue,'' the tourist 
enters the populous village of 


where is a neat Roman Catholic church, and in the 
floor beneath are schools for children of both sexes. 
A savings'-bank was also established here in 1830. 
The district, strictly called 


succeeds, an ancient townland, now the property of 
the Earl of Rathdown. 

The manor, which is otherwise called that of 
Glasnevin, comprehends a considerable portion of the 
modem city of Dublin. By a return from the Re- 
gister, it is stated to contain to the north of the river 
Liffey, the whole of the wealthy and populous parish 
of St. George, including within it Mountjoy-square 



and several of the adjacent streets, as far as the north 
side of Frederick-street ; Great Britain-street from 
the Rotunda and the north side of Summerhill ; the 
parish of Grange-Gorman, within which are Grange- 
Gorman-lane, Manor-street, Prussia-street, Aughrim- 
street, the village of Phibsborough, which may be 
considered a part of the city itself, and the parish of 
Glasnevin. Its limits are also said to extend over 
the baronies of Coolock and Castleknock, the im- 
portant district of Kingstown, Killiney, Dalkey, Stil- 
lorgan, and other places of minor note as far as Bray, 
all in the barony of Rathdown. The authority, under 
which this jurisdiction is exercised, is stated to be a 
charter granted by King James the First in 1603 to 
the then newly incorporated body, the Dean and 
Chapter of the Cathedral of Christ Church, who are 
lords of the manor of Glasnevin, and of other manors 
within the liberty. 

Grange- Gorman also gives its name to the parish, 
which, as the rectory is impropriate in the preben- 
daries and vicars-choral of Christ Church, ranks as 
curacy in connexion with the city of Dublin, and ex- 
tends, or rather has been assessed to the public charges 
as extending, over 450 Irish acres. The census of 
1831 states its population as 7382 persons, while the 
parliamentary return of 1820 mentions, that "the 
tithes arising out of it are paid to the dean and chap- 
ter of Christ Church, but whether it was ever consi- 
dered as a parish is not known." That body nominate 
the curate, and allocate a salary of £10 per annum 
for the performance of the duties. The Report adds. 


that there are no traces of a church or churchyard 
here ; but the Ecclesiastical Commissioners hare re- 
cently granted £575 5s. 2d. for the erection of a 

In 1178 Archbishop Laurence O'Toole, when confirming the 
possessions of Christ Church, enumerated amongst them the 
Grange of Grange- Gorman and its appurtenances, the wood oi 
Salcock, &€., whidi title, Archbishop Luke about the year 1240 
further ratified. Soon afterwards, Kichard Tyrrel renounced all 
ckdm herein to the fraternity of Christ Church,* and it was, 
thereupon, taxed as four carucates of land, at forty-eight shillings^ 
payable to that community, Glasnevin being distinctly rated at the 
same time, as before-mentioned at that locality. 

At the time of the dissolution, the religious house of St. Wol- 
Stan's was seised of one messuage and fourteen acres of arable 
land here,f which were afterwards granted, with other possessions 
of that house, to Sir John Allen of Allenscourt in the county of 

In 1559 the dean and chapter of Christ Church received a 
royal mandate, directing them to confirm to Francis Agard, the 
manor, place, or farm of Grange-Gorman. His family were ac- 
cordingly, at the commencement of the seventeenth century, found 
seised of this manor, one house, six messuages, and 200 acres, 
stated to have been so granted in the time of Queen Elizabeth to 
Francis Agard in fee, by the dean and chapter of Christ Church, 
Dublin, who had previously acquired same in frankalmoigne.^ 

In 1663 Colonel John Daniel, in consideration of £126, sold 
part of the lands of Grange-Gorman, to be enclosed in the Phoenix 

In the eighteenth century, the principal part of the manor was 
the property of Mr. George Henry Monck, through whom it has 
passed to the present proprietor. 

* Liber Niger, fbl. 92. f Inquis. in Offic Rememb. 

X Tnquiii. in Cane. Hib. 



Grange- Gorman coatribates £40 of its rental to 
the support of the Mue-Coat Hospital. 

In Manor-street» i/vitbin this district, there is a 
Theological Seminary, established by the Irish EvaxH 
gelical Society of London, who allow £200 per an- 
num to the head-master, and £100 to his assistants 
In 1826 it had but seven pupils. 

In this district are also three establishments worthy 
of notice. 

1st. The House of Industry, of which, Wakefield 
justly observes, ^< not merely in name, but in fact, a 
bouse of industry, an asylum for every person willing 
to labour ; that receives a human being a prey to 
idleness, loaded with filth, and friendless, and returns 
the same individual to the world, industrious, clean, 
and healthy." It was instituted in 1773, and smce 
supported by parliamentary annual grants, latterly 
about £20,000. Annexed to the establishment are 
surgical and medical wards, fever hospitals, a lunatic 
asylum, a dispensary, a school &c., covering within 
the whole establishment eleven acres of ground. The 
Institution receives the interest of three valuable le- 
gacies. Baron Vryhoven's £1612 10*. Orf., Thomas 
Barry's £1496 14*. 10(2., and General Lyons's 
£1131 10*. 5d.j all vested in 3^ per cent, goven^ 
ment stock ; while the funds are managed with such 
economy and prudence, that it is calculated the mo- 
* derate sum of £5 annually clothes and maintains each 
individual pauper. 

2nd. The Richmond General Penitentiary, adr 
joining the House of Industry. Its front, towards 


Grange- Gorman -lane, measures 700 feet, and con- 
sists of a centre of considerable breadth, crowned by 
a large pediment, the wings being also of great ex- 
tent. The portals are at a distance from the main 
body of the building, and are connected by high 
curtain walls. There is an extremely handsome 
cupola, containing a clock with four dials, over the 
centre of the front, which is built of a black stone 
quarried in the vicinity of Dublin, the ornamental 
parts are all of mountain granite. The first stone of 
this structure was laid in 1812 by the Duke of Rich- 
mond, then viceroy of Ireland. Its erection cost up- 
wards of £40,000. At the rere, retired from all 
communication, are a number of cells, where the 
culprits are inclosed in solitary confinement on their 
first admission ; if their conduct improves, they are 
gradually removed into other cells more cheerfully 
situated, and where they are permitted to associate. 

3rd. The Female Orphan House, an establish- 
ment instituted in 1790, capable of accommodating 
160 children, and having annexed a very handsome 
Gothic chapel. It has a permanent income by en- 
dowments of nearly £500 per annum, exclusive of 
casual resources, and had, heretofore, parliamentary 
grants to the total amount of £50,414 late Irish cur- 
rency. The number educated and maintained here 
used to be about 150, but the administration of the 
establishment confined its benefits to Protestants. Its • 
average yearly expenditure was in 1812, stated to be 



Repassing through some of the localities of the 
last route, (the villages of Drumcondra and Cross- 
guns), the tourist, by a more frequented northern line 
of road, arrives at a hill which overhangs the village 


TiOolcing from this eminence, at right are seen the 
Botanic Grardens, and the demesne of the Bishop of 
Xildare ; at left, a swelling hill with a tea-house and 
turret; in front the romantic Tolka, winding through 
the depth of the valley, beneath the bridge that gives 
name to the locality ; beyond the river, old quarry 
boles and sand-hills fringed with the ever ornamental 
furze, the woods of Doctor Gregory's Asylum, and 
the little village diffiising upwards its blue, cheerful 
wreaths of curling smoke. On descending and pass- 
ing the bridge, the Tolka is seen tumbling over a 
€all beside the ruins of a cotton-mill and factory, that 
once gave employment to many of this vicinity, until 
•consumed by an accidental fire some years since. 

The river hereabouts affords a species of the lam- 
prey, lampefra Jluviatilfs minora accounted the best 
bait for cod, and which is also found in the Liffey, 

2 B 


likewise the white and yellow trout and the roach ; 
and among the stones and in the banks the river cray- 
fish is frequent; while to the botanist, the vicinity of 
Fingla^-bridge presents alchemilla arvensiSf parsley 
piert ; senebiera coronoptLSj swine*s-cress. — In the 
ditches and hedges, rosa canirm^ dog-rose. — In the 
old quarries, hromus asper, wood-brome ; echium 
vtilgare, common viper's bugloss, whose flowers are 
so grateful to bees ; pimpinella saxifraga^ common 
bumet saxifrage ; arctium lappa^ common burdock j 
myriaphyllum verticillatum^ whorled milfoil ; a variety 
of that elegant little plant, the hriza mediae common 
quaking g^rass with the panicle white. — In the adja- 
cent waste grounds, hromus sterilis, barren brome- 
grass ; cochlearia armoraceth horse-radish. — On the 
rpofs of houses,, sempervivum tectorumi house leek ; 
crepis tectorumi smooth hawkVbeard. — In the moist 
fields, cnicus palustrisy marsh plume*thistle ; and ia 
the sand-pits, carex htrta, hair-sedge. Lands abou^ 
this locality are let at from £5 to £10 per acre. 

A road cut through sand-hills conducts hence tQ 
the picturesquely situated village of 


|. popularly celebrated as the sc^ie of the May gauev 

^ for the citizens of Dublin. > 

1 The p^ish church here is a [^ain, but neat stroo 

1^ ture, on an eminence commanding a fine prospect. 

I It contains some interesting ancient memorials } a 

mural skb to Colonel Robert Kidges^ who died m 



1675, and was here Interred, details the deaths and 
places of Interment of his eight sons and two daugh* 
ters. Near It Is a black marble slab to the family of 
Settle, and their descendants from 1650. On the 
opposite wall, a monument commemorates Doctor 
Richard Challoner Cobbe, Treasurer of St. Patrick's^ 
who died in 1767- Close to It Is another to Captain 
William Flower, who died In 1681, having served In 
Ulster under the Earl of Granard, at the time that 
the Duke of Monmouth's rebellion was raging in 
Scotland. It also records some descendants of his 
name. Beside the communion-table, on the Moor, is 
a flat flagstone to Sir Daniel Tresswell, Knight, who 
died In 1670, having served both the Kings Charles^ 
This monument states that it was erected by Dame 
Heme, his relict, daughter of Sir Thomas Flowden 
of Plowden Hall in Shropshire. At its foot is a yet 
older stone to Richard Plowden Tresswell, who died 
in 1612, while, under the communion-table, are flat 
tombstones of very ancient date to the families of 
Bagshaw and Ryves. 

In the churchyard is the ruin of a stone cross of 
granite, being with its present pedestal about ten feet 
high. Near it is an enclosed monument to John 
Pockllngton, Esq., once second Baron of the Irish 
Exchequer, who died in 1731 ; also, an old monu^ 
ment of the Esdalls (Isdalls) from 1728, and a hand- 
some sarcophagus to Mr* Long, formerly of Mary* 

Near the church is a glebe-house, with 16a, 3r. 
IOp. of glebe-land adjoining for the vicar, and 20a. 

2 b2 




for the rector. The latter endowment, however, does 
not appear to be enjoyed. 

There is also a small, neat Roman Catholic church 
in the village. The parish charity-school is supported 
by the interest of money bequeathed to it at various 
times, and reported in 18 12 as amounting to about £20 
per annum. There are also two national schools here, 
to which the Board contributes £10 per annum. 
Their number of* pupils in 1834 was 121, 

Here are likewise two lunatic asylums, with gar- 
dens and pleasure-grounds attached to each,— Dr. 
Harty*s, which in 1829 had twenty-two patients; and 
Dr. Duncan's, reported at the same time as having 
forty-two. Near the village is a spa, formerly cele- 
brated for its sanative virtues, and assimilated by Dr. 
Kutty, in his classification, to that of Malvern. It is 
now, however, wholly neglected. It was originally 
dedicated as a holy well to St. Patrick. Near this, 
it may be remarked, sulphate of magnesia occurs 
efflorescent in fine fibres. 

The parish of Finglas comprises 4696a. 2r. 26p., 
and a population, returned in 1831 as2110 persons. 
The rectory appertains to the chancellorship of St 
Patrick's, and includes the chapelries of St. Marga- 
ret's, Artane, and the Ward, the rectorial tithes of the 
whole producing £481 5^. Sd., while the vicarage^ 
linited with the curacy of Ballycoolane, is in the gift 
of the metropolitan. The Roman Catholic union com- 
prises Finglas, St. Margaret's, and the Ward. The 
principal proprietors of the fee in the parish are the 
Archbishop of Dublin, Sir Compton Domville, Mr. 



Hamilton, Sir R. Gore, Messrs. Arthur, Scgrave,- 
White, &c. Rent varies from £3 to £5, while a cabin 
without land produces from £3 to £4 per annum. 

An abbey was founded very early in tbis Tillage, possibly by 
St. Patrick, wbo, having passed from Meatb to Finglas, ascended 
a hill and, looking down upon the village of Dublin, is reported by 
his biographers to have blessed it and prophesied, that, although 
then but a small village, it should one day be a city of wealth, and 
advanced to be the metropolis of the kingdom. The abbey, how- 
ever, was dedicated to St. Canice, whose festival was kept here od 
tfee 11th of October, and a memoir of his life, as Primate Usher 
states, long preserved in this church. St. Canice was one of 
the disciples of the celebrated Stt Finian at Clonard, was inti- 
mately connected by holy friendship with St. Columbkille, whom 
lie often vbited in the island of lona, and was himself the founder 
ef many religious establishments. Finglas was long subsequently 
a rural bbhopric, and its dignitary indifferently styled Bishop or 

In 758 died Faolcha, Abbot of Finglas.* In 786 died Con- 
€omrac, Bishop of Finglas.f In 795 died Dhullitter its abbot.} 
In 807 died Flan Mac Kelly, an anachorite, a scribe, and Bishop of 
Finglas. In 814 died Fergus of Rathlurg, its abbot. In 820- 
died the Abbot Cuimneach. In 837 Bran died, Bishop of Fin- 
glas, as did Robert in 865. In 1011 died the Abbot Cian, and 
m 1038 the Abbot Cairbe O'Connellan, died at Rome. The An- 
nals of the Four Masters record the deaths of various other abbots 
or bbhops of Finglas. 

In 1171 Finglas was the chief scene of action on the occasion 
ef the ineffective siege which Roderic O'Conor laid to Dublin, an 
event more particularly detailed at that period in the << Memoirs 
of the Archbishops of Dublin." 

Soon afterwards a most wanton and impolitic violation was 
perpetrated here, by a group of English archers, who had the te- 
merity to cut down some of the beeches and yew trees, which St. 
Ganice himself had planted in its long-revered and holy ground. 

• Annals of the Four Masters. 




So sacrilegious did the act appear^ even to the inyaders them- 
selves, that Camhrensisy ^rho relates the circumstance, attributes 
to it the visitation of a plague, which swept away not only the im- 
mediate offenders but many of the other English forces. There 
are sUlI, however, some of the descendants of these consecrated 
trees in the graveyard. The sombre appearance of its immortal 
foliage well adapted it for these hallowed enclosures, where like* 
wise its baneful properties were not likely to be communicated to 
the browsing herd. 

It b impossible to look upon this dark evergreen without re- 
flecting, that it was once the great armoury of battle and death* 
It was by their bows of yew the English won Crescy, Poictiers, and 
Agincourt. It was by these the adventurers of Henry the Second's 
time prevailed over the natives of our own country ; and, although 
it proved fatal to three BriUsh kings, Harold, William Rufus, and 
Ilichard Coeur de Lion, its cultivation was earnestly enjoined 
and promoted. In Switzerland it is appropriately styled WilUam. 
Tell's tree, in memory of their patriot archer. 

In 1184 the land of Finglas was given by John Earl of Mor- 
ton, afterwards king John, to Robert de St. Michael. It was 
subsequently granted to the see of Dublin, and that grant con- 
firmed by Pope Clement the Third, by King Edward in 1337, 
and by King Richard in 1895. 

In 1191 a Bull of Ifope Celestine the Third enumerates tha 
church of Finglas, amongst the possessions of the newly-erected 
College of St. Patrick, as it had been stated, in a previous Bull 
,!fi of 1179, to be one of the thirteen prebends of Archbishop Co-. 

/| I myn's said establishment. To it were subservient the chapels of 

; I Dunsoghly, Ward, and Artane. 

^ j In 1202 Hugh Hussey granted to Christ Church a parcel of 

I I land, extending from the high road leading to Finglas up to Athu- 

^^ j damas, and about the last place to Arduearnaid as far as the valley 

near Kilmolidoid and so to the Avon-Liffey and Cumoynagal.* 
In 1207 died Maolpeader O'Colman, comorb of Canice. 
In 1216 Pope Innocent the Third confirmed to the see of 
Dublin, (inter (did) Finglas with its appurtenances, and, about thq 

• Regist. of Christ Church. 



igrair ISl^Ardibbhop Henry deLouadres liSsfgned to flw iuppo^t 
of the Chancellor of St* Patrick's Cathedral, the church of Fin- 
'^las, at that time the prei>end of Itaster Thomas de Castello, who 
was nominated by him the first chancellor of that establishment, 
sfrom which period to the seventeenth century this church con- 
'^ued to be the chancellor's prebend. 

' In 1235 the priory or rather cell of Casdekoock, for such It 
cwa% dependant upon the priory of little Malvern, contested With 
•the canons of St. Patrick's the tithes of the land lying between 
the river Tolka and the farm of Finglas, which, they alleged be- 
i6tiged to the parUi of Castleknbok. The matter was compro- 
mised on the interference of the Archbishop, and with the consent 
^ the Prior of liule Malvern.* For a notice in 1227, see the 
i^* Memoirs of the Archbishops of Dublin/* 

In 1240 Archbishop Luke confirmed to Chriet Chutch 60a. 
of land near Finglas, and aftioiit the same time granted te<<the 
men of Finglas" 138a. and three stangs of land as surveyed, and 
stated to be held in freehold under the see, at the yearly rent of 
S4 14r. 7d. and certain dues of wai. 

In 1271 Fnlk de Sandford, Archbishop of DobKn, died in his 
manor of Finglas, and was buried in the diapel of the Blessed Vir- 
gin in St. Patrick's Cathedral. 

In ld26 an inquisition was taken as to the extent of the manor 
<^ Finglas. At the close of this century a bnmdi of the Barrett 
iuaily was settled here. 

In 1860 John de KarkU, clerk, had leave to absent htmsetf 
^om Ireland, and receive, notwithstanding, the full revenues of 
the chancellorship of St. Patrick's, and the prebend of Finglas 
annexed, the prebend of Slievecolter in the cathedral of Ferns, 
the prebend of 0%n in the cathedral of Limerick, the wwdship 
and marrii^ of Ralph the son of Maurice, Baron of Bnrnchurol^ 
the farming of the deanery of Dublin, and of the prebend of Crofr^ 
patridcy with the church of Rosclare and the chapelry of Bally- 
more annexed*! No small accumulation of church preferments* 
For a notice in 1403, see ante at << Portane." 

In 1416 the celebrated hero John Talbot, Lord Furnival, 

• Dign. Dec I 22, &c. 

t Rot. Pat. in Cane. Hib. 



Lord Justice of Ireland, h^ a residence liere, where; in thd same 
year, he << had a son bom unto hiniy who, on the day of St. Law- 
rence the martyr, departed this life, and was buried in the choir 
of the Friars' Preachers Church in Dublin."* 

In 1511 Walter Fitzsimons, Archbishop of Dublin, afterwards 
Lord Chancellor and Deputy Lieutenant of Ireland, died here,t 
and was honourably interred in the nave of St. Patrick's Cathe- 
dral. Soon afterwards the Repertorium Viride of Archbishop 
Allen states Finglas, to be a prebend annexed to the chancellor- 
ship of St. Patrick's. 

An inquisition of 1547 defines the extent and value of the 
rectory of Finglas, its demesne lands, fortress, &c« 

In 1567 the Reverend Samuel Mason, a Roman Catholic cler- 
gyman, who had previously read his recantation in Christ Church 
before Sir Henry Sydney, was preferred to this living by Arch- 
bishop Loftns. He died in 1566, and was buried in this church- 

In 1577 Nicholas Dillon of Cappock died seised of 120a. in 
Finglas.} The rectory was subsequently held by Archbishop 
Loftus, in commendam, until in 1611 he conferred it on James 
Usher, with the chancellorship of St. Patrick's, notwithstanding 
that the right of presentation to Finglas devolved upon the kii^, 
jure devoluto and by reason of his royal prerogative, on account 
of the vacancy occurring during the said commendam.§ The re- 
gal visitation of 1615 also states thb church to be of the cofps of 
the chancellorship of St. Patrick's, that James Usher was then its 
rector, and Matthew Lee curate, and that the church and chan- 
cel were in good repur. 

In 1621 a vicar was endowed at Finglas by the cel^rated 
James Usher, at that time chancellor of St. Patrick's Cathedral, 
who resigned the castle, the glebe, and an adequate portion of the 
tithes, to serve as a maintenance for him and his successors* 

In 1622 the king presented Jenkin Mayes to the deanery of 

• Marleburgb*8 Chronicle. 

t Borlase's Reduction of Ireland, p. 92. 

t Inqub. in Cane. Hib. 

$ Rot Pat. in Cane Hib. 



S{. Canice, with the chancellorship of St. Patrick's, Dublin, and 
the rectory of Finglas. 

In 1641 a party of the confederates of the Pale, stationed here, 
%as attacked and beaten by Colonel Crawford. 

In 1649, while the Marquis of Ormond was encamped here, 
previous to the fatal action at Rathmines, he received intelligence 
that Jones had detached most of his horse to Drogheda» a move- 
ment which, by cutting off his provisions, would have reduced his 
army to extreme distress. Lord Inchequin was thereupon in- 
stantly sent in pursuit of them with a strong body of cavalry;, he 
surprised and routed the party, laid siege to Drogheda, and soon 
compelled its surrender. Having further intelligence of a body 
of horse and foot employed to escort some ammunition to Owen 
CNeiU, he attacked and routed the horse, cut off the infantry, 
invested Dundalk, which Monk was forced by his own soldiers to 
surrender, and, having reduced some less considerable garrisons^ 
teturned triumphantly to the camp at Finglas. Hence it was, 
that, in the confidence generated by these successes, on the 18th 
of July, a fortnight before his utter defeat at Rathmines, he 
wrote to the king a letter, wherein, alluding to his projected attack 
on Dublin, he said, << that which only threatens any rub to our 
success is our wants, which have been and are such, that soldiers 
have actually starved by their arms, and many of less constancy 
have run home ; many of the foot are weak, yet I despair not to 
be able to keep them together and strong enough to reduce 
Dublin, if good supplies of all sorts come not speedily to relieve it. 
I am confident I can persuade one-half of this army to starve out- 
right, and I shall venture far upon it, rather than give up a game 
so fair on our side and so hard to be recovered if given over."* 
In the same year, when Cromwell's army was proceeding to the 
siege of Drogheda, they passed through Finghis, and it is reported 
that, according to their iconoclast principle, when they saw the 
ancient cross here, they overturned it and cast it into a pit, where 
it remained buried, until a fortuitous circumstance brought it again 
to light in 1816. 

A return of 1660 defines the extent of this parish and its 

Carte's Orig. Pap. vol. ii. p. 389. 


tithes. In 1666 J(^n Arthur died seised of 24^. here> iwfbidi he 
held of the king in free and common soccage. In the same year 
Sir Timothy Tyrrel had a grant of all the interest of William 
Hewlett, attainted, (whidi was saved to said Sir Timothy by the 
Act of Settlement,) in certain lands in the parish of Finglas, &c. 
bounded on the north by the town of Finglas; on the east by 
DiUon*s and Sir Robert Perth's lands; on the south by the Wood 
of Finglas; and on the west by Solomon's Field, Lord's Leisure, 
and the twenty acres in Phillips's holding, containing in all 79ai 
Sb., SOp., subject to a certain rent which has never been paid, while, 
on the expiration of Hewlett's interest which was for years, the lands 
should have reverted to the original proprietors. Sir Timothy 
was also seised of twenty acres in the << Much Green" of Finglas, 
which he held under the See of Dublin. In the same year the 
Archbishop of Dublin had a grant of ten acres plantation measure 
here, with various other townlands in augmentation of his see. 

At Finglas Wood, near the Tolka, is a house now occupied 
by Mr. Savage, one of the many where tradition says King James 
slept on the night of his retreat from the Boyne. King William 
afterwards encamped here, and hence ** On Sunday, the 6th of 
July," says Story, " he made his triumphant entry into Dublin 
from his camp, and proceeded to St. Patrick's Cathedral, attended 
by the bishops, where he heard prayers and a sermon, preached 
by Dean King, on the power and wisdom of the providence of 
God in protecting his people and defeating their enemies ; he 
afterwards returned to the camp to dinner." On the 7th and 
8th of July he reviewed his forces on horseback, << seeing each 
regiment march by him, inquiring the officers' names, and what 
other things concerning them he thought fit ; the commissaries 
taking an exact list of all the private men, both horse and foot, 
that i^peared in the ranks, when the numbers were calculated as 
22,579 foot, 7,751 horse, and 483 officers." 

In 1694 the king presented Dillon Ashe to the vicarage of 
Finglas. In 1697 the Reverend Bartholomew Scally was returned 
as Parish Priest of Finglas, St. Margaret's, and the Ward* About 
the same time Sir Daniel Bellingham, first Lord Mayor of the 
City of Dublin, granted lands in this parish, then of the value of 
about £60 per annum, and in 1764 considered worth £200 per 



annuiDy for the relief of poor debtors in the city and four-courts 
marshalseasi and Tested the same in the clerk of the crown, and 
one of the six clerks in chancery as trustees for that purpose. 
This laudable object, however, was never enforcedi and the heirs 
of the trustees have appropriated the property. 

In 1710 the celebrated Joseph AdcUson, then Secretary of 
State in Ireland, wrote to Dean Swift : << I am now just come 
from Finglas, where I have been drinking your health, and talking 
of you with one who loves and admires you better than any man 
in the world, except your humble servant." The passage is only 
cited to shew how firmly that good man, in his official situation, 
refused to resign his acquaintainceship with the Dean, and continued 
to him his accustomed friendship throughout all the storms of 
political revolution. 

In 1716 the celebrated Thomas Parnel was vicar of Finglasi 
<* This preferment," says Mr, Brewer, « should have been pecu-. 
liarly desirable from its contiguity, as a place of residence, to Glas- 
nevin, the favoured abode and resort of his literary friends ; but 
Pamd removed to Fioglas in the clouded evening of his brief 
life, and brooded in his retirement over the agonies of a breaking, 

In 1722 the king presented Robert Howard to this vicarage, 
with the precentorship of Christ Church pro hdc vice. In 1726 
James Stopford obtained this vicarage on the same presenlatioui 
and was himself succeded in 1754 by Robert Caulfield. 

In 1769 Charles Davis bequeathed £6 per annum to the cha? 
rity school here, and the residue of his property to the charter 
school corporation. 

In 1810 Charles Frizell, Esq. of HoUes-street, Dublin, be- 
queathed £200, in trust to apply the interest annually for the 
poor of this parish, towards buying bread to be distributed every 
Sunday by the minister and churchwardens. Lands were also 
left at a more remote period for charitable purposes here, but of 
which no account can now be attained. 

At Finglas, in the botanic department, may be 
found scandix pecten Veneris^ shepherd's needle; 
hunium flexuosum^ pig-wort j stum nodiflorum^ pro- 




4 ' 


cumbent water parsnip ; heraclevm sphondylium^ 
cow parsnip ; narcissics Uflorus^ pale narcissus ; 
allium vineale, crow garlic, which communicates a 
rank taste to milk and butter ; rumex acetoselkh 
sheep's sorrel ; colchicum autumnale^ meadow saffron, 
whose roots are poisonous ; hordeum pratense^ mea- 
dow barley; scabiosa sticcisa, devil's bit scabious; 
gallium verum, yellow bedstraw, witli which the best 
Cheshire cheese is said to be prepared; mt/osotis 
nrvensis, field scorpion grass ; primula elatior^ ox- 
lip ; primula veris^ cowslip ; lysim/ichia nemorumy 
yellow pimpernel ; anagallis arvensis^ common scarlet 
pimpernel ; convolvulus sepium^ great bind-weed ; 
viola tricolor 9 pansy violet ; chenopodium bonus Hen- 
rictiSf mercury goosefoot ; chenopodium album, white 
goosefoot ; spircBa ulmaria, meadow sweet, yielding 
certainly a sweet but an oppressive fragrance ; rosa 
arvensis, white trailing dog-rose ; ruhtis corj/li/olius, 
hazel-leaved bramble ; papaver dubium, long smooth*, 
headed poppy; tfdaspi arvense, penny cress; senebiera 
coronopuSf swine's cress; cardamine hirsuta, hairy 
ladies' smock ; raphanus raphanistrum, wild radish ; 
geranium Pt/renatcum, mountain crane's bill ; ulea; 
SuropcBics, common furze ; lotus corniculatuSf com- 
mon bird's-foot trefoil ; senecio tenui/olius, hoary 
ragwort ; euphorbia peplus, petty spurge ; euphorbia 
exigua, dwarf spurge ; alchemilla vulgaris, ladies' 

On the ditches, banks, and road sides, epilobium 
hirsutum, great hairy willow herb ; polygonum per- 
stearin, spotted persicaria ; stellaria uliginosa, bog 



stichwort ; sanicula Europcea, wood sanicle, which in 
ancient pharmacy was supposed to possess the qualities 
of the balsam of Fierabras, and was used in '< potions 
which are called vulnerary potions, or wound drinks, 
which make whole and sound all inward wounds and 
outward hurts :" experience, however, has impaired its 
ancient credit ; viola odorata, sweet violet ; torilis 
anthriscus, upright hedge parsley ; ranunciUus flafn* 
mulaj lesser spearwort crowfoot; mentha hirmta^ 
hairy mint ; hedysarum onohrichis^ saintfom ; orchu 
pt/ramidaltSf pyramidal orchis ; scolopendrium vulr 
gare, common hart*s-tongue ; centaurea nigra^ black 
knapweed ; arum inaculatum^ cuckow pint. — In the 
hedges and woods, solafivm dulcamara^ woody night- 
shade, bitter sweet j polygonum convolvtUus, black 
bindweed ; pyrus melius, wild apple-tree ; rtibtes 
glandulosttSi glandular bramble ; stachys sylvaticay 
hedge woundwort ; geranium Robertianum^ herb 
Robert ; vicia septum^ common bush- vetch ; bromus 
erectus, upright brome grass, whose seeds are a fa- 
vourite food with pheasants. — On old walls, glyceria 
rigidoj hard sweet grass ; parietaria officinalis, wall 
pellitory; hedera helix, ivy; cheirantlms Jruticulo^ 
8US, wall-flower ; sedum reflexum, crooked yellow 
stone crop. 

In the quarry-holes, daucus carota, wild carrot ; 
pastinaca saliva, wild parsnip ; chlora perfoliata, 
perfoliate yellow-wort j geranium dissectum,jvigged' 
leaved crane's bill ; cfiara vulgaris, common chara ; 
agrostis vulgaris, fine bent grass, with its pale green 
leaves and highly coloured flowers ; scabiosa arvensis. 


field scabious ; potamogetan pusilhim, small pond-* 
weed ; lithospermum officinale j common gromwell ; 
convolvtilus arvensis, small bindweed ; polygala vul- 
garis, milk-wort; anthyUis vulneraria^ kidney-vetch; 
lathyrtis pratensis, yellow meadow vetchling ; vicia 
cracca^ tufted vetch j trifolium officinale, melilot, an 
injurious plant in com fields ; hypericum perforatum, 
perforated St. John's wort ; apargia 'hirta, deficient 
hawkbit; apargia atUumnaJis, autumnal hawkbit; 
hieracium piloseUa, common mouse-ear hawkweed ; 
carduris acanthoides, welted thistle ; carlina vulgaris, 
common carline thistle ; sparganium simplex, un- 
branched bur-reed ; erigeron acre, blue flea-bane ; 
tussilago farfara, colt's foot ; centaurea scabiosa^ 
greater knapweed ; typha latifolia, great reed mace, 
whose roots are sometimes eaten in salads, while the 
down of the amentum is used to stuff cushions and 
mattresses, and with the leaves the Swedish coopers 
bind the hoops of their casks. 

In the neighbouring rivulets and streams, angelica 
syhedris, wild angelica. — ^In the moist fields and 
marshy grounds, lychnis flos cuculi, ragged Robin ; 
sium angustifolium, narrow-leaved water parsnip; 
hypericum quadrangulum, square St. John's wort ; 
hypericum perforatum, perforated St. John s wort.— 
t In the waste grounds, reseda luteola, yellow weed ; 

y lamiztm album, white dead nettle ; lamium amplexi* 

l-j caule, henbit dead nettle ; cochlearia armmacea^ 

^ horse radish ; hrassica napus, rape ; geranium ro- 

|i tundifolium, round-leaved crane's bill ; fumaria offir 

cinalis, common fumitory ; fumaria capreolata. 



climbing fumitory ; trifoUum filiforme^ slender yel- 
low trefoil; carduus acanthoides^ welted thistle; 
gnaphaJium germanicum^ common cudweed ; arUhe- 
mig cotulay fetid chamomile ; urtica urens, small 
nettle ; atriplea; patula^ halbert-leaved orache ; obi- 
plex angustifolia, narrow-leaved orache ; crepis tec- 
torum^ smooth hawk*s-beard. — In the shady places^ 
glechoma hederacedy ground ivy. — In the meadows, 
orchis maeulata, spotted palmate orchis : and in the 
com fields, galeopsis tetrahit^ common hemp-nettle ; 
brassica campestrisy wild naven ; sinapis arvensis, 
wild mustard ; sinapis alba^ white mustard ; chrysan- 
themum segetumf com marigold. 

Proceeding up the hill on the Ashbourne road, 
out of Finglas, an interesting retrospective view ex- 
hibits the little village straggling down into the valley, 
the May-pole, round which so many happy groups 
have frolicked, beyond it the metropolis, now invested 
with the completion of St. Patrick's prophecy, and, in 
the remote perspective, the mountains of Dublin and 
Wicklow. The present road thence is dreary into 
Ashbourne. A turn, however, at right leads by the 
legitimate old winding highway to the Red Lion, a 
locality, which from its name was, it may be pre- 
sumed, the dernier resort in former times of perilous 
travel, for those who found themselves at even-fall 
too near the Santry woods. At right of Red Lion is 
the townland of 

Which in 1478 wm discharged from all subsidies to the state, 



jOn the petition of the abbot of St. Mary's abbey,* who appear* 
by inquisition of 1550, to have been seised of a messuage with a 
dove-house, garden, haggard, ninety-eight acres of land, and an 
ash-grove therein. The tithes of Dubber were subsequently 
farmed out by the Lords Lieutenant as part of the royal revenue. 
For a notice in 1582, see '' Dunsoghly." In 1611 Sir Chris- 
topher Plunkett passed patent for the temporal land in Dubber, 
one castle, six messuages, and eighty acres, ten acres near Finglas- 
Bridge in St. Canice's parish, all the lands in Balrothery Late in 
the tenure of John Savage, deceased, &c"f 

A Wide plain extends at left between this road 
and the Dublin mountains, and presently, before en- 
.tering St. Margaret's, appears at left, on a road which 
crosses the Ashbourne highway and leads to Mal- 
laghiddart, the fine old castle of 


an extensive central square, with four projecting 
square, angular towers, one occupied by winding 
stairs, the others carved into small apartments, the 
.windows being all square and spacious. 

On entering the central part, a large vaulted 
kitchen presents itself, into which a comparatively 
jnodem entrance has been quarried, a flight of twenty- 
three steps leads thence to the drawing-room, a spa- 
cious wainscotted apartment, with some old family 
portraits surrounding the walls, powerfully reminding 
the spectator of the time, when the spirit of mirth 
presided in that baronial apartment, when the fire 
roared through the tunnel of its chimney, and the 

• King's MSS. p. 378. t Inquis. in Cane. Hib. 



strong ales and the Gascon wines were lavishly dis- 
pensed, while noble gentlemen, long since departed 
from the stage, and many, whose names have been trans- 
mitted with the associations of historic interest, sported 
with their ladies-loves, and the harper alternately won 
tieir willing ears to songs of bold achievement, or 
the lighter gaiety of dancing measures. A flight of 
twenty-one fine stone steps conducts thence to the se- 
cond floor, and a third of twenty-three steps to where 
the third floor should be, but it has been removed, 
while, above it a further flight of ten steps ascends to 
a watch-tower springing from the roof. The view 
thence is inconceivably extensive. The church of 
Screen, the mill of Garristown, the hills of Mulla- 
how, Hollywood, the Man of War, the castle of Bal- 
dungan, the shores and vicinity of Lough Shinny, 
Lambay, Ireland's Eye, Howth, Bray-head, the Sugar 
Loafs, the Dublin mountains, the plains of Kildare 
succeed in the circuit of the extensive panorama, 
while, in the intermediate and inner scope, St. Mar- 
garet's and its ruins, Santry and its woods, Dublin 
enveloped in haze, and other innumerable objects 
present themselves. The ^^ dun" in this denomina- 
tion evinces, by the undying memorial of a name, 
that a fortress existed here, in times of even more re- 
mote antiquity than the settlement of the Plunketts 
upon it. The present castle is the property of Mrs. 
Kavanagh, one of the descendants and co-heiresses of 
Sir John Flunkett. Adjoining it is the old family 
chapel, a small edifice with an old arched doorway, 
over which a curious slab is inserted, representing 




the Cross, ladder, nails, ropes, and other accompani- 
ments of the Crucifixion, admirably carved in alto- 
relievo, and below them the letters, " J. P. M. D. 
D. S. (i. e. Joannes Plunkett Miles de Dun-Soghly), 

In 1422 the King granted to Henry Stanyhurst, the custody 
of all the messuages &c., which had belonged to John Finglas of 
Dunsoghly, in the counties of Dublin or Meath, to hold during 
the minority of the heir of said John, rent free.* 

In 1424 Roger Finglas was relieved from all arrears of crown 
rent, due by him out of the lands and tenements of Dunsoghly 
and Oughtermoy.'f Soon afterwards, this place passed into the 
possession of Sir Rowland Plunkett, the youngest son of Sir 
Christopher Plunkett, Baron of Killeen, and Lord Deputy of Ire- 
land in 1432. 

In 1446 Sir Rowland Plunkett of Dunsoghly Castle, was ap- 
pointed Chief Justice of the King's Bench, and, at the commence- 
ment of the reign of King Henry the Eighth, his son Sir Thomas 
Plunkett was appointed Chief Justice of the Common Pleas. la 
1559 Sir John Plunkett of Dunsoghly, the grandson of this Sir 
Thomas, was Chief Justice of the Queen's Bench, and died in 
1582 seised of the manors of Dunsoghly and Oughtermoy, 120 
acres ; eighty acres in Harristown, Corbally, Donore, and Merry- 
gall ; eighty acres in Dubber ; twenty acres in Porterstown ; 
thirty acres in Balrothery and Fowkestown, kc.X He held the 
manors of Dunsoghly and Oughtermoy from the Archbishop of 
Dublin by fealty. 

In 1641 Colonel Richard Plunkett of Dunsoghly, was an 
active adherent of the lords of the Pale, and one of those for 
whose head the Lords Justices and Council offered a reward of 
£400. In 1666 the House of Commons, taking into consideration 
" the great sufferings of Sir Henry Tichboume by the late rebel- 
lion, and his many great services," and considering that by the 

• Rot in Dom. Cap. Westm. 
\ Inquis. in Cane. Hib, 

t lb. 



act for taking away the Court of Wards aod Liveries, the said 
Sir Henry was deprived of the benefit of the wardship of Nidiolas 
Plunkett of Dunsoghly, " which was given him by his late majesty, 
towards a compensation for his losses by and services agunst the 
said rebels, for which wardship he gave a considerable fine to his 
majesty, and underwent other expenses concerning the same i" the 
CoDUDonSy therefore, voted him a sum of £2000 as a gift in lieu 
of the said wardship, &c., same to be paid out of the revenue of 
hearth-money. This Nicholas (it is said) was the author of « A 
faithful History of the Rebellion and Civil Wars in Ireland, from its 
beginning in the year 1641 to its conclusion, with an introductory 
accomat of the true state and condkion of that kingdom before the 
year 1641, and the most material passages and actions which since 
that time hath contributed to the calamities it hath undergone,'' 
a work which was long preserved in manuscript by his posterity. 
From him descended the last Nicholas Plunkett of Dunsoghly, 
whose estates, on failure of hb male issue, were divided amongst 
his three daughters, Mrs. Grace of Gracefieldt Mrs. Malone of 
Pallas Park, and Mrs. Donne of Brittas. 

Near the ruins of Dunsoghly the botanist wiH 
find, festuca loUacea, spiked fescue grass, a grass 
which, it is to be remarked, rarely perfects its seed, 
and whose cultivation is consequently inconvenient 
and expensive ; silene injlata, bladder catchfly. The 
natives of Zante eat the boiled leaves of this plant, 
which are said to partake of the flavour of green 
peas. — In an adjoining moor is found, cenanthe pheU 
landrium, fine-leaved water dropwort j and, on the 
way sides, silene nutans^ Nottingham catchfly. 

ST. Margaret's 

next invites attention, with the ruins of the old church, 
which was dedicated to the saint who gives name to 



the village, and was anciently dependant on the church 
of Finglas. These ruins, en wrapt in ivy, are not un- 
interesting, while near them is a fine mausoleum, 
erected in 1746, for Andrew Morgan and his poste- 
rity. His armorials appear in front, in white marble, 
over the entrance, with the motto, " Regalis et fortis 
quamvis eradicata viresco," under which is a slab 
charged with deaths' heads and cross-bones, — angels, 
with the trumpet of resurrection, hour-glasses, deaths 
with scythes, &c. Immediately attached to the church 
is a small chapel, now unroofed, built by Sir John 
Plunkett (before-mentioned at Dunsoghly), in the 
reign of Elizabeth, as a cemetery for his family. The 
architecture of this chapel is mean, though it presents 
a Gothic arched door, with a canopy supported by 
corbel heads, and a number of rude pinnacles and 
small crosses disposed like a battlement on the top of 
the wall. Over the doorway is a square tablet with 
: the inscription, <' Joannes Plunkett de Dunsoghlia 

Miles, Capitalis quondam Justiciarius Regii in Hi- 
bernia banci, hoc struxit sacellum." There is a slab 
inside which records the time of his decease. From 
this little chapel grows out, like a transept, a smaller 
burial-place, now tenanted by a lonely elder tree. 

These small chapels were more usually styled 
chantries, and were endowed for one or more priests, 
on condition of their saying mass and offering prayers 
for the soul of the founder, and such of his ancestors 
or descendants as he might have prescribed in the grant. 
All such gifts, however, and all possessions under 
them were rendered illegal in the time of King 



Edward the Sixth. It may be remarked that Dug- 
dale, in his History of St. Paul's Cathedral, mentions 
no less than forty-seven chantries as belonging to 
that church. 

The churchyard of St. Margaret's has no mo- 
nument worthy of note, unless perhaps one to the 
Hayden family from 1706, and another to that of 
Warren from 1722. 

In the village, at the head of a very small com- 
mon, are situated a plain but commodious Roman 
Catholic chapel, and a school in connexion with the 
National Board, and receiving therefrom for its support 
j£lO annually; near them is the tepid spring formerly 
of such repute. It was dedicated to St. Brigid, and 
enclosed by the above-named Sir John Plunkett with 
a battlemented wall, so as to form a pleasant bath 
six yards long and three broad, still in good preser- 
vation ; but fashion no longer acknowledges " the 
charms that sages had seen in its face ;" and, although 
it is pleased to continue the sparkling ebullitions 
of its medical munificence, the ^quantum sufficiV 
of mouths is no longer there to receive them. The 
temperature of this water is very low, being colder 
than the air in summer, but perceptibly warmer in 
winter, when it raises the thermometer to ST. It is 
said to contain lime, muriate of soda, nitrate of kali, 
and sulphur, but the latter in a much smaller pro- 
portion; a steam rises from it in the winter, and it 
has never been known to freeze. 

The parish of St. Margaret's extends over 2,400a. 
3r. 5p., and was returned in 1831 as containing a 


population of 325 persons. In the Protestant e^:ab' 
lisbment it is a chapelry in the corps of the Chan- 
cellor of St. Patrick's; in the Catholic it is in the 
Union of Finglas. It was more anciently called the 
parish of Donaghnor or Dowanor. Rent here varies 
from £2 to £3 10^. per acre. 

In 1182 Pope Locius confirmed to the Ardibishop of Dublin 
the town of St. Margaret's with its appurtenances, while the 
diapelry, according to Archbish<^ Allen, continued for a long 
time to be a subject of controversy between the saccassive pre** 
lates of Dublin and the Prior of the Hospital of St. John without 

At the close of the fourteenth century a branch of the Tay« 
lor family flourished here. 

An inquisition of 1547 finds the extent and value of its tithea^ 
and that there was also annexed to the rectory a chief rent of 
ISs. 4d, yearly, issuing out of 14a. of land in the tenure of John 
Punkett near the Church of Dowanor. A return of 1660 defines 
the extent of the parish and its tithes, and for a notice in 1697 
see an^tf at ^Fmglas." 

About a mile and a half beyond St. Margaret's 
is the village of 


a chapelry in the Deanery of Swords, united with 
the vicarage of Killsallaghan, and in the gift of the 
king. Its population, according to the census of 
1831, was 335 persons. Rent is here about £2 10^. 
per annum, wages seven shillings per week. 

ThjB church yard crowns a commanding height 
over the village, having in its centre the crypted 
ruins of the old religious edifice thickly matted over 



with ivy, and priesenting at one comer broken traces 
of the steps, that once conducted to a chapel above 
it. The consecrated ground is bordered by ash trees, 
and thickly covered with white thorn, black thorn, 
and elder, that cast a deep dark shade on the human 
soil from which they spring, as if the garish eye of 
day should not intrude upon thi» lonely resting- 

ChqielrMidway W9s from very ancient time a chapelrj annexed 
to the church of Killsallaghany and 13 so reported in the Rega( 
Visitattoa of 1615, which adds that the church was then nearly 
ia ruins. 

For notices in 1540 and 1613, see at " KillsallBghan." In 1673 
the rectories of Chapel-Midway and Killsallaghan were granted 
io the Archbiibop of Dublin and his suoces^rs, in trust for the in- 
cumbent, subject to the annual rent of jCIO 7^. 

A dreary, uninteresting road leads hence to 


where are some remains of a once extensive castle. 
A plain, rustic church is also there, without any mo- 
nument of note either in it or the surrounding grave- 
yards and near it is a glebehouse with a glebe of 
tfairty'-two acres. There is also a school here in coin 
nexion with the National Board, from which it re- 
ceives £10 per annum, the number of its pupils was 
106 m 1834. 

The parish bears the same name, and, though in* 
duded in the obvious course of this excursion, is 
wholly situated within the barony of Castleknock. 
It comprises 2730a. 3r. 37p.» and ranks as a vicarage 



united with the chapelry of Chapel Midway. In 183 1 
its population was returned as 581 persons, of whom 
the Protestants were stated as less than forty. 

A monastery was founded here at an early age, which subse- 
quently became parochial, when the church was dedicated to St. 
David, and in 1197, with the consent of Aubert de Lockhart, the 
proprietor of the soil, was granted to the canons of the abbey 
founded in Dublin in honour of St. Thomas-a-Becket, by whose 
community a vicar was endowed there. 

In 1200, and subsequently, the family of de la Field were 
seised of the lands of Killsallaghan by grant from the crown. See 
" Chapelizod,'* in the year 1200. For a notice of the Cruises' 
possessions here in 1392, see at <<Merrion." In 1412 Thomas, 
the son of Sir John Cruise, was seised of this manor by inheri- 
tance, and so transmitted it to his descendants. 

In 1 536 Patrick White of Killsallaghan had a grant of the office 
of second baron of the exchequer. 

In 1537 an inquisition was taken concerning the possesions of 
its monastery. In 1539 its church was rated to the First Fruits 
at £5 6s,j and in 1540, on the dissolution of monasteries, Henry 
Duff, the last abbot of that of St. Thomas, had a grant of a 
yearly pension of £42, Irish, chargeable on the tithes of the rec- 
tories of Greenock, Killsallaghan, Chapel-Midway, &C., with clause 
of distress, while smaller pensions were similarly charged for other 
members of that establishment. The lands of Stradbally, in this 
parish, then appertained to the religious house of Grace Dieu. 

An inquisition of 1612 finds Philip Hoare seised of the castle, 
manor, town, and lands of Killsallaghan, containing 300a., exdu* 
sive of other adjacent lands, which were so held under the crown 
by knight's service. The document further states, that said Philip 
Hoare and others, the lords of this manor, had from time imme- 
morial held a court baron and a court leet here. All these pre- 
mises were surrendered in the same year to the crown by Hoare, 
who took out a fresh patent thereof^ and died in 1630 ; they were, 
however, forfeited by his heir in the troubles of 1641. 

In 1613 Dudley Norton, Esq., Chief Secretary of State for 
Ireland, had a grant of the rectories and tithes of Killsallaghan 



and Chapel-Midway, parcel of the estate of the monastery of Tho- 
mas Court, and which had been theretofore held under grants 
from Queen Elizabeth to Turlough Mac Cabe and Sir Thomas 
Masterson. For a notice of Killsallaghan in 1615, see at '< Chapel- 
Midway/' and for notices of the exercise of presentation in 1622 
and 1625, see at <« Bahothery." 

In 1641 this place was the station of Lieutenant General 
Byrne, and hither the Earl of Fingal led a party of sixty horse- 
men, and was met by Laurence Dowdall of Athlumney, Patrick 
Segrave of KiUeglan, Patrick Barnewall of Kilbrew, Sir Richard 
Bamewall, Adam Cusack of Trevett, Nicholas Dowdall of Browns- 
town, and divers others. Ormond was thereupon commissioned 
to drive them from this castle. *< His orders were to bum and de- 
stroy their haunts, and to kill all the inhabitants capable of bearing 
arms ; but his proceeding was more moderate, nor were these petty 
excursions deemed, by military men, sufficiently interesting, when 
the gallant forces of Drogheda were surrounded by enemies, and 
exposed to the utmost severities of toil and famine.''* He, how- 
ever, dislodged his opponents from this position, strengthened as 
it was by woods, ditches, barricadoes, and other fastnesses. 

In 1661 the king presented Henry Brereton to thb benefice, 
and in 1666 Sir George Lane Knight passed patent for the manor, 
castle, town, and lands of Killsallaghan, 269a., plantation measure^ 
together with a windmill, six messuages, a court leet and a court 
baron, with 154a., like measure, adjoining thereto. About the 
same time Philip Hoare was one of the signers of the Roman Ca- 
tholic remonstrance. For an important notice of Killsallaghan in 
1673, see at « Chapel-Midway." 

In 1680 Daniel Jackson was vicar on royal presentation, and 
in 1683 Viscount Lanesbrough died seised of the town and lands 
of Castletown and Killsallaghan 569a., in Swords 40a., in Rolles- 
town 5a., and a chief rent out of the manor of Westpalstown, 

In 1697 the Rev. Mr. Scallery was returned as Roman Ca- 
thoUc pastor of half this parish, and the Rev. Mr. Murphy of the 
other moiety. 

* Leland*8 Hist, of Ireland. 

t Inquis. in Cane. Hib. 




Id 1709 the vicarage was filled by Charles Smyth, who was 
succeeded in 1715 by Peter Wybraiits» and he in 1732 by Ed- 
ward Leigh, all on royal presentation* The latter h^ in 1735 a 
grapt, from James Bennett, of ten acres of glebe in Stradbaliy 
within this parish. 

In 1758 the king promoted Philip Yorke to this vicarage, who 
was succeeded in 1768 by Edward Day, he by Henry Parish in 
1770, he by Maurice CoUis in the same yeaj:^ ColUs by Richard 
Straubenee Wolfe in 1801, Wolfe by Thomas Honry Kearney 
in 1808, he by Charies Milley Doyle in 1806, and his successors 
bane been Mr# Gregg and Mr. Perrin the present incumbent. 
; In 1810 the Board of First Fruits lent £768 for the erectioi^ 
ol the church here. 

A beautifully shaded road leads hence to 


where is a sweet seat of Mr. Bourne, intersected by 
a pretty rivulet, and on every side surrounded by 
the shadiest hedged roads. In this demesne is a 
burial ground and some traces of the ancient chapeU 

This edifice was, at a very early age, dedicated to St. Cathe- 
rine, the Virgin and Martyr, and was subservient to the church of 

The history of St. Catherine states that she was born at Alex? 
andria, and endowed with such a capacity, that in the year 305 
she disputed with fifty heathen philosophers, all of whom she 
converted to the true faith. For this offence the Emperor Max- 
entius caused her to be cast into prison ; but, being visited there 
by the empress and one of the principal generals of Maxentius^ 
she converted them also, whereupon the emperor was so enraged', 
that he ordered her to be tortured with four cutting wheels, in 
which were saws of iron, sharp nails, and sharp knives; the wheels 
turned one against another, and thus the saws, knives, and nails 
met. She was so tied to one of the wheels, that the other being 


turned the cooiriury way, her body might be tern in different 
places with the sharp instruments; she was afterwards beheaded. 
The Catherine wheel used for artificial fire works, derived its 
name from the instrument of her martyrdom, beside which she is 
usually represented as standing. St. Catherine being esteemed 
the patroness of learned men, her image is frequently to be seen 
in the Hbraries of the ancients. Her festival is observed on the 
Sdtb of Novemb^* 

In the year 1200 and subsequentfyy this locality was the estate 
«f the fiunily of de la Field, from whom it derives its name. 

In 1821 Nicholas DowdaU, prebendary of Clonmethan, in a 
petition prefeorred by him to parliament, stated, << that diveis per^ 
sons, aliens, strangerSi and denixens, did frequent in considerable 
numbers, by way of pilgrimage, the chapel of St. Catherine the 
Virgin and Martyr of Fieldstown, which was impropriated and 
.annexed to the prebend of Qonmethan, being for the health and 
safety of their souls, and accomplishment of their petitions and 
prayers: and those persona he complained had been repeatedly 
vexed aad molested on divers pretences, by reason of which they 
were obliged to lay aside said devotions and pi^rimages.'^ Paip- 
liament accordingly ordained that the persons and properties of 
'liU such piignms should, during their pilgrimage, be under the 
protection of the king, and that no such person should be arrested 
on any writ or authority whatever, for debt, treason, felony, or 
trespass, until said pilgrimage should be accomplbhed ; provided 
that during their going thither, dwelling there, and returning, they 
did behave peaceably to the king's liege subjects. It was also 
ordained, that any officer who should vex or arrest the person^ 
or molest the houses of such pilgrims contrary to the stiKtuie, 
should forfeit for every such offence the sum of £20.* These 
patrons, however, subsequently rather inducing superstition than 
religion, and leading in licentiousness and riot were very com- 
mendably suppressed. 

In 1479 this property passed from the old proprietors, the de 
la Fields, to Sir Richard BarnewaD, ancestor of the Viscounte 
Klngsland, on his marriage with Catherine de la Field. To his 

• Statute Roll, i4Bdw. IV. 



son Patrick Barnewall of Fieldstown, the Prior of the Abbey of 
Louth granted a pension in 1539 of 13f. 4^. during his life for 
his good services; while the Prior of Great Connal in the county 
of Kildare, gave him an annuity of 40«. for his good counsel given 
and to be given. A considerable portion of this townland re- 
mained in the Barnewall family to a very recent date. 

In 1535 Patrick Barnewall of Fieldstown had a grant of the 
office of sergeant-at-law and solicitor general ; and, in the Act 
of Absentees passed in 1537, there is a special clause that nothing 
therein should be hurtful or prejudicial to Patrick Barnewall of 
Fieldstown, his heirs, &c. in respect to certain lands, which he 
held of << the monastery of the Blessed Lady of Carmel." 

An inquisition of 1546 states the tithes of Fieldstown chapelry 
as payable to the prebendary of Clonraethan, out of the townland 
of Fieldstown, being of the yearly value of £4 Os. 4d. besides al- 
tarages, and £3 6s. Sd, annually arising out of the chapel, assigned 
to the curate there for his stipend. 

The regal visitation of 1615 reports the church of Fieldstown 
impropriate, and the curacy annexed to the church of Clonmethan. 
For a notice of Lord Howth's possessions here in 1619, see at 
" Howth," and of the Bamewalls in 1685, see at " Turvey." Of 
the canal projected from Malahide hither, see antey « Malahide," 
at 1788. 

The Family of de la Field, 

still indissolubly identified with this locality, notwithstanding their 
total estrangement from its possession, were originally derived 
from Alsace, and long resided in the chateau that bears their name, 
situated in a pass of the Vosges mountains, about three days' journey 
from Colmar. They were also lords of considerable possessions in 
Lorraine. The ruins of their castle and its chapel yet remain, and 
afford a picturesque but melancholy memorial of the splendour of 
the Counts of la Field, as styled by du Chesne, who records the 
tributes they claimed, the retinue and hospitality they maintained, 
as well as the difficulties they encountered in the early wars of 
Germany and France, notwithstanding the assistance they received 


from the £&rls of Flanders, and the house of Hapeburg, to both 
of which they were allied by marriage : 

** La croiz d*or de la Feld luisant parmi les. 
En courageuz defi lances des ann^s de la France.** 

A cadet of this noble line came over to England about the 
time of the Conqueror, and, accordingly, Hubert de la Field is 
recorded as a tenant in capite in Buckinghamshire, in the third 
year of the reign of that monarch, as is also John de la Field in 
1109. King John early in his reign granted a considerable estate 
at Streatham in Surrey, which had been the property of Peter 
'< Feald," to William de Rivers, Earl of Devonshire, and in 1253 
John de la Feld intermarried with Elizabeth Fitzwarine,from which 
marriage descended the de la Felds of Field Place in Sussex, as 
also the de la Felds of the above locality of Fieldstown, and in 
right of which marriage, the head of thb sept now claims the title 
of Fitzwarine as a barony in fee. About the year 1270^Ralph de 
Feld granted six acres in Botlowe (Gloucestershire), to the abbey 
of Flaxley, while other members of the family were, at the same 
time, settled in Hertfordshire and Kent. In 1299 Adam de la 
Field was one of the king's valets on service in the castle of Lough- 
maban and in the king's army, for which he received for himself 
and his '< mailed" horse, an allowance of twelve pence per day. 
About the same period, Reginald de la Field was a landed pro- 
prietor in the palatinate of Meath. In 1315 Robert de la Feld was 
keeper of the tallies under the Earl of Warwick. 

In 1344 John, the son of John de la Field, was seised of the 
manor of Skidow in the county of Dublin, and in 1359, was one 
of the three appointed to assess and collect a subsidy over that 
county. In 1373 the sheriff thereof was directed to summon this 
John de la Field amongst others, the chief men of the county, to 
a great council. In 1385 the king, in consideration of the great 
expense which Alexander, Bishop of Ossory, had, while Treasurer 
of Ireland, incurred in Munster and elsewhere, granted to him the 
custody of the estates of John, the son of John de la Field, de- 
ceased, to hold same during the minority of said John's brother 
and heir, Richard de la Field. In 1389 Michael de la Felde was 
Vicar of St. Mary's church of Callan, and Dean of St. Canice's 


cathedral, Kilkenny ; and in 1390 Richard Field was installed one 
of the canons of the ft'ee diapel in Windsor. 

In 1402 Thomas Felde, merchant of Salisbury, petitioned the 
English parliament, stating that he had been plundered of various 
goods and merchandise by the French on the high sea, and pray- 
ing, therefore, letters of marque and reprisal. In the same year 
in Ireland, Walter de la Felde was appointed one of four collectors 
of a subsidy, granted by the commonalty of the county of Dublin^ 
ivhile Thomas de la Feld had a ^milar commission in the barony 
of Duleek ; John de la Feld was at this time seised of Fieldstown^ 
which his daughter and heiress Catherine having inherited, passed 
with her on her marriage with Richard, the son of John Bame* 
wall of Trimlestown, as above-mentioned. 

In 1416 John Felde was one of the knights who served under 
the Duke of Gloucester, at the battle of Agincourt. In 1454 
another of the same name was sheriff of London, became subse- 
quently an alderman thereof, and merchant of the staple of Calais. 
He died in 1474, and has a fine monument erected to his memory 
in the cathedral of Hereford. In 1479 Doctor Field, Warden of 
Winchester, was a considerable benefactor to King's College, 
Cambridge ; and in 1480 one of this family was Master of Fo- 
theringay College, the windows of which he considerably beauti- 
fied, as recorded by Camden. 

In the commencement of the sixteenth century, Patrick de la 
'Field of Painstown intermarried with Elizabeth, the daughter of 
Thomas Cusack of Geraldstown, and granddaughter of the sul- 
teenth baron of Howth. A branch of the Fields was about the 
same time settled at Corduff in the County of Dublin. In 1534 
Captain James' de la Field, chief of the sept, was one of the ad- 
herents of the unfortunate Thomas Fitz-Gerald, and in his cause 
besieged the castle of Dublin ; but the citizens having closed their 
gates, and thus cut off his party from communicating with their 
friends, some of Field's detachment were fain to escape by 
swimming over the river, but the greater number were taken 

About the same time a branch of the Fields was planted at 
Shipley in Yorkshire ; and at the close of this century flourished 
Mr. Field the Puritan, notices of whose writings are preserved in 


Collier's Poetical Decameron, as are some of his letters in the 
Cottonian Manuscripts. In the celebrated conference of 1603, 
between the Presbyterians and the members of the Established 
Church, held at Hampton Court before King James, as modera- 
tor ; Doctor Field was one of the deputed divines of the latter 
side. In consequence of thb meeting, which lasted three days, 
a new translation of the Bible was ordered, and some alterations 
made in the liturgy. In 1616 died Richard Field, Canon of 
Windsor and Dean of Gloucester, he was buried at the former 
phice. In 1620 Dr. Field was Bishop of Landaff. 

In the seventeenth century James de la Field was possessed of 
considerable estates in the County of Monaghan, while members of 
the family flourished at Stanstedbury in Hertfordshire, at Ardes- 
tow in Yorkshire, at Madley in Herefordshire, at Pagan Hall in 
Gloucestershire, at Ashford in Middlesex, as likewise in Hamp- 

In 1664 John de la Field was one of those who petitioned for 
a remuneration to Sir Robert Talbot and others, who had been 
agents for the Roman Catholic nobility and gentry of Ireland, 
such remuneration to be levied off the estates of the restored 
Roman Catholics. A branch of the Field family was then settled 
in Cork, two of whose descendants, John and Richard Field, were 
amongst those att^nted in King James's parliament of 1689, while 
another member established himself in Armagh, of which town 
John Field was sovereign in 1715, 1720, 1724, 1725, and 1728. 

In 1697 John de hi Feld, a descendant of the marriage men- 
tioned at 1253, who had entered the imperial service, acquitted 
himself with distinguished gallantry at the battle of Zenta in 
Hungary, fought by Prince Eugene against the Turks, and was 
thereupon created a Count of the Holy Roman Empire. In the 
records of the ensuing period, various members of the family are 
traced at Islington, at Woodford in Essex, at Kingston-upon-Hull, 
at Camden Hill, Kensington, and in Lancashire. 

From Fieldstown the course of this excursion en- 
ters the parish of 





Otherwise called Ashbourne-rath, and stated in an 
ancient document as comprising the following town- 
lands: * 

Brazeel . . . 
Monat Stewart . 
Newtown Brazeel 
Leys Brazeel . . 
MorganVbush • 
Scattemagh . . 
Kuockbryan and Dromin 


. 100 

. 40 

. 27 

. 50 

. 20 


Killossery 60 

Rath of Killossery . . .172 

Blackhall 40 

Rollestown 240 

Lispobel 820 

Surgotestown 240 

Brackdenstown .... 80 Kuockbrvan and Dromin • 17 
WiUybush 20 

Mention is also made of Caddelstown as appertaining 
thereto, but no account is given of its specific con- 

The rectory being appropriated to the dean and 
chapter of St. Patrick's, and the tithes to its econo- 
my, Killossery ranks as but a curacy in the union 
and deanery of Swords, extending, according to the 
Trigonometrical Survey, over 2731a. Or. 28p. Its 
total population was returned in 1831 as 380 persons, 
of whom 374 are stated to be Roman Catholics.— 
There is a school in the parish to which the National 
Board allows £10 per annum, and which in 1834 was 
attended by 121 pupils. The principal lord of the 
fee is a Mr. Coote resident in Hampshire. 

Within the ivied ruins of its ancient church, 
which was dedicated to St. Brigid,^ is a tombstone 

• Repertortum Viride. 


commemorative * of the Reverend Philip O^ReiUy, 
parish priest of RoUestown in 1789. 

For a notice of Killossery and the origin of the name of Ash- 
bourne, see at << Pickerstown'' in 1859, and for another notice in 
1489, see " Swords" at that year. 

An inquisition of 1547 defines the extent and value of the 
economy's tithes here, which were in 1565 demised for twenty- 
one years, at the annual rent of £13 6s, &d. to Henry Draycot, 
as the tithes personal, predial, and mised, of com and hay from 
the rectory, &c., of Killossery. 

In 1584 Queen Elizabeth granted to EHen and Richard Nu- 
gent of ICilkarne, the lands of ICilmore and other denominations 
containing 240a., the town of Curragh, and a farm in the Rath 
of Killossery 60a., &c., to hold at a certain annual rent. 

At the dose of this century Philip Hoare held of George Ca- 
dell, as of his manor of Cadellstown, four messuages and one ca- 
mcate of land in the town and fields of Killossery, tUias the Rath 
of Eallossery, alias Ashboume-rath, annual value, four shillings, 
also a water-mill and fulling-mill here,* all which premises said 
Philip surrendered to the crown in 1612, and having taken out a 
fresh patent thereof, died seised of the same in 1630. His heir 
was attainted and outlawed for his politics in 1641, but Philip 
Hoare obtained a fresh patent of the same property. For a no- 
tice of the Nugent property here in 1611, see at « Cloghran- 

The regal visitation of 1615 returns this church as then impro- 
priate to the economy of St. Patrick's Cathedral. At which time 
Robert Barnewall of Dunbroe, held two messuages and 50a. here 
from the king, in capite for knight's service.f 

In 1641 Thomas Conran forfeited a moiety of Surgotstown, 
125a. in thisparishy which he held from the Archbishop of Dublin, 
subject to chief rent.} 

In 1666 PhHip Hoare passed patent for (inter alia) 123a., 
plantation measure, in the Rath of Killossery, (Uias Ashboume- 

• Inquis. in Cane. Hib. t lb. X ^^' 



ratby with two water-mills there, &c. For a notice of its tithes^n 
1681, see ante at «< Malahide." 

In 1682 Christopher Fagan died seised in tail male of the 
small tithes of the Rath of Killossery, therein stated to be in the 
Barony of Coolock.* For a notice of the Barnewall possession^ 
here in 1685, see at « Turvey.** In 1697 Edmund Murphy was 
returned as parish priest of Killossery, and resident in Rollestown. 

In 1703 Robert Echlin had a grant of 39a., part of the Rath 
of Killossery, *<the estate of Richard Fagan attainted,** while 
John Asgill passed patent for 158a. in said Rath and in Willy- 
bush, " the estate of Martin Dillon, attainted," subject, however, 
to certain remainders to the Dillon family. 

Hence, crossing a pretty stream, the tourist ar- 
is at 

rives at 


a neat, shady village, adjoining the residence of 
Mr. Stubbs. 

Rollestown and Old-town give their names to the 
Roman Catholic union, which comprises the Protestant 
parishes of Clonmethan and Palmerstown near Green- 
ock, and the greater parts of those of Killossery and 
Killsallaghan. There are Catholic chapels both here 
and at Old-town. The former is a plain, neat edifice, 
adjacent to which is the residence of its rector, sweetly 
situated, and commanding, from the back windows, 
pleasing views of the ruins at Killsallaghan, the mill and 
river of Rollestown, Mr. Stubbs^s improvements, &c. 
A pretty trout stream winds through the valley, in 
whose water the minnow has become very abundant, 
having ascended from the river of Turvey, into which 

* Inquis. in Cane. Hib. 



Mr. Cobbe of New Bridge caused some of this Welch 
bait to be thrown. 

For a notice of the see lands of Rollestown in 1403, see at 
<< Portrane.'' In the time of Archbishop Allen this locality was 
likewbe known by the name of Scacerny. 

At the close of the sixteenth century Thomas Belling was seised 
of one messuage, and five acres in Rollestown, which he held of 
the Archbishop of Dublin by fealty, and in 1683 George Vis- 
count Lanesborough died seised of five acres here, which he held 
of the king in free and common soccage.* 


the next locality, forms a prebend in St. Patrick s 
Cathedral, valued at £638 per annum, and paying 
£5 8s. 1^. to the First Fruits. Its rectory and vi- 
carage were united in 1675 with the vicarages of Palm- 
erstown, Greenock, Westpalstown, Ballymadun, and 
Ballyboghill, but Greenock has been latterly severed 
from the union. The church here is a small, un- 
adorned structure, for the repairs of which the Eccle- 
siastical Commissioners have granted £175 4^. lid. 
It contains no monuments, nor are there any in the 
surrounding graveyard. Near it is the glebe house, 
with 55a. of glebe attached to it. In the adjacent 
Old-town is a plain Roman Catholic chapel, in the 
vestry of which a poor school is kept, which is at- 
tended by about forty children. 

The parish comprises 3027a., 3r., 19p.> in ten 
townlands; the half of this tract belongs to the see of 
Dublin. The population of the whole was returned 

* Inquis. in Cane Hib. 


404 COUNTY OF DUfitm. 

m 1821 as 440, and in 1831 as 677? while a laterre- 
port states that there are not ten Protestants in this 
QQnsus. Rent here varies from £1 5s. to £2 per 

The church here was dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, and 
was one of the thirteen originally granted to St. Patrick's Cathedral 
by the founder. It is called by Allen a sacerdotal prebend, and 
16 pkced by him next after St. Audeon's. To it was subservient 
the chapel of Fieldstown. 

Early in the thirteenth century, the canons of St. Patrick's 
Cathedral were engaged in two controversies with the prior and 
canons of Lanthony near Gloucester, in reference to the prebend 
of Clonmethan. The first concerned the right of burial at Gral- 
kgh, which the former claimed as belonging to said prebend, 
and the latter as appertaining lo the church -of Holl}'woad, of 
which they were rectors. The second difference was about a simi- 
lar right to the burials in the chapel of St. James's, Palmerstown 
near Greenock, which the canons of St. Patrick's claimed as an 
appendage of the prebend of Clonmethan, and the Prior of Lan- 
thony as apppertaining to the church of Garristown. Both mat- 
ters were submitted to the Metropolitan, who determined in the 
former case that the burials of the chapel of Grallagh should 
1}elong to the mother cTiurch of Hollywood, but that the vicar 
should pay four shillings per annum to the Prebendary of Clon. 
methan. In the latter he decided that the chapel of Palmerstown 
near Greenock, with its burials, should belong to the church of 
Grarristown, but that the prior and convent of Lanthony should pay 
to the vicar of that chapel four marks yearly ; the vicar was more- 
over to pay a pension of five shillings yearly, at the feast of St. 
Michael, to the Prebendn'y of Clonmethan, as a full compensation 
for any right he might have to the said burials.* 

In 1216 Pope Innocent the Third confirmed to the see of 
Dublin, amongst other possessions, Clonmethan with its appurte- 
nances. For a notice in 1227, see << Memoirs of the Archbishops 
of Dublin." 

• Allen's Registry^ f. 196. 


In 1306 the prebend was valued at twenty marks, and in 1538 
at £28 6#* 8c^. For a notice of Clonmethan in 131 7, see post at 
" Lusk.** 

In 1414 Thomas Cranlej, Prebendary of Clonmethan, was 
«ued for two-third parts of the issues and profits of said prebend 
for two years, having been an absentee therefrom^ but, on produo 
tion of the king's letters patent licensmg his absence, the claim 
was given up.* 

In 1475 Nicholas DowdaU, Prebendary of Clonmethan, had 
license of absence for eight years to enable him to prosecute his 
studies at Oxford* The Begge family were «t this time seised of 
certain lands here* See ** Grace Dieu" at 1533. 

At the dissolution Nicholas Lyn was Prebendary of Clonmen 
than, at which time an inquisition taken stated the possessions of 
the prebend as one manse and eight acres of land, value 8f . ; the 
tithes of the hamlets of Clonmethan, Old-town, Killeene, Cabragh, 
Morton, Jordanstown^ Cotterelstown^ Newinnings, Wyanstown, 
and the fifty acres near Morton, worth per annum (exclusive of the 
altarages and demesne assigned for the curate at Clonmethan and 
repair of the chancel) £17 5j. together with the tithes of Fieldsr 
town (exclusive of the altarages and stipend assigned to the 
curate.) In 1547 the rectory of Clonmethan was leased to John 
Talbot ' of Malahide, and by him assigned to Patrick Barnewallof 
Grace-Dieu for twenty-one years at £21 5s. 4d, annual rent. 

In 1560 Alexander Craike, Prebendary of Clonmethan and 
Dean of St. Patricks, was promoted to the see of Kildare, retain-^ 
ing, however, the deanery of St. Patrick's therewith, << inasmuch 
as the said bishopric as well in spirituals as temporals, by continual 
and intolerable oppression of the Irish rebels, is become so small 
and poor as to be inefficient for keeping of hospitality, and main- 
taining other charges which the ^d bishop b obliged to support." 
In 1561 Walter Hill was prebendary. He was abo vicar of Lusk, 
and contributed largely towards the repair of that church. In 
1564 Robert Daly, who had been prebendary of this place, was 
consecrated Bishop of Kildare, and held this prebend with the 
Ticarage of Swords in commendaro. The queen's letter of this 

• Rot ex Arch, in Dom. Cap. Westm. 


year mentions, that he <' is well commended to her for his good 
name and honest living, and the rather becaase he was well able 
to preach in the Irish tongue." 

The regal visitation book of 1615 states this prebend as of the 
yearly value of £35, and that Thomas Richmond was then curate 
here. In 1667 the Archbishop of Dublin had a grant of fifty acres 
plantation measure here, with various other lands in augmentation 
of his see ; and in 1675 the parishes of Clonmethan, Bidmadun, 
Palmerstown, Grenogue, Westpalstown, and Ballyboghill, were 
united by act of counciL 

In 1695 Henry Rider, Bishop of Killaloe, was buried in this 

In 1697 the Reverend Edmund Murphy was returned as the 
Roman Catholic pastor of this parish, together with those of 
Palmerstown, Killsallaghan, and Killester. 

In 1716 Archbishop King, by virtue of a power vested in him 
by act of parliament, granted to the Prebendary of Clonmethan 
and his successors for ever as a glebe for that parish, the following 
lands, viz. the five-acre park with garden and cabin adjoining 
thereto ; the two-acre park, and four acres and a lulf adjoining 
to the five-acre park, and the rest of Begge's land, being eight 
acres and a half, all lying near the church of Clonmethad, for 
which the incumbent was to pay £1 lOs. yearly to the archbishop. 
In 1720 John Grattan, A. M. was installed into this prebend. It 
was to him Dean Swift bequeathed the silver box, in which the 
freedom of the city of Dublin had been presented to him, and in 
which, says the testator, << I desire the said John to keep the 
tobacco he usually cheweth called pig-tail.** The dean also no- 
minated this Mr. Grattan one of his executors. In the same year 
Doctor Harrison built a glebe house here, and obtained a certi- 
ficate from the archbishop of having expended thereon £300. 

A terrier of 1754 with a map annexed, and lodged in the dio- 
cesan registry office, specifies the extent of the rector's glebe here 
as 34a. Or. 14p., and his glebe in Ballymadun as 19a. 2r. 5p. 
The ecclesiastical report of 1807 notices only the last-mentioned 
glebe. There was at that time ho glebe house, but the Board 
of First Fruits has since granted £1350 for the erection of one, 
and in 1806 further granted £500 for enlarging the church; but 



the parish resisted payment of cess therefore, and the question 
being at issue in the courts of law the church remuned unfinished. 
The succession of the Prebendaries of Clonmethan was as 
follows, as far as can be ascertained : — 

1275 de Nottingham. 

1402 Thomas de Everdon. 
1410 Thomas Crawley. 
1475 Nicholas Dowdall. 
1546 Nicholas Lyn« 
1555 George Browne. 
1559 Alexander Craike. 
1561 Walter Hill. 
1561 Robert Daly. 
1615 Nicholas Robinson. 
1619 William Pulley. 
1628 Richard Powell. 
1642 Robert Boyle. 
1661 John Brereton. 

1683 John Brereton. 
1702 Theophilus Harrison. 
1720 John GratUn. 
1741 Bryan Robinson. 
1743 Caleb Cartwright. 
1763 Patrick Kenny. 
1789 Robert Baylis Dealtry. 
1795 Lionel Viscount Strang- 

1801 John Beresford Hill* 
1803 Storer Charles Litilehales. 
1811 Wilham Hughes. 
1813 Thomas Radcliffe. 
1835 Montague Leaver Short. 

Near Clonmethan is Wyanstown, an estate also 
belonging to the see of Dublin. 

As the course of this excursion continues hence 
to traverse the barony of Balrothery, with the ex- 
ception of the locality of Rogerstown which is in 
Nethercross, and Lambay accounted in Coolock, a 
few words may be here premised concerning 


This maritime district, according to the survey 
and valuation of 1824, comprises fourteen parishes 
subdivided into 174 townlands, and has been assessed 
to the ancient subsidies as extending over 30,370 arable 
acres, and 1699 acres then deemed unprofitable. The 


parishes there assigned to it are Lusk, Hohnpatrick, 
Baldungan, Balrothery, Balscadden, Naul, Hollywood, 
Gmllagh, Garristown, Ballymadun, Palmerstown, 
Westpalstown, Ballyboghill, and Dunabate. In this 
scope are twelve small towns and sixteen villages. 
The surface of the barony is for the most part level, 
and the soil productive, resting almost entirely on 
limestone. It is, however, badly supplied with rivers, 
and its harbours have not been much improved. 
Being the most remote from the metropolis it is prin- 
cipally used in tillage. 

The quantity of ground forfeited herein in 1641, was returned 
as 19,948a. profitable, and 7ddA. unprofitable, while the glebe 
lands were stated at the same time as 334a. 

Passing out of Clonmethan, the first locality wor- 
thy of notice is 


i. e. the brambly district. 

One of the manors confirmed by King Henry the Second to 
the abbey of the Blessed Virgin, subsequently further assured to 
that house by John Earl of Morton in 1185, and which continued 
so appropriated down to the time of the dissolution, when, by in- 
quisition of 1541, the abbot of that abbey was found seised of two 
messuages, 114a. of arable, 4a. of meadow, and 102a. of pasture 
here, annual value, besides reprises £4 10«., while a subsequent 
inquisition finds John Bathe seised of a messuage and 60a. here, 
which he held of the king in capite by knight's service.* 

In 1542 Patrick Barnewall had a grant of the monastic pos«» 

* Inquis. in Cane. Hib. 


sessions in Drisfaogue, while for another portion 120a. plantation 
measure, James Duke of York passed patent in 1666 ; the latter,, 
on his attainder, were in 1703 granted to Marmaduke Coghill, 
Esq., while for the former, with a considerable addition. Lord 
Kingsland passed fresh patent in 1685. 


the succeeding locality, suggests in its name, i. e. the 
fort of the people, that it was the ancient site of an 
humbler Areopagus, a justice mount of the Brehon 
dispensation, and certainly commands from its high 
grounds, a most extensive landscape over the barony 
of Balrothery, terminated in mountainous succession 
by the heights of Grarristown, MuUahow, the Man of 
War, Baldungan with its ruins, Lambay, &c. 

Although this place now presents no traces of a religious edi- 
fice, it had formerly one of the five chapelries subservient to 

In 1202 Philip de Nugent gave to the priory of Christ Church 
two acres of Lispobel, and in the village of Lispobel half an acre, 
adjoining his mansion near the river, on the west side, to build a 
house on, with the depasturage of his entire holding there.* 

In the sixteenth century, this locality was the property of the 
Kynton family, from whom it passed to that of Barnewall, a por- 
tion being vested in the Lords of Howth. For a notice in 1619, 
see at ** Howth.'^ In 1641 Richard Barnewall of Lispobel was 
one of those on whose head the Lords Justices and Council, in 
their sanguinary apprabement, set a price of £400. His posses- 
sions here were thereupon forfeited, and in 1659 the Protector 
demised them with other lands, to Sir John Temple for a term of 
fifty-one years. 

In 1666 Sir George Rawdon had a grant of the town and lands 
of Lispobel 645a. statute measure, Nuttstown 444a., as also of the 

• Registry of Christ Church. 


denominations of Weystown and Cordanstown, of which he died 
seised in 1684. This grant was made in pursuance of a clause 
in the Act of Settlement^ and in consideration of a sum of 
£2324 lOs. 4d,f due to him << for provisions and money disbursed 
for the use of the army in Ireland." 

In 1685 Lord Kingsland passed patent for (inter cUia) the mill 
of Lispobel, while in 1691 a recovery was suffered to the use of 
the St. Lawrence family of their estates in Lispobel^ Parnellstown, 
Effolstown, Balliskadden, Boranston, &c. 

A pretty shaded road, with hawthorns at the one 
side, and the luxuriant furze at the other, leads hence 
back by the course of the river, direct to Rollestown 
and Fieldstown. The present line of inquiry, how- 
ever, turns to 


a townland, the fee of Mr. Coote, an absentee. 

Its tithes were early appropriated to the economy of St. Pa- 

In 1844 Skidow was accounted a manor, and is so described 
in records of that period, John the son of John de la Field being 
then seised thereof. 

In 1542 Patrick Bamewall had a grant for ever of Skidow, and 
sundry other lands in this vicinity. An inquisition of 1547 ascer- 
tained the extent and value of the tithes of this denomination, 
which were in 1564 demised by the chapter of St. Patrick's to 
Bamaby Scurloghe, ** in consideration of good council to be given 
by him during life to the chapter." In 1645 the same tithes were 
leased by the chapter to Lord Chief Baron Bysse, and he, being 
at that time Recorder, likewise covenanted to give the chapter 
« good counsel in matters of law during his life.'' For a notice of 
the tithes of Skidow in 1688, see « Killeigh." 

In 1685 Lord Kingsland passed patent for (inter cUia) Skidow 
and Balgeeth 860 acres. 



the next locality on this route worthy of notice, was 
anciently a manor of the Ormond family, and for four 
centuries the residence of that of Stanyhurst, of whom 
the following notices may not seem irrelevant :^- 

Thb Family op Stanyhdrst. 

In 1418 Henry Stanyhurst of Corduff, was secondary of the 
.Exchequer chamber in Irehtnd. 

In 1489 Richard Stanyhurst was Lord Mayor of Dublin, as 
was Nicholas Stanyhurst in 1542, of which latter Holinshed says, 
<< he was so great and good a householder, that during his mayor- 
alty the Lord Chancellor of the realm was his daily and ordinary 
guest." This Nicholas, it would seem, was the author of some 
medical works. 

In 1560, according to the learned Doctor John Lynch, Roman 
Catholic Archdeacon of Tuam, in his " Cambrensis Eversus,'* the 
Statute of Uniformity was carried by the artifice of Mr. Stanyhurst 
of Corduff, then Speaker of the House of Commons, who, being 
in the reforming interest, privately got together, on a day when 
•the house was not to sit, a few such members as he knew to be 
favourers of that interest, and passed the bill in the absence of all 
those who he believed would give it opposition. This was James 
Stanyhurst, Recorder of Dublin, and one of its representatives in 
parliament. He was Speaker of the House of Commons in three 
parliaments, in 1557, 1560, and 1568, and published his three 
<< orations" on these occasions. In 1570, on the re-meeting of the 
last parliament, he opened it according to the custom in a ^ech, 
whidi Campion has fiilly set forth in his << Histone of Ireland*" 
<< In particular," said he on this occasion, << the zeal which I have 
to the reformation of this realm, and to breed in the rudest of our 
people resolute English hearts, moveth me to pray your lordships' 
helping hand for the practice, namely, of one statute which is for 
the erecting of grammar-schools within every diocese, the stipends 


to be levied in such proportion as in the Ute act hath been de- 
vised, whereunto the royal assent is already granted, and yet, the 
point in no forwardness, nor in none is like to be, excepting by 
some good means the onset be given, and freshly followed." This 
James also proposed and digested a plan for re-establishing and 
endowing the College of Dublin. He died in 1573, being then 
fifty-one years old. One of his sons, Walter Stanyhurst, translated 
into English, « Innocent de contemptu mundi." 

About the year 1584 flourished Richard Stanyhurst, the son 
of James Stanyhurst, and uncle to Archbishop Usher, his sister 
Margaret being that prelate's mother. He received the rudiments 
of his education in Ireland, under the celebrated schoolmaster, 
Peter White, from whose care he removed in 1563 to Oxford, 
where he took one degree, and thence retiring to London, studied 
the law in Furnival's, and subsequently in Lincoln's Inn. He 
afterwards returned to his own country, where he married and 
sojourned some time, but, being desirous of greater liberty in the 
enjoyment of his religion, which was Roman Catholic, he went 
into the Low Countries, where he acquired great fame for his 
learning. Afterwards, on the death of his wife, he took orders, 
and being eminent for his parts and learning, was made chaplain 
to Albert Archduke of Austria, then Governor of the Spanish 
Netherlands, where he died in 1618. During the latter interval 
of his life, he held a constant correspondence vnth his nephew, 
Archbishop Usher. While a very young man, he wrote " Har- 
monia seu catena Dialectica in Porphyrium," which was published 
in 1570, and is much commended by Doctor Campion, the Jesuit. 
His more celebrated production, << De Rebus in Hibernid Gestis," 
was, with an appendix from Giraldus Cambrensis, and some anno- 
tations, published at Antwerp in 1584. Keating animadverts in 
strong terms upon this work, and his censures are well merited by 
the errors and malicious representations with which it abounds, 
seasoned with a few incontrovertible statements, and wilfuUy la- 
vished on the calumniated Irish. Some idea of the credibility of 
his assertions may be formed, from his calling them an inhospitable 
nation, lamenting that their language was not extirpated, and 
denying that a country, whose armorial bearing is the harp, had any 
knowledge or character of music. Keating observes, that he was 


too young and unacquainted with the Irish language to undertake 
such a work, and asserts, that << he was prejudiced with the re* 
i^ards and preferments which were promised him to blacken the 
nation, but that he lived to repent this injustice, and when he had 
entered into holy orders, promised to recant publicly all the false- 
hoods he had published, and that he (Keating) was credibly in- 
formed that a writing was drawn up for that purpose, in order to 
be printed in Ireland/' He further employs some pages in de- 
fending Ireland from the vituperations of this writer, not perceiv- 
ing that the very style of the book is as injurious to its authority, 
as the extravagances of Keating himself have been to the credit of 
Insh history. It is, however, but justice to add, that Staiiyhurst's 
work contains much valuable information. He also wrote " de 
Viti S. Patricii," printed at Antwerp in 1587, and some other 
religious works; likewise a translation, in heroic verse, of the first 
four books of the ^neid, the first of which he dedicated to ** Peter 
Plunkett, the learned Baron of Dunsany,'* whom he styles his 
brother. It may be mentioned, as this his translation is most rare, 
that the curious inquirer will find sufficient to acquaint him with 
its style, in the first volume of Sir E^erton Brydges's " Censura 
Literaria.** To this he added translations of the four first psalms, 
the first in English iambics, though he confesses that « the iambi- 
cal quantity relisheth somewhat unsavourly in our language, being, 
in truth, not altogether the toothsomest in the Latin." At the 
end of the work is a Latin epitaph by himself on his wife Genet, 
daughter of Sir Christopher Barnewall, who died in childbirth at 
Knightsbridge, and who was buried at Chelsea. He also wrote in 
English, " a Description of Ireland," dedicated to Sir Henry Syd- 
ney, then Lord Deputy of Ireland, and published in Holinshed's 
Chronicles. This " description" likewise received meet chastise- 
ment from an author of the name of Barnaby Rich, who drew up 
a new and improved account of this country in 1610. Some of 
Richard's Letters, also, are preserved in Burman's Sylloge, He 
bad a son named William, who was bom at Brussels in 1601, and 
at the age of sixteen entered into the Society of the Jesuits. He 
was a man endowed with excellent parts, and a writer of several 
treatises, of which Sotvellus in his Bibliotheca Sript. Soc. Jes. 
gives a catalogue. He died in 1663. 


The northern rood from Corduff to Bdrothery 
presents at Ballough a small Roman Catholic chapel 
of ease ; and from a hill beyond that commands a 
magnificent panorama by land and sea, including the 
interesting ruins of Lusk and Baldungan, the villages 
of Rush and Malahide, the heights of Howth, Lam- 
bay, Hollywood, and Garristown, with countless other 
objects of interest. A short way beyond this the 
steeper eminence of the Man of War affords even 
more extensive prospects; while the ruins of a once 
comfortable and greatly frequented inn on its summit, 
and the immense Magog head, that was its sign and 
gave name to the locality, now fallen from its high 
estate, and smoking a prodigious pipe with wondrous 
disproportion over the entrance to a cabin, induce 
some salutary reminiscences of the many bridal groups 
and joyous parties that have partaken its festive fare» 
and, like it, sunk into oblivion. 

The course, however, of this excursion, passes 
from Corduff, over one of the isolated districts which 
constitute the barony of Nethercross, into the inte- 
resting village of 


where the tourist's attention is first attracted by the 
remains of its ancient parochial church, which, though 
still used for worship, are so ruinous, that the but- 
tresses present the dangerous features of ash trees 
springing from all their crevices. 

The edifice consists of two long aisles, divided by 

LUSK. 415 

a range of seven arches ; the east end of the southern 
aisle being all now required and fitted up for the 
Protestant service. Entering this, the stone basin for 
holy water is seen, and near it a baptismal font, ele- 
vated on a pedestal, and bored at the bottom, in con- 
formity with the canon of Archbishop Comyn's synod, 
** to convey, after the ceremony of baptism, the holy 
water down to mother earth.'* Near it is inserted, in 
one of the stopped up arches that divide the two 
aisles, a very ancient monument, which was dug up 
in 1753, composed of coarse grit stone, and of the 
ordinary dimensions. A representation of our Sa- 
viour on the cross in relievo, occupies two-thirds of 
its length ; while the upper third presents at left the 
bust of an old man, with a ball and cross in his hand; 
and at right an armorial, on which a bird alone can 
be plainly traced. In the same line is a black slab, 
to the memory of Captain Richard Roe, of Bullock 
in this county, who died in 1656 ; while on the oppo- 
site wall is another to the Archdall family, since 
1751 ; and a large tomb to that of " Umfries," since 

In the section now appropriated to divine worship, 
immediately before the communion table, is the costly 
and noble monument of Sir Christopher Bamewall, 
of Turvey, (grandfather of Nicholas, first Viscount 
Kingsland,) and his lady, who survived him, and mar- 
ried Sir Lucas Dillon, of Moymet, in the county Meath. 
It is composed of different materials, the principal 
figures being sculptured in grey Italian marble, whilst 
the lower part of the tomb is entirely of Kilkenny 


marble* Sir Christopher is represented in a rich suit 
ef armour, his head bare, and his hands joined over 
his breast in a devotional posture : his feet rest on the 
body of a greyhound. His lady appears lying beside 
him, dressed in a round cap and high ruffles; her 
gown, thickly plaited round the waist, puffed on the 
shoulders, and richly embroidered ; her petticoat is 
designed as of sumptuous cloth of gold ; and from her 
girdle hangs a chain ' of superior workmanship, to 
which is appendant a scapular, two inches square. At 
her feet, which can scarcely be distinguished, is placed 
a lap-dog. Her hands, like those of her husband, are 
crossed devotionally on her bosom, and the head of 
each reposes on an embroidered pillow. The sides 
are sculptured with the armorials of the Dillons 
and Bamewalls. The whole of this fine piece of 
sculpture is barbarously smothered up by the steps 
and platform into a pulpit, which exactly rests upon 
the faces of those fine figures. See of this Sir Chris- 
topher very fully, ante^ in the memoir of " the Family 
of Bamewall." 

In the north aisle is a tomb of black marble, bear- 
ing the effigies of a knight in armour, the visor un- 
closed, and his sword across the left thighs the hands 
joined over the breast in the attitude of prayer, and 
the feet resting upon a dog : the inscription on the 
exergue states this " to be the monument of James 
Bermingham of Ballough, and his wife Eleanora Fitz 
William, who died in 1637.'* Beside it, encompassed 
with an iron railing, is another tomb of Kilkenny 
marble, erected to the memory of Sir Robert Echlin, 

LU8K, 417 

of Kush, who died in 1757* This is inscribed with 
the lines — 

" Here lies an honest man ^without pretence. 
Blessed with plain reason, and with common sense ; 
Calmly he looked on either life, and here 
Saw nothing to regret, or there to fear : 
From nature's temperate feast rose satisfied, 
Thanked Heaven that he had lived, and that — he died." 

There are also in this aisle a tombstone to Christopher 
Russell, who died in 1750, erected near the spot 
where his relative, Archbishop Russell, was buried ; 
and a mural slab, of white marble, and two tombstones 
beneath, to the Rev* Nicholas Wade, parish priest of 
St. Michan*s, Dublin, who died in 1802, and his an- 
cestors of New Haggard and Tomminstown, since 
1 738. Here was formerly exhibited, according to 
Brewer, a vestige of antiquity, supposed to be part of 
an idol appertaining to the Danes. << Its material,'' 
he adds, *^ resembles stone, but is as weighty as the 
most ponderous mineral : the carving represents the 
human features in a modification fancifully hideous, 
the face being about seven inches broad, and the head, 
without neck or body, attached to a pair of kneeling 
thighs and legs.'* This relic cannot, however, now 
be found ; but there is in the wall opposite the en- 
trance, a curious stone, carved with a small, but not 
disproportioned figure of a warrior. 

Adjoining the west end of this church, stands a 
handsome and extremely solid square steeple, beneath 
which is a crypt, or vaulted chapel. Three angles of 
this edifice are flanked by comparatively modem round, 



embattled, slender towers, incorporated witb the build- 
ing ; while at the fourth angle is an isolated round 
tower, of the ** veritable antique," rising to a consi- 
derable height above any other part of the building, 
and measuring in the inner diameter at bottom two 
yards and a half. It is in excellent preservation, and 
affords, by the later erection of the adjoining belfry, 
a very convincing evidence, that it at least was not 
recognized by our ancestors, learned in acoustics, as a 
fit "instrument of sound" for such a purpose, as the 
theory of some would refer thesb edifices to. On ih6 
occasion of building thd steeple, an entrance was con- 
structed from it into the Round Tower, by steps 
raised to the level of its ancient door. 

In the churchyard are monuments to the Murray 
family, since 1734 ; to the Dungans, since 1785 ; the 
Seavers of Rush, from the commencement of the 
eighteenth century ; the Rochforts o£ Walshestown, 
&c. Near the church is a glebe-house, with a glebe 
of two acres adjacent, and about twenty acres within 
half a mile's distance. 

In another part of the town is a large and lofty 
Roman Catholic church. It has a mural slab to the 
Rev. Patrick Kelly, Vicar-General of the diocese, and 
pastor of this parish, who died in 1834. This edifice 
also is suiTOunded by a grave-yard, but it exhibits no 
tombs of note, with the exception of one to a Mr. 
William Clarke, who died in 1833, at the advanced 
age of 105. Near this are the National schools for 
boys and girls, to which the Board allows £18 per 
annum. The number of their pupils was 1 28 in 1834. 

LUSK. 419 

Lusk give& its ussme to the parish, or rather to 
two parishes — ^that of East Lusk and West Lusk, con- 
taining in the two baronies of Balrothery and New- 
castle, fifty-four to wnlands, extending over 16,642a. 
Or. 31p.,and having a total population of 5866 persims. 
These parishes constitute one vicarage of the annud 
value of £120, in the deanery of Ganristown, to which 
the treasurer and precentor of St. Patrick's, who are 
the impropriators of the rectory, present alternately. 
In the Catholic dispensation, this parish is in the 
Union of Swords. It is chiefly laid out in tillage^ 
and the number of its labourers is said to be about 
140, of whom fifty have constant, and the rest occa- 
sional employment. The wages of labour is about 
1^. per day ; rent from £l 10^. to £2 5^. per acre. 
The chief proprietors are Lord Howth, Sir William 
Palmer, the Archbishop of Dublin, the Earl of King- 
ston, Colonel Loftus, Mr. Forbes, Mr. Byrne, and 
Mr. White has lately purchased, from the Commis- 
sioners of Woods and Forests, the commons apper- 
taining to the village, which comprised about 300 
Irish acres, in five parcels. 

In 497 died St. Macculind, Bishop of Lusk, to whom the church 
vnm dedicated. He is dignified in the ancient notices with the 
t«rm bishop, and his successors are so indifferently termed bishops 
or abbots. According to tradition his remains were deposited in 
a vault, which being termed in Irish << Lusca," is supposed to have 
given name to the locality. Within this church was also a chapel 
dedicated to St. Maurus. 

In 695 died here Casson, a learned chronographer, and in the 
same year, St. Adamnanus held a synod in the abbey of Lusk, at 
which were present 9k\ the principal prelates of the kingdom. In 
825 the abbey was pillaged and destroyed ; and in 854, the abbey 

2 E 2 


and whole town were coiisuined by fire. In 887 Seachnasagli was 
abbot of this house. 

In 902 died Colman, a learned scribe and Bishop of Lusk and 
Duleek. In 1069 the town suffered considerably by fire; in 1089 
it was burned by the people of Munster, when 180 persons perished 
in the church ; and in 1 133 it sustained a very similar visitation. 
In 113$ the town, the abbey, and the whole country of Fin^al, 
were burned by Donel Mac Murrough O'Melaghlin, in revenge 
for the murder of his brother, Connor Prince of Meath. The 
sacrilege was not, however, committed with impunity, and O'Me- 
laghlin was slain by the people of this town. 

So early as the year 1178 the Pope confirmed Lusk, with its 
church and appurtenances, to the see of Dublin, as did Prince 
John subsequently, and Pope Innocent the Third in 1216. 

In 1188 the tithes of this parish, or at least a considerable 
portion of them, having previously belonged to St. Mary's Abbey, 
were assigned by the prior and monks of that establishment, to 
John Comyn, Archbishop of Dublin. 

In 1190 the Nunnery of Lusk, originally founded for ladies 
of the order of Arroasia, and afterwards appropriated to the priory 
of All-Saints, Dublin, was translated to Grace Dieu, by the last- 
mentioned archbishop, who filled it with regular canonesses fol- 
lowing the rules of St. Augustin, and granted an endowment to it. 
In 1196 Pope Celestine the Third confirmed to the. abbess of this 
nunnery the church of St. Mary of Lusk, with the tithes, being 
the gift of Archbishop Comyn, the churches of St. Mary of Dub- 
lin, St. Mary of Duleek, St. Mary of Termonfeckin, St. Mary of 
Scriue, the Church of St. Odra, those of St. Mary of Kelb, St. 
Mary of Fore, St. Mary of Durrough, St. Mary of Clonmacnoise^ 
St. Mary of £vachdun, with all their several and respective post 

In 1205 Eustace de Roche obtained a grant of certain parcels 
of land within the honor of Lusk ; and in 1219 the church, which 
had previously been a prebend in the gift of Philip de Bray, was 
assigned as part of the provision for the precentor of St. Patrick's. 
The Archdeacon of Dublin, however, had at this time a certain 
r'ght herein, which he exchanged for the chapel of Tawney. For 
a notice in 1227 see « Memoirs of the Archbishops of Dubhn." 

LU8K. 421 

Id 1284 an inquiry was held lo determine the right of patro- 
mage to Lusk, which was then litigated. The jury decided that 
during the vacancy of the see of Dublin the dean and chapter 
did present, but at other times the archbishop. The vicarage 
was then valued at thirty-four marks. In the same year Walter 
Scamnel, prebendary of Lusk, was made bishop of Sarum. For a 
notice of John, vicar of Lusk in 1299, see the " Memoirs of the 
Archbishops of Dublin." 

In 1306 Lusk having been divided into two prebends, and two 
vicarages, the former were valued at £33 6s. 8rf. each ; the latter 
At £26 Idi. Sd. respectively. In 1317 the archbishop of Dublin 
being seised, in right of his see, (inter aUa) of the manor, a carucate, 
and 111 acres of land in Lusk, 125 acres of land in Clonmethan, &c., 
obtained a grant of the same for ever, from the crown, reserving 
services to the king and his successors, on vacancies of the see 
occurring. In 1318 an inquisition was held concerning the right 
of presentation to the vicarages. The jury was composed of fif- 
teen clergymen, and seventeen laymen, and they decided that the 
rector was the true patron ; and the same jurors reported their 
value at that time to be £10 yearly. 

In 1375 a similar commission to that alluded to at << Makhide," 
was given to the overseers of the harbour of Lusk. This record 
is the more extraordinary as the sea does not now come within a 
considerable distance of this village; it probably, however, referred 
to Rogerstown within the parish. 

In 1381 John de Bryen, being prebendary of one portion of 
Lusk, forfeited the issues and profits of his prebend by long ah** 
sence from the parish. In 1406 Thomas Cranlegh, prebendary 
of one portion of Lusk, had license to absent himself from Ireland 
for two years, for the purpose of studying at Oxford, with liberty 
to receive by his deputies the fruits and profits of his benefice. 
In 1453 the king granted to John Wright the prebend or canonry 
of one portion of Lusk, appertaining to the deanery of the church 
of St. Patrick, while immediately after Richard Eustace was by 
provision of the Pope, prebendary of the portion " ex parte precen- 
toris." He was sued on the statute of provisors for soliciting this 
foreign and prohibited patronage, but received a pardon which 
was confirmed by act of parliament. 


In 146^ a moiety of Lusk wbb restored to tbe preeentor of 
St. Patrick's, and the other moiety confirmed by the king to ibm 
treasurer of that Cathedral, up to which period the suceesaon of 
the prebendaries, as &r4» ascertainable, was as fc^ws: 

1381 John de Bryen. 
1406 Thomas Cradegh. 

1284 Walter Scamnel. 
Roger Fit z- Roger. 

1294 J •^*°*®^ °^ Spain. 
I R. de Apinedon. 

I^^eo (John Wright. 
( Richard Eustace. 


In 1502 Thomas Rochfort Precentor of St. Patrick's, made a 
donation to the church of Lusk of a large table of alabaster, the 
high altar and three images, one of our Saviour placed in the 
centre, with St. Macculind, the patron sarot of Lusk, on his right 
hand, and St. Patrick on his left. In 1513 Edmond, fourth 
brother of Sir Bartholomew Dillon, who was in this year made 
Chief Baron of the Irish Exchequer, was Prior of Lusk. 

In 1515 Sir Thomas Butler, Earl of Ormond, was found seised 
of the manors of Turvey, Rush, and Balscadden, and a part of 

In 1530 the only chapels appendant to Lusk are stated to be 
Rush, situated in the land of the Earl of Ormond, Kibure, and 
Knightstown, now known by the corrupted name of Whitestown. 
The churches of Balrothery, Baldungan, and Lambecher at Bre- 
mpre, were in earlier times subservient to it, and continued evea 
at this time to pay pensions to it as the mother church. 

In 1539 the vicarage of Lusk, << ex parte precentoris,'' was 
valued to the First Fruits at £14 bs. lOd. while the treasurer's 
portion was rated at £14 I2s. 6d, In the same year the king 
granted to Gerald Aylmer, then Chief Justice of Ireland, 
(inter alioy) certain lands in this parish, in tail male. The family 
of de Bathe having, however, subsequently made a claim thereto, 
the heir of said Aylmer came to an agreement, and surrendering 
certain parcels to them, obtained from the crown a new patent in 
fee of the remainder, while de Bathe had a similar grant of the 
part so assigned to him. For a further notice in this year, see at 
" Nanger." 

In 1541 Alison White, the last Prioress of Grace Dieu, was 
found seised, among several possessions, of certain measoagesi 

LUSK. 423 

106a. of land in Luak^ and a flaggon of ale out of every brewing 
for sale in Lusk, annual value £6 5s. &d. 

In 1547 the rectory was found to be divided, as before-men- 
tioned, into two portions ; one moiety belonging to the precentor, 
the other to the treasure of St. Patrick's cathedral, both of 
vwhom were bound to repair the chancel of the parish, and each 
bad the appointment of a vicar. The inquisition states the de- 
mesne lands as comprising 80a., and details the tith^ payable out 
of the respective townUinds, with their values. Some parcels were 
charged with the tithes of corn and hay, others with the long 
tithes, to the total annual value of ^123 19^. lOd. It is worthy 
of notice, that according to this record the tithes of corn and hay 
from Rush and Whitestown were leased at the annual rent of 
£7 9s, 4J., and two dozen of dry ling, thus aflfording some evi* 
dance of the ancient celebrity of the Rush ling. 

In 1548 all the lands and possessions, to which the nunnery of 
Chrace Dieu was entitled in thb parish, &c were granted for «ver 
to Patrick BamewaU, Esq., and subsequently confirmed to him. 
In the same year the priory of AU-FUallows was found to have 
been seised of the nunnery or cell of Lusk. For a notice in 1561, 
see ^^Clontnethan'* at that year. 

In 1575 Sir Christopher Bamewall was buried here, to wh<>80^ 
memory the marble monument,, before alluded to, was erectefi 
in the south £Jsle. 

In 1609 the king's letter passed for a! grant to James Netter- 
▼ille of a messuage and certain lands in the town of Lusk, toge^ 
ther with the tithes of «< the Riglas," of the yearly value pf 
£8 7s. Sd. For a notice in 1629, aee at '« Kihiiainham/' 

About the year 1630 the two vicarages of Lusk were, by con- 
sent of the Archbishop, consolidated, on account of the poverty of 
their revenues, and have so continued ever since ; the precentor 
and treasurer of St. Patrick's presenting thereto alternately. 

In 1641 Luke Netterville and others caused proclamation to 
be made in the market place at Lusk, for the general and import- 
ant meeting which was afterwards held at Swords. Of the for- 
feitures consequent upon « the affair^ of this year, the principal 
in this parish were those of George Blackney, 372a., Robert 
Walsh, 367a. John Geydon, 300a.) Robert Arthur, 259a., An- 


thony de la Hoyde, 145a., William Travers, V20kJf and Pliiltp 
Hoare, 40a. 

In 1667 the denomination called the Regulars of Luak, 140a., 
was granted, with all the tithes thereunto belonging, to Jame9 
Duke of Ormond, and in the same year the Archbishop of Dub- 
lin and hb successors had a grant, as part of the augmentation of 
that see, of ddA. in Lusk, 2d2A. in Walshestown, &c. In 1674 
the treasurer's moiety of the tithes of this parish was leased for 
£91 per annum. For a notice in 1682, see at " Feltrim." 

In 1689 Doctor Patrick Russell, Roman Catholic Archbishop 
of Dublin, having died during the residence of King James in 
Dublin, was interred here. In the same year the chapter of 
St. Patrick's nominated a vicar to the cure of Lusk, vacant by the 
death of John Archdall. 

In 1697 the Reverend Joseph Walsh was returned as parish 
priest of Lusk and Hohnpatrick, having Mr. William Shanley as 
his curate. 

In 1703 Edward Swan of Kilrisk had a grant of that part of 
Lusk called Pagan's Freehold, 20a., the estate of Richard Pagan, 

About the year 1742 Doctor Stearne, Bishop of Clogher, be- 
queathed his paternal estate of Ballogh, together with his freehold 
in Lusk, (subject to the chief rent of £6 per annum to the Arch- 
bishop of Dublin, and to the annual sum of £20 for ever to Mer- 
cer's Alms-house,) to the use of Dr. Steevens's Ho^ital, and in 
1787 John Archdall devised £200 for the use of the poor of this 

The periodicals of 1789 record the shock of an earthquake as 
having been then felt in this town and its vicinity. 

In 1822 the extensive commons appertaining to this town, 
were enclosed by authority of a private act of parliament, 2 Geo. 
4, c. xxi. 

The advice of the poet is not inapplicable here, 
and, if you would view Lusk aright, 

<< Go visit it by the pale moonlight." 

The writer has enjoyed it in tliat holy hour, wandered 


through the < tombs of its graveyard, stood beneath 
the awful shadows of its towers, entered the conse- 
crated walls, and walked amidst the dead of ages. — 
For a short time a dim-glaring flambeau aided to 
announce its once illustrious occupants, but these 
once made known, all light was willingly extinguish* 
ed, but that over which the power of man has no con- 
trol. The echo of the dropping torch, as it fell 
upon the ground, and the scattered expiring sparks of 
its light seemed the voice and the spirit of departing 
mortality. They died away and the full, clear moon: 
streamed over the walls and monuments, mingled 
with the shadows of the casements and the buttresses^ 
and the wavering ivy that softened oflP the radiance 
but enhanced its witchery. A pilgrimage to the 
summit of the belfry, and a softened view of the sur- 
rounding scenery reposing in that chaste light, and 
above all the bay beaming like one vast sheet of mo- 
ther of pearl beneath the more perpendicular rays, 
completed the enchantment of the spell. 

At right of the road from Lusk to Rush lies 


an estate of Lord Howth, having an ancient seaport, 
the channel of which affords good shelter and is of 
easy access. To go over the bar, according to the 
nautical instructions, bring the steeple of Lusk into 
a valley of the two northernmost hills, bearing N. W. 
half N. which is the course to steer. There is ten 
feet water on the bar when Lampsoon head is just 


covered. It flows in spring tides about fifteen feet, 
and there is about five feet difference in high water 
springs and neap tides. 

Here is a pretty residence of Mr. Seaver, situated 
amidst ornamental plantations and well-enclosed parks, 
and having a choice and well-walled garden attached. 
The creek that runs up to Lissen-Hall, when the tide 
is in, gives a beautiful fore-view, while the eminences 
of Coolock barony on the opposite shore, and the 
clear chart of the whole district of Fingal at the 
nearer side, complete the panorama. 

In 1178 Archbishop OToole granted to Christ Church 81a. 
in Rogerstown. 

In 1356 John, Archbishop of Dublin, recovered, in a suit 
against John Hollywood of Rogerstown, the harbour of Rogers- 
town otherwise called RogershaTen, being parcel of the Archbi- 
shop's manor of Swords, whereupon said HoIl3rwood executed a 
solemn release of his claim thereto for ever.* For a notice in 
1397, see " Swords." 

In 1606 Nicholas Lord Howth died, seised of ten messuages 
and 120a. in Rogerstown, three messuages, and 15a. in Parnels- 
town, &c., whtiih, as the record states, he held of the Archbishop 
of Dublin, as of hb manor of Swords, by fealty. 

A well shaded road leads from Rogerstown through 
New Haggard to the Dublin road, which it joins near 
Turvey. The sandy shores between this and the 
before-mentioned creek, abound with the hordeum 
maritimum, sea barley ; and the raphanus raphani^ 
trum, wild radish. 

Returning to the Rush road the, tourist riches 
the secluded hamlet of 

• Rot Pat in Cane Hib. 

RUSH. 427 


as corruptly caUed from its more ancient name of 
Knightstown, idso the ancient estate of Lord Howth. 
It was formerly a chapelry suhseryient to Luak ; and 
the site of the old church is still traced in the centre 
of a burial . ground, thickly set with obeeure tomb- 
stfOnes and bristly with nettles. A tasteless arch rises 
amidst those, erected in honour of some individual 
i^fhom, even in tradition, it has now ceased to comme- 
morate. Near it, on the day of visit* was a freshly 
sodded grave, rustically adorned wijth the emblems 
of innocence and chastity — ^garlands of white paper 
fantastically cut out and wreathed over laths and 
osiers, a simple tribute of surviving afiecticm. In the 
adjoining valley are the remains of a mill, long since 
deserted even by the babbling, unimpeded stream^ 
that once turned its vigorous wheels. 

A short distance beyond Whitestown is 


enumerated by HoUinshed as one of the chief haven 
towns of Ireland, and once celebrated for the curing 
of ling, and the extensive pursuit of other fisheries. 
The harbour having, however, become more difBcult 
of access, the bounty having been withdrawn, and the 
inhabitants being less adventurous than their neigh- 
bours of Skerries, the fisheries here have wholly 


declined, a fact which was strikingly evidenced by 
the boats that lay rotting on the shore. 

The village consists of one long avenue of cabins 
nearly parallel with the beach, and literally built upon 
the sands. It has a neat cruciform chapel erected in 
1760, and dedicated to St. Maurus the disciple of 
St. Benedict. On Sundays there is much edification 
in witnessing the groups of children and sailors, who 
devoutly attend here to catechism and moral exhor- 
tations. In the town is also a school, to which the 
National Board allows £10 per annum, and Sir Wil- 
liam Palmer £20. It was attended by 233 pupils in 
1834. There are also a dispensary and a flour mill 

Near the village is Rush House, a handsome 
antique structure, containing some valuable paintings 
by the first masters. The demesne, more properly 
called Kinure Park, from the old chapel of Kinure 
which it surrounds, is prettily undulated and wooded, 
but not with any trees of age or size. A spring, called 
St. Catherine's well, is seen issuing from a rock on 
the avenue from the house to the old church, whose 
ruins are situated in a solemn sequestered situation, 
and are thickly over-arched with festoons of ivy. It 
was dedicated to St. Damnan, and measures about 
sixteen yards in length by five and a half in breadth. 
Within it are some old tombs, one to a member of the 
Walsh family, another raised monument to " The 
affable, obliging, exemplary, wise, devout, most cha- 
ritable, most virtuous, and religious, the Right Hon. 

RUSH. 429 

George Lord Hamilton, Baron of Strabane," who 
had resided at Kinure and died in 1668. It was 
erected by his widow Elizabeth, who was the daughtei* 
of Christopher Fagan, of Feltrim. There is also a 
black mural slab in a comer of this deserted temj^e of 
the Deity, at whose foot several of the parkh priests 
have been interred. It especially commemorates the 
Rev. Bamaby Farran, who died in 1756; the Rev* 
Thomas Murphy who died in 1785; and the Rev. 
William Murray who died in 1795. In the outer 
grave-yard is the tomb of the celebrated smuggler 
Jack Connor, well known as Jack the Bachelor, who 
died in 1772. At the very foot of this churchyard, 
in a sombre and ill chosen site, is a wood house, which, 
if designed for the ordinary purposes of rural meals 
and merriment, must have demanded guests of no ordi- 
nary class, and feelings of Egyptian temperament to 
recreate in such a presence. Near the ruined church 
are the yet more mutilated remains of the arched 
baronial kitchen of a castle. 

In the Protestant arrangement Rush is a portion of 
the parish of Lusk ; in the Catholic it now constitutes a 
separate parish. Its population was in 1821 returned as 
only 1004 persons, increased on the census of 1831 
to 2144. The Poor Inquiry Report of 1836 states 
250 labourers in this parish, (treating it as a distinct 
one,) of whom but 100 have constant employment, 
the remainder occasional. The lands about this vil« 
lage are the fee of Sir William Palmer, and are let, 
the sandy parts, at about £l per acre; the clayey 
at £2 10^. The former can only produce the rent 


by the &eility of sea weed frdm Lambsy, Iiishaicl^ 
£ye> kc. A cabin without land is let fat £2 annually. 
There is a portion of Rttdi^ however, cdled Drum^ 
maoagh, deemed particularly ridi by Rutty» the rich^ 
est in the whole county, and which accordingly is let at 
four guineas per acre. On tiiis subdenomination, 
formerly the pn^rty of the Bamewall family,* are 
some curious earUiworks. 

The sea: here affords a plentiful supply of the 
rcdm capsrc^ thombadcs, commonly called maiden 
ray, which are dried and saved by the inhabitants, 
and an oil extracted from them. A large rock oys- 
ter is also found here, but so full of salt that it is 
more partaoularly used in sauces. The fishery here 
has, as before suggested, greatly declined. In 1820 
there were twenty-three boats of from twenty-five to 
fifty-five tons burthen, and each employed on board 
eight men ; at present only eight of l3iese boats are 
engaged in the fisheries, and each of them employs 
eight men. The harbour is dry, and wherries cannot 
get round the pier-head until half flood ; they are li- 
able to be wrecked should the wind blow hard from 
the eastward, in whidi case they are obliged to haul 
lip close to the ground, and frequently get scraped in 
eonsequence. The wear and tear of ropes is thus 
very great, and, unless some assistance towards erect- 
ing a new harbour is obtained, the fishing vessels will 
be destroyed in a few years, already more than half 
hiave been lost since the abolition of the bounties. 
- _ - _ ■ ■ ■ ■ 

• Rot in Cane. Hib. 

RUSH. 431 

Rash was an ancient manor eitentiKng oyer the lands of Bal- 
cony, Heathtown, Whitestown, Balscadden, Kinure, Ardlaw, &c 
The fee was vested in the house of Ormond from the time of 
Edward the First nntQ the year 1641. 

For notices of thb manor in 1385, 1461, and 1515, see 
<< Turvey/' and for other notices of its chapel and tithes in 1580 
and 1547 see ^'Lusk.'' At the time of Archbishop Allen, its chapel 
was stated to be subservient to Lusk, and surrounded by the lands 
of the Earl of Ormond. 

In the Act of Absentees of 1537, there is a special clause that 
nothing therein cbntiuned shall be prejudicial or hurtful to Sir 
John Barnewall, Ktaight, Liord of Trimlestown, and Patrick Barne* 
wall of Fieldstown, their executors, &c. in, of, or for the oflSce of 
steward, seneschal, surveyor, and receiver of the manors and lord- 
ships of Rush, Balscadden, and the moiety of the manor of Port- 
raine, a^ of sundry other manors therein enumerated. In 1616 
Nicholas Liord Howth, died seised of two messuages and 85 acres 
here, which he held of the Earl of Ormond as of his manor of 

Maurice Connell forfeited in 1641, eighty-four acres of Irish- 
town, sitiiated within the manor of Rush. Soon after which (in 
1666) the Duke of Ormond had a grant, or rather a confirmation 
patent of Kinure 594 acres, and, on his attainder, the family of 
Echlin obtained a title in thb manor, which descended to the 
Sir Robert Echlin mentioned at « Lusk" as having died in 1767. 
The fee has latterly vested in the family of Palmer. 

** In this small seaport was born Luke Ryan, much celebrated 
iti the American War as commander of the Black Prince Privateer, 
under commission of the French government. This bold adven- 
turer, whose actions at the time attracted much conversation, was 
tried as a pirate at the Old Bailey, and four different times ordered 
for execution, but reprieved. On the conclusion of peace he 
obtained his liberty through the mediation of the Court of Ver- 
sailles, arid expected to enjoy the fruits of his exploits, a fortune 
of £70,000, which he had lodged in a mercantile house at Roscoff 
in Britanny ; but his wary bankers, taking advantage, as is said, of 
his legal incapacity to sue, applied that large sum to their own 


use. The wild career of this daring seaman terminated in the 
King's Bench prison, where he died in 1789 being detained for a 
debt of £200."* 

The botany of Rush exhibits on its sandy fields 
and shores, hordeum mariiimum^ sea barley ; sahola 
kalif prickly saltwort ; arenaria peploidesj sea sand- 
wort ; glaucum luieum^ yellow-homed poppy ; gen- 
tiana campestris^ field gentian ; agrostema githago^ 
com cockle ; cerastium semtdecandrum, little mouse- 
ear chickweed; cerastium arvense^ field mouse-ear 
chickweed ; spergula arvermsy com spurrey ; reseda 
luteay base rocket ; papaver hi/bridum, round rough- 
headed poppy; Tiepeto cataria, cat mint; lemurus 
cardiacuj motherwort ; cakile maritima, sea rocket; 
sinapis alba, white mustard ; erodium cictUarium^ 
hemlock stork's bill ; anthylli^ vulnerariaj kidney 
retch ; sonchus arvensis, com sow thistle ; carduus 
marianus^ milk thistle ; carex arenaria^ sea sedge ; 
trifolium arvensey hare's-foot trefoil ; focus ciliatus, 
ciliated fucus ; fucus actUeattcs, prickly fucus \ focus 
plicatoSi matted fucus \focfos corneus^ homy fucus. — 
On the rocks, conferva setacea, bristly conferva; 
statice armeria^ sea pink, &c. — In the marshes, apizcm 
graveolensj wild celery. — In the hedges, trifolium 
officirude^ melilot. — In the com fields, centaurea 
cyanus^ blue bottle : and, on the ditches, lichen syl- 
vaticus^ wood lichen. 

From Rush, a pleasant sail of about three milea 
will bring the visiter to 

• Brewer's Beauties of Ireland, vol. i. p. 257. 

LAMBAY. 433 


an island of nearly an oval form, about two miles 
long and a mile and a quarter broad, comprising 
1371 acres, and accounted as part of the parish of East 
Lusk. Its substratum consists of conglomerated 
rocks of different kinds, chiefly of argillaceous schist, 
including fragments of other rocks. There is also a 
stratum of sandstone conglomerate at its northern 
extremity. In some places the schist is greatly con- 
torted, while limestone and porphyry are extremely 
abundant, alternating with and passing into grey- 
wacke. The surface is very susceptible of cultiva- 
tion, and Archer asserts that there are strong indi- 
cations of coal here. 

There is a very curious old polygon edifice on 
the island, apparently constructed for defending the 
place, as its battlements and spikeholes command the 
island in every direction. It has been built entirely 
upon arches without timber. Near it is a village 
inhabited by some husbandmen, who partly plough 
the island, and on the rest feed cattle and sheep. The 
harbour, which was erected by public grants, is in 
good repair, but dry, and does not afford shelter to a 
boat when the wind blows hard from any point. 
The depth of water at the pier head is sixteen feet. 
There is also here a curious spring of fine water 
dedicated to the Blessed Virgin. On the north coast 
ships may. anchor in twelve and thirteen fathoms for 
a southerly wind. For a sea-wind the ships must 
ride on the west side over against the castle, but that 



road is not very good, "because always in that sound, 
being about three miles broad, there goeth a great 
sea."* The best roadstead in easterly wuids is to th^ 
westward of the island, between the Burren rock oh 
the south and the reefs called the Tailors on the 
Dorth. The ground is low and level; boats and 
smacl^ may sail hence when they would be wind- 
bound in every creek on the main. They would be 
at all times from five to nine miles nearer the fishery 
ground, and might run hither for shelter when, ex- 
cept Howth, no other place is accessible on the coast 
A pier might be constructed here for about £1000, 
which would be of the greatest utility in sheltering 
wherries and coasters. 

On the island rabbits and sea fowl abound; of 
the latter the Cornish chough, corvus graculus^ with 
red bill and shanks, is frequently seen here ; also the 
reck pigeon, colvmba rupicola ; and, according to 
Rutty, the anas articti oflten rests upon it, appearing 
in April and May and departing in July and August. 
All about the rocky shore is a great plenty of crabs, 
oysters, and lobsters. The latter fishery would form 
a lucrative branch of industry in this country, but it 
is not efficiently worked. Lobsters exist in great 
plenty on various points of the coast, yet the English 
markets derive their principal supplies from Norway, 
while in the Irish markets lobsters are scarce, dear, 
and oflen not to be had. Between Lambay and 
Rock-a-Bill there is a natural bed of the large rock 
oyster, which is dredged occasionally, but the pro- 

• Boate'8 Nat. Hist, of Ireland, p. 20. 

LAMBAY. 435 

dtice is trifling. A species of the barilla plant is said 
to grow upon the island, and it is almost entirely en- 
compassed by a plentiful kelp coast. 

So early as the day9 of Pliny and Ptolemy, Lambay was known, 
by the name of Limnusy or Limni. 

In 1184 Prince John bestowed it on the see of Dublin, an 
endowment which Pope Clement the Third confirmed in 1188^. 
The title of the Archbishops of Dublin was not, however, com- 
plete until 1204, when the religious house of Christ's Church, for 
valuable consideration, relinquished some claims which it had 
thereto. See at "Portbane." 

In 1837 occurs a patent of confirmation for a chantry within 
the island, but no traces of such a building or other evidence of 
its endowment are to be found. In the same year King Edward 
confirmed the right of the see of Dublin to this island, as did 
King Richard when in Dublin in 1394 ; subsequent to which it 
yfss appropriated to the nunnery of Grace Dieu. 

In 1467 Lambay being ^' without defence of a Castle, and a 
receptacle for the king^s enemies as Britons, Spaniards, French, 
and Scots, to the annoyance of the main 'land,** it was provided 
by statute that the Earl of Worcester, then Lord Deputy, should 
have the sud island to him and his heirs, to build a fortress on, 
paying to the Archbishop of Dublin and hb successors forty shillings 
per annum ; while, in furtherance of the same object, the king in 
1496, by writ, reciting that he had learned by a petition of the 
Convent and Prior of St. Patrick's of Holmpatrick, that the bland 
of Lambay had on its shores various havens and creeks, in which 
pirates were accustomed to shelter, and that the said prior and 
convent were seised in right of their house of a little island called 
Mellock near Skerry, from which, when the tide was out, a dry 
way was open to Lambay, and that, if a fortified harbour and wall 
were constructed upon this, it would be of great benefit, granted 
license to them to construct same accordingly; and further gave 
to them in frankalmoigne all customs, duties, cokets, and pound- 
ages on things imported there, to the annual amount of twenty 



mftrks sterling for ever.* This notice is the more remarkable^ u 
the space between Holmpatrick and Lambay is now whoHy impas* 
sable at the lowest ebb of the tide. 

For a notice of Lambay in 1541 see at *< Grace Dieu." In 
1543 the Lord Deputy, in his report to the king relative to the 
havens of Ireland, states Lambay to be <^ a good road for ail 
manners of winds." And again he adds, *< there be also in divers 
coasts of this realm Britons and Frenchmen that do some hurt 
upon the sea, and for that your Majesty's ships lie at Lambay, and 
be as they say restrained by your Highness's instructions not ta 
exceed certain bounds, they cannot advance to do none enterprise 
upon the other frontiers of this your realm, and for as much, gra- 
cious Lord, as your Admiral here made me, in some part privy 
to the same his instructions, whereby it appeareth your prudent 
foresight to stay as well the resource out of France into Scotland, 
and also out of Scotland to France; and for that appointed your 
navy to lie at Lambay, for it Is thought that the Frenchmen and 
Scots both have knowledge of your said navy and where they lie, 
and so may they pass between the same Lambay and the Holly- 
head, which is three-score or four-score miles, without danger of 
the same your navy/'f 

In 1551 Archbishop Browne had license to alien and let to 
fee farm, with the consent of the chapter of Christ Church, to 
John Challoner and his heirs, the entire island of Lambay, with 
the courts leet and all other hereditaments thereunto belonging ; 
besides the whole coast of the sud island at a rent of £6 Idt. 4d^ 
provided that he or his heirs should within six years build on said 
island a town or village for the habitation of fishermen, with a 
place of refuge circumvallated with a mound, to which they might 
resort in case of any sudden irruption, and also should make 
within the said term a harbour for the fishermen's boats, on what- 
ever part of the shore of said island he should think fit ; as it ap- 
peared that the said Challoner had brought over to the island a 
colony of the king's subjects to inhabit and render it safe from 
pirates and smugglers. Accordingly the embattled edifice, before 
alluded to, is with much probability attributed to him. 

• Rot Pat. in Cane. Hib. t State Papers, temp. Hen. VIII. 



In the reiga of Queen Elizabeth a grant of this island was 
teide to Sir William Usher in fee, subject to an annual payment 
of £6 to the see of Dublin. 

In 1604 King James granted to Donogh Earl of Thomond 
the rectory and tithes of Lambay» as theretofore demised to Sir 
Robert Napper, and then lately granted in fee farm to Sir James 
Fulierton.* See at « Bally owen" in 1602. 

In 1650 the celebrated Primate Usher, a descendant of the 
above Sir William, when the plague raged in Dublin, retired into 
this island with his family, and here is said to have composed some 
of his works. 

In 1691, after the surrender of the fort of Ballymore in the 
County of Westmeath to de Ginkle, 780 soldiers and 260 
*' rapparees," who were found therein, were sent prisoners to Dub- 
lin and thence to Lambay,t ^here they were confined until 
the treaty of Limerick ; all persons being prohibited from passing 
over to the island under heavy penalties. The Lords Justices, 
however, did not at once avow to the prisoners the cause of their 
enlargement, as conditioned by that treaty, fearing they might 
enter into foreign service. << For this end, on the day the articles 
of Limerick were signed, they wrote to Mr. Francis Cufie, then 
io Dublin, itaimediately to go to Lambay, with such persons as 
he should judge necessary, and to discourse with the prisoners, 
without letting them know that they were by treaty to be dis- 
charged, and to acquaint them that if they would take the oath 
of allegiance, and promise to go to their respective habitations, 
they should be set at liberty » and permitted to hve quietly at 

From the Usher family, Lambay was purchased by that of 
Talbot ; and Lord Talbot de Malahide is now its proprietor, subject 
however, to the chief rent to the see of DubUn. A yearly pat- 
tern used to be held at a holy well in the island, until the present 
century, oiv every Trinity Sunday. 

About the year 1829 the pier was completed here, from which y^ 
time it became a small fishing station. 

• Rot Pat in Cane. Hib. t Story's Impartial History, p. 

t Harris's Life of William tlie Third, p. 351. 




The botany of Lambay is exceedingly interesting; 
it abounds with the veronica offimtaUs, comnum 
speedwell, with flesh-coloured flowers ; aira prcecoSf 
early hair grass; crithmum maritimum, samphire; 
mmlmcus ehultiSj dwarf elder ; arenaria marinch 
spurry sandwort.^-In the marshy places, mantiajbfh 
tana, water blinks ; drosera rotundifoHa, round-leaved 
sundew ; trifolium maritimumy teasel -headed trefoil; 
senecio aqtmticusy marsh ragwort; orchis lati/blia^ 
marsh palmate orchis. — On the rocks, stoHce armeria, 
sea pink ; geranium sanguiaeimh bloody crane's bill; 
intila crithmoidesy samphire-leaved flea-bane. — On 
the sea shore, limbarda crithmoides, golden samphirie, 
flowering in August and September. — On the dry 
heaths, a variety of the erica citierea, with white 
flowers.— In the sandy fields, trifoUum arvensCf hair's- 
fbot trefoil ; trifolium scabrum^ rough-rigid trefoil r 
while the west side of the island presents (enanthe 
peiccedanifoUa^ sulphur-wort ; and cenanthe pimpi- 
neUoidesy parsley water dropwort, flowering in July. 

Returning to the main land, a sandy shore, ii^r^ 
spersed with low ledges of rock, leads to 


an inlet of about a quarter of a mile square, affording, 
perhaps, the very best natural situatitm for % harbour 
along the whole coast of Leinster, and an excellent 
roadstead in all but east winds. Near it, on the sea 
coast, is a petrifying spring that deposits large incrus- 
tations of various figures on the rocks along which it 


^cibbl^. These incrustetioDS evince th^b calcareous 
loeature by fermenting strongly with spirit of vitriol> 
4Uid in other appearances correspond exactly with 
spar or limestone** Fine crystals are also found in 
an adjacent cliff. There are likewise on the coast of 
this line large rocks of the Irish slate^ lapis Hiberni- 
cics. Grey radiated manganese ore is met with, and a 
copper minC) formerly worked here, has been recently 
inspected, with the object of ascertaining the propriety 
of applying more extensive capital and improved mar 
chinery to its productions. Sea lungwort, jmlmpna- 
ria maritinui^ with other plants wH w^eds. of the seat 
abound along this shore* 

In 1542 George, son of Richard de la Hoyde, of Lough SMn* 
ny, had livery of seisin of his father's possessions in Phepoes- 
town, Iribhtown, Gallanstown, Dunabate, Lough Shinny, Crum- 
lin, Lamletter, Ballybetagb, &ۥ lb 1637 Anthony de la Hoyde 
was seised of 117a. in Dunabate, IOOa. in Tankardstown in the* 
ffurish of Babothery, 145a. in Lough Slrtnny and ThdmastoWu 
in the parish of Lusk, all which he subsequently mortgaged, bul 
forfeited his equity of redemption in th^ confiscations of 1641, 

In 1666 the Duke of Ormond had a grant of {inter alia) Bal: 
fyconny, 469a., Heathstown, ld4A., Ballykea, 545a., Kinure, 
594a., and Thomastown, part of Lough Shinny, 2I2a«, statute. 
Bdeasuro i and in 1672 Chules Viscount Fitz Harding died seised 
of GraUagh, 485a^ Lough Shindy, 58a. Ob. 14p^ Pucksldwu, ]42a^ 
&c.^ all which he held of the king in free ai>d ccunmon spccage- 

In 1771 Mr. Den^)sey, then proprietor of Lough Shinny, pe- 
titioned parliament for aid to extend a pier, he had begun here at 
bis own expense, and, although a favourable report was made 
thereon, the work was not prosecuted^ and it is now a total ruifi. 

To complete the shelter here, it would be neces- 

...... ♦ Butt/8 Mineral Wat«f% p. 493; 


sary to form a breakwater on the ledge of rock whe^re 
the old pier was begun, so as to raise the same above 
high water, to within twenty perches of the point 
near the Martello tower ; the place affords plenty of 
materials for such a work. Jetties might then be run 
out in any convenient part of the bay, either from the 
shore, or the breakwater for landing, or shipping 
places. This harbour would have fifteen feet into it 
at low water, and a fine, clear bottom of sand over 
an area of about forty English acres. 

At a short distance beyond Lough Shinny a Mar- 
tello tower has been erected on a promontory, occap- 
sionally insulated, for the purpose of defending the 
harbour of 


otherwise called Holmpatrick, implying in its Saxon 
" holm'* its character of harbour, and certainly re- 
ported by Holinshed as one of the chief havens of 
Ireland, but at present it assumes no appearance to 
justify the erection of such a battery. The village, 
however, is a pleasing object, and its broad street di- 
verging into two others of equal breadth, somewhat 
in the shape of a Y, its cleanly appearance, its church, 
chapel, schools and mills, its fleet of wherries animat- 
ing its bay, its fine strand and downs overhanging 
the water, and on Sundays and holidays enlivened 
by groups of the rural beaus and belles of this little 
^* Fair port," the blue sea, and the adjacent islands 
cannot fail to gratify the visiter. It is the most con- 


siderable fishing village on the east coast, and is like- 
ly to be much improved by the proposed Drogheda 

The church is a very plain structure, for the re- 
pairs of which the Ecclesiastical Commissioners have 
granted £63 12^. 2d. Within it are three mural 
monuments, one to Mr. Dixie Coddington of Holmpa- 
trick, who died in 1728, one to Mr. Weston, who died 
ill 1751, and another to Mr. Hamilton of Sheephill, 
who died in 1800. In the graveyard is an ancient 
tombstone to the memory of Elizabeth Finglas, wife 
of Thomas Hussey of Holmpatrick, who died in 1577> 
another to Richard de la Hoyde of Lough Shinny, in 
1587. There are also monuments commemorative of 
the Coddingtons and the Woods of Milverton, some to 
the crew and passengers of a ship, that was wrecked 
some years since on the neighbouring rocks, and a 
tombstone to Richard Toole, blacksmith, who died in 
1719, remarkable for the curious devices of his trade 
which are carved upon it. There is likewise a very 
old stone, with a now imintelligible inscription sculp- 
tured in alto relievo on the shaft of a cross that ex- 
tends over its whole fength, possibly designed to com- 
memorate some lordly prior of this house. Nor was it 
ill suited to the reflections of the scene, that a rosy 
cherub babe, in laughing infancy, was spreading it- 
self over that prostrate monument of the long de- 
parted, and a group of older but as thoughtless urchins 
were clustered round an adjoining headstone, spelling 
its broad characters, or vaulting over the sodded arch 
that flowered at its base. 


The Roman Catholic chapel is a handsome cru- 
ciform structure, erected in 1823, In it is a white 
marble slab to the memory of the Rev. Mr. Murraj» 
who died in 1834, pastor of this parish. 

In the centre of the town are two schools, one for 
boys, the other for girls ; they are in connexion with 
the National Board, who gave £178 is. Sd. for their 
erection, £26 for fitting them up, and allow £16 pei: 
ainpum for their support. There is also another free 
school here, attended by about thirty children, an4 
supported by Mr. Hamilton, the proprietor of the fee. 

A tambour factory has been established in the 
town by a Mr. Coghlan, which affords employment 
to a great many of the surrounding females, of whom 
those who are grown earn thereby about four shil' 
lings weekly, and children two shillings. There are 
also here two windmills and a water mill, and near 
the pier some small salt works. 

The harbour possesses great natural advantage^ 
but is not sufficiently capacious. It affords a space 
free from shoals, with land shelter on every side but 
the east and north-east. A long neck of land ex- 
tends eastward from the shore and town close by the 
water of the harbour, and at the extremity of this 
natural embankment is a lighthouse, while on the 
north side of the harbour the land projects in nearly 
an e<|ual extent. The pier runs in a northern direc- 
tion about six hundred and fifty feet, and the tide 
rises fourteen feet at full and change, and sluices it- 
self dear. The anchorage outside the harbour has 
been materially injured by the Wicklow boats .throw* 

8KERRIB6. 443 

lug out their ballast^ wh^ they arrive f^ lim^tone, 
witii which the place abounds. To make thU harbour, 
sailors must, according to the technical instructions 
of this coast, keep clear of the cross, give the island a 
good birth, until they bring the northernmost house 
in the town in a line with a house that stands on the 
hill of Skerries. When they bring these marks to 
bear they are at the northward of the cross, and when 
they have all the town clear of the quay, they will 
have four or five fathoms of water in the road, which 
is very safe unless it should blow hard at east or 
northeast. The pier and harbour, thou^ injudiciously 
constructed, afford shelter to a little fleet of wherries 
and smacks. In 1801 the wherries alone attached 
to this station were thhrty-six. In 1820 fifty-two 
boats were employed, of from twenty to fifty-seven* 
tons burthen, and each of them had on board six or 
eight men. At present only thirty-eight of these 
vessels are employed, each being manned as in 1820. 
Skerries requires a pier on an extensive scale beyond 
any other place on this coast. If a vessel of any de- 
scription cannot reach Kingstown in a southerly gale, 
(a frequent occurrence,) being obliged to bear up, she 
has no other place but Skerries to run for except Bel&st. 
Nature has already more than half formed a pier here 
on a grand scale, by a rocky projection of 750 yards 
into the sea, with a basement from forty to seventy 
yards wide^ and having a deep, clear, and safe anchor^ 
age inside for ships of any draught. An upper work 
with a parapet and a horn at the extremity would 
complete the harbour. A harbour light on the cross 


rock, at the extremity of a reef ninnbg into the sea, 
would also be of great utility. 

At a short distance from the coast are situated the 
Skerries rocks or islands, three in number, and all re- 
markable for producing great quantities of seaweed, of 
which kelp was formerly made. Archer says he found 
strings of lead ore and sulphur in two of these islands, 
and observed beautifully coloured slate rocks, parti- 
cularly in that called St. Patrick's. The nearest is 
Red Island, the next Colt, and the third St. Patrick's, 
while at a yet greater distance in the sea is the Rock 
of Bill. St. Patrick's contains about nine acres, and 
has upon it some remains of the ancient church. It 
takes its name from the popular tradition that the 
Apostle of Ireland, when driven to sea by the Pagan 
inhabitants of the southern side of the bay, landed 
there and blessed it. In the surrounding waters the 
sea crab is found, and the bret, sometimes termed the 
pheasant of the ocean; the large rock oyster is also 
abundant, while lobsters of superior quality are taken 
at Rock of Bill, as well as at Lambay and along the 
shores, with wicker baskets in form of mousetraps. 

The parish, in which Skerries is situated, is more 
correctly called Holmpatrick. It is in the deanery 
of Garristown, extends over 2131a. Or. 36p., com- 
prised in nine townlands, and is wholly tithe free. 
Its population was in 1831 returned as (exclusive of 
Skerries) 553 persons, while that of Skerries was re- 
ported as 2556. The rectory is impropriate in the 
Hamilton family, who have endowed its curacy with 
£60 per annum, to which the trustees of the First 


Fruits have added the yearly allowance of £40 out of 
Primate Boulter's fund. This body also granted £450 
for building a glebehouse liere, and £150 towards 
the erection of a church. The Roman Catholic 
union includes with Holmpatrick, Baldungan under 
the name of Milvertoiu. James Hans Hamilton, Esq., 
of Sheep Hill, is the proprietor of the principal part 
of the parish, the acreable rent in which varies from 
£2 to £2 15^. per annum. Manured ground, how- 
ever, brings £12 per acre. 

A monastery was founded at a very remote period in St. 
Patrick's island, which the Danes are recorded to have burned in 
797.* In the ninth century, Moel Finian, Prince of the Bregii, 
whose district extended between Dublin and Drogheda, resigning 
his government, became a monk in this abbey, of which he was 
afterwards superior, and died in 898. 

About the year 1 120, the abbey was re-founded for regular ca- 
nons of St. Augustine, by Sitric, the son of Murchard, and dedi- 
cated, according to its first institution, to St. Patrick. 

The order of Regular Canons of St. Augustine is so called 
from the saint whose rule they adopted, and who was himself born 
at Thagasta, a city of Numidia, in the year 854. In 888 having 
obtained ground without the walls of the city of Hippo in Africa, 
he associated himself with eleven other persons of eminent sanc- 
tity, who lived together after the manner of monks, wearing 
leathern girdles, and exercising themselves in fasting, praying, and 
meditation, day and night. In the year 1059 Pope Nicholas the 
Second, finding that considerable laxity had crept into the monastic 
orders in the observance of their discipline, endeavoured to effect 
their reform by imposing upon them a new rule of discipline, and 
Ivo, Bishop of Chartres, introduced into some congregations of 
canons, severer rules even than those of Nicholas, in which origi- 
nated the distinction between secular and regular canons, the first 
observing the rules of Pope Nicholas, and the latter those of Ivo. 

• Annals of Ulster. 


The canons of Su Aagiutine were of the kttter order, an^ 
were introduced into Eng^d by Aderwald, confessor to Henrj 
the First, who founded a priory of his order at Nostei in York- 
shire* This order was highly favoured by the king, who in 1107 
gave them the priory of Dunstable. Queen Matilda also became 
their patroness, and shortly afterwards erected for them the house 
of the Holy Trinity in London, the prior of which was always one 
of the aldc^rmen of the city* So greatly did they from this time 
flourish in Eogland^ that in the time of &dward the First, they had 
fifty-three priories in that country, being then popularly called 
Austin friars. Their numbers, however, subsequently decreased 
there, and, at the time of the suppression, they had only about 
thirty-two bouses ; whOe in Lrelaiid they had 9SS moiMsleries and 
thirty-three nunneries* The rule, which this refi^ous otd&r ob^ 
served, although founded, as already remarked, on that of St. 
Augustine, was prescribed to them by Pope Alexander the Foiffth 
HI 1256. It enjoined, that they should have all things in common, 
that the rich, who might become members of their body, should 
sell their possessions and give the proceeds to the poor, that the 
first part of the morning should be employed in labour, and the 
remainder in study, that when they went abroad they should al- 
ways go two in company, that they should never eat out of their 
monastery, with sundry other minor regulations. There are, alsoi, 
tiuns and canonesses who observe the ndes and bear the name of 
this order, from which, it may be added, arose a reformed clasd 
denominated bare-footed Augustines, Minorets or friars minor. 

hk 1124 Malcolm O'Connacan, celebrated for his theological 
and scientific lore, died in this island of St. Patrick.* In 1149 a 
synod was held here by Gelasius, Archbishop of Armagh, and 
Malachy, Apostolic Legate, in which fifteen bishops, two hundred 
priests, and several others of the clergy assisted. The subject of 
their conferences, besides matters of reformation, regarded the 
distribution of palls in Ireland, and they unanimously agreed to 
send Malachy to the Pope on that errand, in which journey he 

In 1216 Pope Innocent the Third confirmed to the see of 
Dublin, amongst other possessions, the advowson of the monastery 

* Annals of the Four Masters. 


tX Holmpatrick.. About the year 1220, its dtuation in the idand 
having been found very inconvenient, the parochial chapel was 
erected by Henry de Loundres, Archbishop of Dublin^ on the 

In 1357 the king i^pointed hispectors of all the harbours and 
creeks from HolmpHtrick to Dublin, to prevent the forestalling of 
fiA or exportation thereof tnthout license.* 

In 1366 Stephen, Prior of Holmpatrtck, was seised of the lands 
of KiUynew in the conntj of Meadi^f On the death of this priori 
the temporalities belonging to the house were seised into the 
king's hands, as on the ground that some of his royal predecessors 
had founded it, but, it being proved by John Randolph, the newly 
elected pnor, that their founder was Sitric, the son of .Murchardj 
before the Engli^ invasion, that contests had subsisted between 
the priory df Ihileek and their house relative to the said lands, 
and the subjection of Dulecfc to if olmpatrick, ttnd that same ter- 
minated hi the former unhung over to the latter the said premises 
for ever, the temporalities so seised were thereupon restored.^ 
It may be i'emaHced, that, on the election of a prior of this house, 
it was indispensably necessary to obtain in the first instance the 
itrchbishop's congi cTelirey without which the election was null and 
void. Next, after a public citation of aU the members, they pro* 
ceeded to dect, and the chosen member having signified his con- 
sent, the body deputed certain delegates to notify to the archbishop 
the object of their choice, who, thereupon, s^ppointed a day to hear 
objections before he confirmed it. 

In 1872 it was found on inquisition, that it would operate no 
diunage to the king or injury to others, that a grant should be 
made to the corporation of Dublin of the customs and duties of all 
kinds of merchandise brought for sale, as weH coming as going by 
land or sea between Skerries and Arklow, as of all other merchant 
dise within the said city, and said customs w^re accordingly in 
1375 granteiil to them. In the latter year, the Idng commanded 
the Prior of Holmpatrick to arrest and imprison all men-at-arms 
or ttrchers of the suite of William de Windsor, Chief Governor of 
Ireland, seeking to embark thence* 

• Rot Claus. in Cane Hib. t lb. t lb. 


In 1893 sundry persons assaulted the Prior of Holmpatrick, 
expelled him from his house, imprisoned him at Ballough, made 
a castle of the priory here, and by force of arms kept possession 
thereof for a considerable time.* 

In 1476 a license was granted to the prior, James Cogan, and 
his successors, to acquire lands for the use of the priory to the 
value of £40 per annum, notwithstanding the statute of mortmain. 

The ploughland of Ballygossan; alitu Cabra-hill, having been 
obtained for this priory, by grant it would appear from Edward 
the First, on the interference of the Archbishop of Dublin, he re- 
served to himself and his successors an annuity of two marks, which 
afterwards occasioned great litigation between the archbishops and 
the priory, until in 1484 Archbishop Walton, with the consent of 
his two chapters, very properly released all right thereto, reserving 
in lieu three pounds of wax annually, while he directed the annuity 
to be distributed between the prior and canons of this house, fur- 
ther ordering that the said convent should keep yearly an anniver- 
sary for the archbishop and his successors on the morrow of All 
Souls,f an arrangement which was confirmed in 1429 by William 
Rokeby, Archbishop of Dublin, and his two chapters. 

In 1488 the aforesaid prior, James Cogan, took the oath of 
allegiance before Sir Richard Edgecombe, who was sent to Ire- 
land to administer same to the principal nobility as before men- 
tioned. For a notice of Holmpatrick in 1496, see *' Lambay.** 

In 1516 the corporation of Dublin obtained a grant of the 
customs of all boats plying between the Nanny water and Arklow 

In 1532, at the hosting commanded by the king to assemble on 
the hill of Owenstown in this county, the Prior of Holmpatrick was 
summoned to attend in right of the manor of Hacketstown. 

Holmpatrick was one of the Irish religious houses suppressed 
in 1537 previous to the general dissolution, and in the same year 
died Peter Manne its last prior, while an inquisition taken in 1543 
ascertained its several rights and possessions. 

In 1545 the king^s commissioners were empowered to demise 
(inter alia)y the king^s farm of Holmpatrick to John Parker. — A 

• Rot Claus. in Cane. Hib. t Ware's Bishops, p. 343. 


^very ioteresting notice of the expedition^ which sailed hence against 
4he Scots in the same year>, is mentioned at Howth, and a letter 
.written by one of its leaders, the Earl of Ormonde, from this port, 
to Lord Russell, is given in the State Papers temp. Henry the 
Eighth. In it Ormonde intimates, that he was sent on the expedi- 
tion by the intrigue of St. Leger with a view to his destruction, 
and, after praying a full investigation of any matter that may be 
laid to his charge, he concludes, << I am no timorous subject, nor 
shall not try my truth in any timorous sort, and would God his 
Excellency had even of God the grace and prerogative to know 
the privy thoughts of all men in their minds and disposition 
towards his Highness, and, if I saw all the power of the world upon 
a hill armed against his Majesty, I would rather run to his Grace 
though I were slain at his Majesty's heels, than to leave his High* 
ness and save myself, I put the judgment of my heart herein to you 
and other noblemen that have and can try faithful hearts. At thi^ 
day my Lord of Lennox and I do sail towards Scotland, God send 
us well to speed, and to your lordship health and encrease of hor 
nour, praying your good lordship to give further credence to this 
bearer, my servant, and thus Almighty God grant unto you, mine 
own good lord, your noble heart's desire. From the King's Ma- 
jeisty's haven of Skerries, the 15th of November, 1545." 

In the parliament of the second year of Elizabeth, Thomas 
Fitz Williams of Holmpatrick was one of the knights of the shire 
representing this county, the celebrated Chief Baron Finglas of 
Westpalstown, who was his father-in-law, being the other. 

In 1575 a great plague having broken out in Dublin, the Lord 
Deputy Sidney landed at Skerries, and was sworn and kept his 
court at Drogheda. 

In 1578 Sir Thomas Fitz Williams of Baggotrath and Merrion, 
bad a grant of the monastery of Holmpatrick with its possessions 
therein fully detailed, including eight cottages, ISIa. arable, 12a. 
meadow, 18a. pasture and furze, and the custom of the said cot- 
tages in the town of Holmpatrick, being the demesne-lands of 
said pripry, one water-mill with the appurtenances, and one wind- 
mill upon the hill called Chanon hill, four islands by the haven of 
Skerries, other premises at Skerries as before enumerated, certain 
premises in the hamlet of Bamegarragh, one messuage, two toU 

2 o 


tagesi 1 1& aeres, and tbe custom of the farmers of daul meflsoag^y 
Mid cottages in the town or hamlet of Cogbragh (Cabragh) ; one 
messuage, siity acres arable, three stangs of meadow, and the cus- 
toms of the farmers of said messoages and cottages, in the town of 
New Ghinge; two messuages, six cottages, 144 acres of land, and 
the customs of the farmers of said messuages and cottages, in the 
town of Milwardeston ; one messuage, one cottage, sixty-two acres 
of land and nmilar customs, in the town or hamlet of Lanie ; one 
castle, one messuage, three cottages, 185 acres, and similar cus- 
toms, in the town or hamlet of Hacketstown; four tenements with 
their gardens, and eight acres of land in Swords, certain premises 
in Piercystown, Dallabrocan, Hamestown, Balniddery, Mallahonie, 
and Thurleston, besides certain lands and tithes in the county of 
Meath, also the rectory and church of Holmpatrick, with all tithes 
and profits thereto belonging, and also the custom and poundage 
of all wares and merchandise on the quay of Skerries, wrecks of 
the sea, flotsam, jetsam, waifs, strays, goods left and forsaken, 
profits and commodities happening on the premises or being parcel 
thereof, also all customs of the tithe fish, keelage, wreckage^ an- 
chorage, and all other emoluments, Sec, to said quay or creek 
appertaining, the customs of the farmers of the messuages and 
cottages in tbe town or village of Skerries, and the fields of the 
same, &cc.; immediately after which a castle was erected and a gar- 
rison established here. 

In 1614 Sir Charles Wilmot had a grant of the site and cir- 
cuit of this priory, with all the gardens and orchards thereof con- 
taining three acres, and of a crown rent reserved thereout. Sir 
James Fullerton became subsequently seised of the rectory and 
tithes, as also of the lordship and manor of Holmpatrick, which he 
sold in 1608 to Donogh Earl of Thomond,* who thereupon passed 
patent for the same. The regal visitation of 1615 accordingly 
reports the rectory of Holmpatrick as impropriate in that noble- 
man, that the vicar of Balrothery was curate, and that the church 
and chancel were in good repair. For a notice of Skerries in 
1641, see at "Bremore.'* 

" In 1668," (it should be 1669,) says Harris in his History of 

• Rot. in Cane. Hib. 

\ SKERRIES. -^ 431 

WiNuun the Third, « Peter Talbot, titulaf Anshbishop of Dublin^ 
landed at Skerries, and, being hospitably entertained by Oi^tai» 
Coddington that night, did upon his departure the next morning 
take him aside, and with the most affectionate expressions of kind^ 
ness ask what title he had to that estate, for that he observed he 
had expended considerably upon the improvement of it : Codding- 
ton answered, that it was an old estate belonging to the Earl of 
Thomond: Talbot told him that title was worth nothing, that it 
belonged to the church and would be all taken away, and, there- 
fore, advised him to expend no more upon it, but rather to make 
ihe most of it and then desert it, which advice was pressed upon 
him with strong injunctions of secrecy." 

In March, 1675, the Earl of Essex wrote to Secretary Coven- 
try : " This packet brought us in the sad news of the loss of his 
Majesty's yacht in its voyage to Chester, being split upon a little 
rock called the Skerries. It was very full of passengers and many 
men of quality; my Lord of Meath is said to be lost, and his son 
my Lord Brabazon supposed to be so too ; my Lord of Ardglaas, 
with several others, saved themselves upon the rock, where they 
were a day and a night before any vessel arrived to relieve them. 
We hear that the captain and most of his seamen are drowned." 

For a notice of Holmpatrick in 1697, see at «< Lusk." 

In 1721 the Hamiltons of Hacketstown became sefced of thig 
manor and rectory by purchase from the Earl of Thomond, and of 
the town and port of Skerries, and the four islands, parcels of 
Holmpatrick, and the customs of fish, and the customs of Ss. 4d. 
out of every great ship that comes out of France, Spain, and 
Scotland, and four pence out of every such ship coming out of 
England, &c This sale was decreed by the Court of Chancery 
en suit instituted, and subsequently confirmed by the House of 

In 1755 the Irish parliament granted £2000 for the construc- 
tion of the pier, and in 1767, £1500 more for the same purpose. 
It subsequently fell into decay, but was repaired and somewhat 
extended by Hans Hamilton, the father of the present proprietor. 
The round form of the head is objected to as permitting the sea 
to tumble in along the pier, an error which might be easily, and at 
a small expense, corrected by a jetty. In 1788 a patent was 



granted for.two yearlj fairs and a weekly market to be held here, 
subject to a certain crown rent, wliich, together with the chief 
rent of the manor, was recently purchased by his descendant. 

On the sandy shores and fields here the botanist 
will find, arenaria peplotdesy sea sandwort; cerastmm 
semidecandrum^ little mouse-ear chickweed ; glau- 
cium luteum^ yellow homed poppy ; nepeta cataria^ 
catmint ; leonurus cardiaca^ motherwort ; cakUe ma" 
ritima^ sea-rocket ; sinapis alba^ white mustard ; 
raphantts raphanistrum^ wild radish ; anthylUs vul- 
nerariay kidney-vetch, recommended as an excellent 
pasturage for sheep ; carex arenaria^ sea-sedge, flow- 
ering in July ; lithospermum maritimumy sea grom- 
well. — Between the rocks, conferva selacea^ bristly 
conferva, which is said to yield a fine lake-coloured 
fluid on being macerated for a short time in fresh 
water ; and on the coast between Skerries and Bal- 
briggan, cenanthe peticedanifoliay sulphur wort, water 
dropwort, thrown in from the sea; vxiA focus dentatus^ 
indented fucus. 

Leaving Skerries for Balduugan, the village of 
Hacketstown presents itself, where was formerly the 
parish chapel of Holmpatrick; near it is the secluded 
demesne, twice the summer residence of the Marquis 
Wellesley, when Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. King 
James granted this place with the small castle, three 
cottages, 1 35a., and certain yearly customs, " parcel 
of the estate of the then late monastery of Holm- 
patrick,'* to Thomas Chatham, in fee. 

At a short distance, on a swelling hill, appear the 
ruined castle and church of 



iEi conspicuous landmark for miles around it, while the 
eminence itself commands an extensive prospect both 
by sea and land. 

The castellated remains, as described by Grose, 
consisted on the west end of two square towers with a 
parapet in front, covering a connecting passage. — 
From these towers a regular building was carried 
on each side, but narrower, to which a similar tower 
was joined at the north-east angle, but at the south- 
east was only a small tower with stairs leading to the 
battlements. On the front were the arms of the 
Lords of Howth. A few feet south-east from the 
square, he adds, is a small chapel with a large chancel, 
and on the west end a square steeple with stone steps 
leading to the top, where there are two apertures for 
bells. All the windows, doors, and openings in the 
tower and church are pointed Gothic. The walls of 
the church and of that part of the tower, which is 
near the fabric, had perforations about four or five 
inches square, probably intended for the play of mus- 
quetry, on the occasion hereafter mentioned. The cas- 
tie is, however, now completely wasted, and the church 
alone presents some traces of die description. The 
aisle is about twenty-fi^ve yards long, by six and a half 
broad. There is a cemetery adjacent, in which are 
several tombstones, but none worthy of note. 

The parish is in the deanery of Garristown, and 
comprises 857a. 3r, Up., in the one denomination. 


The rectory is wholly impropriate in the Earl of 
Howth, who is also the chief proprietor of the soil. 
Rent here varies from £2 to £2 10^. per acre, wages 
being about tenpence per day. There is neither 
church, glebe-house, nor glebe in the parish. Its po- 
pulation in 1831 was eighty-eight persons, all Catho- 
lics, according to the Report of 18S5, while the Poor 
Inquiry Report of the same year states die number 
of its labourers as 400, of whom 100 are permanently 
employed, 240 occasionally, and sixty almost always 
unemployed. But, as this return is utterly inconsistent 
with the total population of Baldungan, it must have 
inadvertently included some other parish, probably 
Holmpatrick, which in the Catholic dispensation is 
united with Baldungan. 

A considerable portion of Baldungan was, soon after the Eng- 
lish invasion, acquired by the Knights Templars, who establish- 
ed there a religious house which they dedicated to the Blessed 
Virgin. This chiqpel the Archbishop of Dublin afterwards granted 
to the religious house of Kilbixy. See " Balrothery'' at the year 

On the suppression of the Templars Reginald de BerneTal 
(Barnewall) became seised of the lands of Baldungan, from whose 
family they passed, by marriage, to the de Berminghams, while 
the chapelry was tributary to the church of Lusk, the advowsoa 
being io the latter family. 

In the beginning of the sixteenth century this was the seat of 
Bichard de Bermingham, Elsq., whose sister and heiress, Anne, 
was married to Sir Christopher St. Lawrence, Lord of Howth^ 
by which marriage the estate, with the advowson of the churchy 
passed into that family. It, however, continued to be held fos 
some time as of the Bamewalls* manor of Balrothery. 

For notices of the church in 1530, see at " Lusk,** and in 
1532, see at " Bahothery.'' 


In 1539 the Rectory of Baldungan was taxed to the First 
Fruits at £3 13«. 4d^ and the vicarage at £11 I9s, lld,y Irish. 

In 1591 a recovery was suffered to the use of the St. Law- 
rence family, of " the manor" with the town and lands of Baldun- 

In 1612 Robert Bamewall of Dunbroe, and John Cusack of 
Cosinstown, were seised in fee of the manor, &c. of Baldungan, 
with th^ appurtenances, one castle,, six messuages, and 800a., with 
Balleston, 80a., Leyton, 60a., &c. 

The regal visitation of 1615 reports this as a small rectory, of 
the annual value of twenty marks, that Thomas Wood was then 
the incumbent, that the church and chancel were wholly rujnous, 
and the pro6ts of the living therefore sequestered. 

In 1641 Thomas Fitz William, who seems to have been the 
lessee of .Lord Howth, fortified and held out this castle for the 
tonfederates of the Pale against the parliamentary forces. It was 
ultimately surrendered when the greater part of the fortifications- 
yv9S blown up with gunpowder. Cromwell is said to have 8ubse« 
quently battered the remains from his ships, but it appears somewhat 
problematical, from the intervening distance, that any such event 
could have occurred, at least from sea. The Husseys soon after- 
wards acquired a derivative interest in Baldungan, and in 1663 
the right of Matthias Hussey therein, after his father^s death, was 
decreed and saved in the patent of Sir Thomas Wharton, while 
Lord Howth, having shewn that he had not participated in the 
war of 1641, was restored to his full rights herein. 

The circumstances, under which the first view. of 
Baldungan brd^e upon the author's notice, caoiiot be 
forgotten. It was at the earliest dawn of the inorn- 
ing, and from the ascent of that hill which has been 
noted under the martial appellation of the Man of 
War. Looking eastward the valleys to the sea wore a 
singularly interesting appearance, filled so entirely with 
the morning mists that all seemed one sheet of water, 
from whose bosoin^ calmly majestic, rose the summits 


as of island hills basking in the first beams of day. 
By degrees a gentle gale shifted the vapours that 
curtained the lowland, the scenery broke from this 
hoary chaos, and first the massy walls and towers of 
Baldungan kindled in the early light upon a neigh- 
bouring eminence. In flitting succession every hill 
threw off its whitening shroud even to the base, 
chasms opening in the valleys expanded to the enthu- 
siastic gaze, until at length, all undrawn, every rock, 
every promontx)ry of the coast was distinctly defined, 
beyond which the billows of the Irish sea danced in a 
boundless expanse of wavy light. 

The road from Baldungan to Balrothery is hilly, 
and commands fine views of land and sea from 
Clogher Head to Howth. Passing Milverton, a great 
portion of which was in the seventeenth century the 
estate of Viscount Fitz Harding, having been for- 
feited by William Treves and John Arthure in the 
war of 1641, and is now the estate of Mr. James 
Hans Hamilton, and the residence of Mr. Wood, an 
obscure little burial-ground succeeds, called Saint 
Mavie. Hampton, the handsome seat of Mr. Hamil- 
ton next invites attention, and presently appear the 
interesting ruins of Balrothery, and in the distance 
Balbriggan whitening all the beach. 


was an ancient manor of the Bamewalls, extending 
over the townlands of Balruddery, Flemington, Ste- 
phenstown, Corkean, Turkentown, Ballaston, Ley- 


ton, Newmane, PercivaPs freehold, Baldungan, &c. 
The common of the Ring here comprises thirty acres, 
and is partly composed of bog, on which the tenants 
of the town have still common of turbary. 

The village, which, before the diversion of the 
great northern road into the Ashbourne line, was 
much more prosperous, presents a long, straggling, 
ruinous range of cabins, that are let without land 
each for about £1 10^. per annum. At the nearer 
end of the town, on a commanding height, are some 
fine ruins of the old church, presenting a square 
steeple with one angular rounded tower, somewhat 
resembling that adopted in the architecture of Lusk 
church. The church here is a plain modem addition 
to this steeple, and contains no monuments. Near 
it is a glebe of nineteen acres, with a glebe-house 
upon it, while there is another glebe of eleven acres 
at the distance of three-quarters of a mile. In the 
graveyard are monuments to the Crosthwaites, the 
Moneypennies in 1743, an old vault of the Hamil- 
tons, in which Baron Hamilton was interred in 1793, 
&c. In the adjoining field is a portion of a square 
castellated mansion. There is also an old Roman 
Catholic chapel here. 

Near this town, according to Doctor Rutty, be- 
sides plenty of iron-mine, are several varieties of the 
iron-stone which are attracted by the magnet in their 
crude state. The fields about this place and Lusk 
used formerly to supply the clothiers of Dublin with 
the dipsacus sativus, or teasel plant, the richness of 
the soil contributing greatly to its luxuriance, although 

458 cjOunty of Dublin. 

the heads thus produced have fewer hooks in the same 
8pace» than when they shoot from a poorer soil. Those 
imported from £!ngland were, however, found more 
effective than the Irish, and machinery has now super- 
seded all. 

The parish, which includes Balbriggan, bears the 
name of this village, and, as the rectory is impropriate 
in the trustees of Wilson*s Hospital, it ranks as but a 
vicarage in thfe gift of the Baker family. In the Ro- 
' maa Catholic parochial arrangement it is united to 
Balscadden. It contains 6884a. 1r. 38p. in thirty- 
seven towniands, and a population which was in 183L 
returned, exclusive of Balbriggan, as 2062 persons. 
In the village are male and female schools, for the 
support. of which the National Board have allowed 
£25 per annum. The number of pupils in the 
former was returned in 1834 as 206- Tlie Poor In- 
quiry Report of 1835 calculates that there are 600 
labourers in this parish, of whom 200 are permanently 
employed, 350 occasionally, and 50 ahnost always un- 
employed. It also states, what should not be omitted* 
that " diis parish has been distinguished in the worst 
of times for the quiet and peaceable conduct of its 
inhabitants." The average acreable rent is about 
£1 Ibs.f exclusive <rfthe town parks in the neigh- 
bourhood of Balbriggan. The principal proprietors 
are the Marquis of Lansdowne, Mr. Hamilton, Mr.' 
Smith of Beau, Mr. Baker, the Hon. and Rev. Mr. 
Taylor, Mr. Hutcheson, &c. 

About the year 1200, the Archbishop of Dublin gave the 
church of Bakothery, with the chapels of Baldungan and Lam- 


bedior at Bremore, and all other appurtenances, to the rel^ioas 
house of the Blessed Virgin of Kilhixy, and to the canons there 
aenring God, to hold same in frankalmoign* reserving an annual 
rent out of the church of Balrothery to that of Lusk, in conae^ 
quence of which, in a few years afterwarda, this church was sot^bt 
to be recovered, as an appendage to ihe rectory of Lusk; the claim 
was, however, on suit moved, rejected, and the said church was 
confirmed to the house of Kilbixy, together with all its appur* 
tenances, and also, all the tithes of the mill of Balrothery, and a 
messuage outside the walls of Dublin, near that viflage of Hogges, 
on whose site College-green now stands. 

In. 1205 King John, by charter, granted to the coaunonaky of 
the counties of Dublin and Meath, commonage of tunbary, in the 
bogs of Garristown, Balrothery, &c., to hold to them and their 
successors in pure and peipetual alms, which right was actually so 
enjoyed by the grantees and their successors for upivards of two 
hundred years, when they cxunplained to the king that the trust 
was abused by some eaercisingthe right in improper places, Jind 
digging deep pits therein^ &c. 

In 1262 William de ClMtonia, Prior of St. Mary's of Kilbixy, 
ratified the Archbishop of Dublin's collation of John de Cambridge 
to the vicarage of Balrothery, saving, however, the right of patron* 
age on the decease or resignation of the said John. 

Previous to the year 1S18, Sir Hugh de Lacy was possessed 
of part of Bahrothery, but he having aided the Scotch invader 
Bruce and his adherents, his several lands were forfeited at that 
period, and those in particular were granted to Richard de Ide- 
ahall, (Isdall,) and his heirs. In 1343 Richard de Constantino was 
seised of the manor of Balrothery, and in 1344 Walter de Croise 
paid a fine of half a mark for his father's transgression in acquiring 
the manor of Balrothery, from the aforesaid Richard de Constan- 
tine, without having obtained the king's license. 

In 1885 the king presented John Gifiard, clerk, to this living. 
Soon afterwards Robert Burnell, an ancestor of that ancient family 
which afterwards settled at Balgriffin, held in fee half the barony 
of Bahrothery. In 1402 the king granted Balrothery and certain 
other lands in the barony, to^ Richard Cloptoun. In 1410 l^rs 


Christopher Preston and Edward Ferrers were assigned to overset 
the aforesaid bogs of Garrbtown, Balrothery, &c. 

In 1415 the king granted the custody of all the manors^ lands, 
&c^ which Catherine, then late wife of Reginald BarnewaU, held 
in Drymnagh, Ballyfermot, Tyrenure, Bahrothery, icc^ to be held 
during the minority of said Reginald's heir. And in the same 
year, Nicholas Hill, Archdeacon of Dublin, and vicar of this 
church, had the royal licende to absent himself from Ireland for 
four years, to remain at the Court of Rome, and during the in- 
terval receive the profits of his ecclesiastical preferments, without 
incurring the penalties then incident upon non-residence. He 
was subsequently promoted to the deanery of St. Patrick's. For 
a notice of Balrothery in 1530, see ** Lusk." 

In 1532 the church was found to be tributary to Balro- 
thery, which latter was at the same time recognised as a per-* 
petual vicarage appertaining to the Prior of Tristemagh, and 
in a few years afterwards was valued to the First Fruits at 
£11 19f. lOd. The precentor and treasurer of St. Patrick's 
cathedral, Dublin, used at this time to receive a pension of £6 in 
moieties out of this benefice from the farmers of the tithes. An 
inquisition of 1562 ascertains the rights of the Prior of Trister- 
nagh in this parish, in lands, glebes, and tithes. The extent and 
value of the latter are thus specified : — " The tithes of com in the 
townland of Ballymoone, and its subdenominations of Cusack's 
farm, Burnell's land, Pippard's land, Argillan, Bangyrath, Baltra, 
and Ley ton, annual value, besides reprises, £11 ; the tithes of 
great Folkston, and little Folkstone, £4 ; Cloghrudder, and Tan- 
kardstown, £2 2s. ; Balbriggan, £2 ; Darcystown, and the great 
farm of Curdagh, £6 ; Knockingen, Flemingstown, and Harbards- 
town, six shillings, &c. The hospital of St. John of Jerusalem had 
also some landed possessions within this parish, as then similarly 
ascertained. Balrothery was then accounted amongst ** the walled 
and good towns" of this county. For a notice of the possessions 
of the Plunkett family here in 1582, see at *< Dunsoghly." 

In 1590 all the estates of the religious house of Tristernagh, 
including Balrothery, were leased and subsequently granted to 
Captain Piers, while in 1600 Thomas Ram, Bishop of Ferns and 


Leighlidy held its vicarage in commendam, vacant by the death of 
Richard Thompson, and in 1610 the king presented Ralph Kier- 
nan thereto, who was succeeded in the following year by James 
Clarke, and Clarke in 1613 by Thomas Fagher. For a notice of 
the possessions of the Plunketts here in 1611, see at << Dubber/' 

The regal visitation book of 1615 returns Balrothery as a rec- 
tory impropriate to the priory of Tristernagh, its vicarage being 
of the value of. £30, and filled by Thomas Fagher, and adds that 
the church and chancel were in good repair. 

In 1622 the king presented John Bynes to this vicarage with 
that of Kilsallaghan. In both of which he was succeeded in 1625 
by Robert Worrall. For a notice in 1629 of the Fagan property 
jiere, see at << Kilmainham." 

In 1625 Peter Barnewall was seised in fee taU of the manor of 
Balrothery, the town of Ballymad, four messuages, sixty acres, 
&c. For a notice in 1637, see " Lough Shinny/* 

In 1641 the right of holding three annual fairs and a weekly 
market was conceded to this town, and in the same year Sir 
Henry Tichburne, having received notice from the Lords Justices 
that a reinforcement sent to him from Dublin was likely to be at- 
tacked on the way by the rebels, marched out of Drogheda with 
a competent force to meet them ; they, however, mutinied at 
Balrothery, and would proceed no farther. 

In. 1647 an engagement took place here, which is commemo- 
rated in an ancient manuscript, entitled << a bloody fight at Bal. 
ruddery," though possibly it was only one of those conflicts of 
petty faction, which, until very recently, were of too frequent oc- 
currence over the country. 

la 1665 the sheriff of the county of Dublin was by a vote of 
the house of commons ordered to restore to his Royal Highness, 
James Duke of York, the possession of the lands of Dromore, 
Cloghruddery, part of Babuddery, Ballyscadden, &C., of which 
liis Grace had been unjustly disseised by the ter-tenants. 

In 1666 Knockingen, 185a., Knock, 69a., part of Balrothery, 
30a., Leyton, 133a., Turkinstown, 56a., Castleland, 43a., Rath, 
143a., Blackball, 98a., Stephenstown, 233a., &c., plantation mea- 
sure, were granted by patent to the aforesaid James Duke of 
York by that infamous policy, which, on the restoration enriched 


the sons of the marfyred king« with the estates which their mu 
cient proprietors forfeited with their lives in his service ; 

** The gallant cavaliers, who fought in vain 
For those who knew not to resign or reign." 

In 1669 Lord Gormanston had a grant of the Inch of Balro- 
thery, 61a. profitahle, and 19a. unprofitable, plantation measure. 
For a notice of Balrothery in 1697, see post, at " Balscadden.'* 

In 1700 Robert Lord Lucas claimed an estate in fee in Balro- 
thery, as also in 50a. in Rathcoole, with other lands, in right of a 
patent thereof in 1674 to Sir Edward Sutton, and which were for- 
feited by King James ; his claim was, however, disaUowed. In 
1703 the trustees of the forfeited estates sold to Sir Robert Ech- 
lin all those lands in the parish stated to have been granted to 
James Duke of York, and which were forfeited on his attainder* 
For a notice in 1718, see at " Balbriggan." 

There are in the Consistorial Court of Dublin two terriers of 
1753 and 1783, respectively defining the rights and endowment 
of the vicarage of Balrothery. 

In 1811 the Board of First Fruits granted £250, and lent 
£550 more towards building the glebe-house here, and in 1813 the 
same body lent £1000 towards building the church. 

In sbady places about Balrothery the botanist will 
find lathrasa squamaria^ greater toothwort, flower- 
ing early in May. — In the adjacent drains and bog 
pits, alisma natans, floating water plantain, a scarce 
and curious plant, stretching its ovate leaves over the 
water ; hydrocharis morsus rance^ frogbit. — While 
between this and Balbriggan, chara flexilis^ smooth 
chara, and the marsh mallow, are singularly abund- 

Proceeding, amidst the perfume of hawthorn blos- 
soms, towards Balbriggan, Hampton Hall, the resi- 
dence of Mr. George Alexander Hamilton, and Pros- 

«Ai;BftW30AK* 468 

peet, formerly a seat of the Earl of Bectire^ appear 
at right between the road and the sea, while at led 
are the mills of Stephenstown, and the head and race^ 
trhich at times pour their superfluous waters in a lit^ 
tie cataract through the town of 


more anciently called Ballybriggen, into which the 
village of Balrothery appears to glide imperceptibly. 

Balbriggati has been a very thriving place, but, 
by the decline of the cotton factories, the withdraw- 
ing of the fishery bounties, and the diversion of the 
great Northern road, the advantages, which its pro- 
prietors zealously laboured to promote, have been con- 
siderably impeded. Its population was returned in 
1831 as 3016 persons. Strictly, it constituted a cha^ 
pelry in the deanery of Garristown, impropriate in 
the Hamilton family. It ranks, however, in common 
parlance, as a townland in the parish of Balrothery, 
both in the Catholic and Protestant dispensations. 

A very handsome church was founded here in 
1813 at an expense of £3018, of which the sum of 
£1400 was given by the Board of First Fruits, £478 
raised by voluntary contributions, as Mr. G. A. Ha- 
milton states, from the Roman Catholics and Protest- 
ants of the neighbourhood, and the remainder was 
the free gift of the Reverend George Hamilton and 
his family. That gentleman also settled an endow- 
ment for the curate. The edifice constructed in these 
kindly and liberal feelings was accidentally burned in 


1833, but is now in progress of being rebuilt, the 
Ecclesiastical Commissioners having granted £480 
in aid of the object. There is no graveyard attached, 
the parochial burial ground being at Balrothery, but 
under the church is the family vault of the Hamiltons 
of Hampton. There is here also an old Roman Ca- 
tholic chapel, and an extensive modem one, on a new 
site, will probably be finished before these sheets are 

A parliamentary report of 1826 states two schools 
as then existing here, at one of which eighty-seven 
Roman Catholic boys and one Presbyterian were edu- 
cated, each scholar paying from one penny to four- 
pence per week, and in the other forty-seven Roman 
Catholic girls and three Presbyterian, to the mistress 
of which the parish priest allowed £3 per annum and 
a ton of coals. There was also another school re- 
ported at the same time as existing in Balrothery- 
street where twenty-four Protestant and ten Catho- 
lic children were educated, and to which the Rev. 
Mr. Hamilton and the Rev. Mr. Baker contributed 
£5 each. 

The town appears built on as many hills as old 
Rome itself, the only good street, however, for pri- 
vate residence, is George-street. House rent and 
lodgings are unreasonably high in price, while the 
markets are dear and scantily supplied. A crescent 
of bathing villas would be extremely likely to suc- 
ceed here, and to offer ulterior consequent advan- 
tages for the outlay of capital, nor is it improbable 
that before long, on the construction of the proposed 


Drogheda Railway, and under the auspices of such a 
proprietor as Mr. G. A. Hamilton, these speculations 
may be fully realized. A small stream, which turns 
several flour mills, empties itself through the town 
into the sea, which here presents a fine bathing 

The harbour is the only place of shelter, for ves- 
sels exposed to severe weather, between the bays of 
Dublin and Carlingford, and, as it is all clear ground 
and soft sand, a vessel in a storm from east, without 
anchor or cable, may venture to run herself aground 
within it, at least when there is sufficient water, which 
within the pier head is about fourteen feet at high 
water springs, but it is all dry at low water. The 
pier is a rough mole projecting into the sea about 
600 feet, with a lofty wall eighteen feet thick at its 
base, and protected on the outside by a considerable 
rampart of great rocks, to defend it from the waves. 
It was built by the late Baron Hamilton at an ex- 
pense of about £15,000 of which £1500 was grant- 
ed to him by the Irish parliament in 1761, and 
£3752 in 1765. About the year 1829 an inner 
dock, or harbour, was constructed at a cost of about 
£3000, of which £1314 7*. 9d. was granted by 
the late Irish Fishery Board, £100 by the Marquis 
of Lansdowne, and the remainder defrayed' by the 
late Rev. George Hamilton, then proprietor. His 
son, Mr. George A. Hamilton, has also expended 
considerable sums in supporting and improving the 
structure. The Ballast Board have built an excel- 
lent light-house on the pier head, and at the opposite 

2 H 


«ide of the creek is a Msrteno tower. WSkhin tKtt 
liurbour ships of two hundred tons can unload, and 
lu^cordingly such vessels do carry in here slates, ceal% 
and culm from Wales, also rock salt and bark, while 
It^ exports are com and cattle, and the quay is &ei^ 
quently completely occupied with such craft; In 
Staking die harbour from the northward by nighty care 
'must be taken to aroid the Carjoe rock, which iiet 
U>0Qt a 'mile from the pier. 

The BaUast Board collect the harbour dues ondef 
Obe authority of the acts of parliament, 26 Geo. 3, c; 
'19; 3« <jpeo. 3, ^. 26, s. 9 ; and 32 Geo. 8, c. 35, 9. 
65 ; Under the provision thi^ the sums so collected 
ahafl be laid out in the repairs and improvement of 
the respective ports. The dues collected here are 
vikjience per tdnon the regifijtered tonnage of each 
trader landing ^oods in the port, one penny per ton 
Ak the support of the quay walls, and Is. 8d. per 
ton for every tcm of ballast taken. The repairs are 
•teecnted under die direction and superintendence of 
l)he Hamilton fionily, whereby an obvious and sen- 
vioeable check is reciprocally created. How more 
than faithfuUy^ the funds have been applied appears 
from tiie tots of' the last return, furnished by Mr. G. 
A. Hamilton as for seven years, commencing in Jar 
nuary, 1827. 

£ s. di 
Expended, in that interval, in the repairs of Bal- 

briggan harbour 2387 1 6 

Received, during same, under the authority of said 

acts, 1740 1 6 

Expended by the Hamilton family, over and above 

the receipts 647 


In 1&29 the tonnage of the vessels employed here 
was reported as 2513, and the number of the fisher- 
men as 863. In the following year the number of 
.fishermen employed from this port increased to 934, 
while the report of the last year on the Irish Fishe* 
ries states only twelve boats, of from twenty-five to 
fifty-seven tons burden, engaged here, each employ*- 
ifig six or eight men. Besides the cotton mills, here- 
after alluded to, there is also a salt work here, which 
does a great deal of business. 

A regular vein of sparry micaceous stone, fit for 
the manufacture of pure crystal glass, has been dis- 
covered here, also a small vein of copper and sul* 
phur by that indefatigable mineralogist Donald Stew^ 

The records of this locality are so identified with those of 
Balrothery, already enumerated, that few remain for notice here* 

In 1635 Peter Barnewall was seised in fee tail, of two mes- 
suages and 40a. here, which he held of the king in capite by knight'« 

On the drd of July, 1690, King William encamped here after 
the battle of the Boyne. 

In 1700 Thomas Baker ckimed a leasehold interest in 60a. 
here, part of the forfeitures of the Earl of Tyrconnel, and his 
claim was allowed; while in 1703 James Kiernan of Dublin ob- 
tained a grant of Little Balbriggan, and the mill, 60a. Stc, which 
had been also the estate of Richard then late Earl of Tyrconnel 
attainted, and previously granted by said Earl to Viscount 6ydney> 
and sold by him in 1698 to said Kiernan. 

In 1718 the Barnewall property in Balbriggan and Balrothery 
was purchased by Alexander, the son of Hugh Hamilton of Eri- 
nagh and Ballybrenagh, in the County of Down, firom whom it 
has lineally descended to the present proprietor. 

In 1780 Baron Hamilton, then proprietor of this pUce, esta- 



hiisbed extensive cotton works here, for the promotion of which 
parliament granted the sum of £1250 ; but it was in some years 
afterwards nearly abandoned for the hosiery manufacture. Two 
cotton works, however, revived here ; one having a forty-eight 
horse power with 8060 spindles, capable of producing SOOOlbs. 
of twist per week, and employing about 110 persons; the other 
having a thirty-six horse power, with 4452 spindles, capable of 
producing 44001bs. of twist per week, employing 205 persons. Both 
these existed until recently, when one stopped ; the surviving con- 
cern employs about 100 persons of both sexes and all ages. In 
reference to the hosiery business, Mr. Hamilton states, that there 
are factories here capable of producing sixty dozen of stockings 
in the week, while there are also 942 looms in the town and 
neighbourhood for the weaving of calicoes, cords, and checks. 

The Dublin Chronicle of August 18th, 1791, contains a very 
vivid description of a perambulation of the franchises of this town, 
which had been then recently celebrated. It describes the pa- 
geant as classified in six bodies, the tailors, smiths, weavers, butch- 
ers, brewers, and spinners, attended by their carriages, in which 
were displayed the practical operations of the several fabrics of 
the town. 

In 1795 Earl Fitz William landed at Balbriggan, to assume 
the government of Ireland. 

The student of nature will find here in the hedges, 
or on the adjacent sandy places, cynoglossum st/lvati" 
cuniy green-leaved hound's-tongue, a very disagreeably 
scented plant ; arenaria peploidesy sea sandwort ; ce- 
rastium semidecandrum^ little mouse-ear chickweed ; 
gUmcum luteum^ yellow-horned poppy ; sonchits (or- 
vensiSf com sow thistle. — In the fields, cichorhtm 
intt/bus, wild succory, with its broad succulent leaves, 
but as the stems become hard with age, it is unfit to 
be made into hay : the flowers, which appear in July 
and August, are of a fine blue colour. This plant is 
much used in France as a salad ; while the roots, cut 


into small pieces, aiid slightly roasted, are employed 
as a substitute for coflPee in some parts of Germany ; 
and in Belgium, a portion of chichory is generally 
mixed with coflPee-beans. — In the marshes, apium 
graveolens, wild celery : and, on the adjacent shorcy 
pulmonaria maritima^ sea \\xiigviort\fuctis aculeatiis^ 
prickly fucus \ fucus plicatus^ matted fucus; atriplex 
lavinicUa, frosted sea orache, &c. : while, in reference 
to its conchology, the bulla hydatisj the helix cin- 
gendoy and the serpula granulata have been found on 
the surrounding shore. 

In the immediate vicinity of Balbriggan is Hamp- 
ton Hall, before alluded to, the residence of George 
Alexander Hamilton, Esq. It extends along, the 
shore from Balbriggan to Skerries, contains about 
500 acres, is well wooded, greatly diversified with hill 
and valley ; and, through vistas of the woods, com- 
mands sea views of exceeding beauty. The house, 
which was erected by Baron Hamilton, is a handsome 
building ; the pleasure-grounds and hot-houses exten- 

Although the noble family of " Hamilton" is not 
strictly connected by ancient tenure with the last 
mentioned locality, yet has it been for upwards of a 
century wedded to Balbriggan with the more morally 
gratifying, and, in Ireland, unfortunately rare distinc- 
tion, of giving to its inhabitants an inheritance of 
landlords, who, amidst all the discouragements of Irish 
trade, and dissensions of Irish society, have laboured 
to maintain the prosperity and happiness of their te- 
nantry. The following memoir of 


The Family op Hamilton 

may therefore, it is hoped, be here allowed as a tribute, which the 
writer will be ever rejoiced to pay where claimed by such honour- 
able services. 

This illustrious house claims to derive its origin from Bernard, 
a noble of the blood royal of Saxony, second in command to 
Rollo, the first Duke of Normandy, in 876. Humphrey, the great 
grandson of this nobleman, lived in the eleventh century, founded 
and endowed the Abbey of Preaux, in Normandy, and was there 
buried. His son, Roger de Beaumont, was one of the council 
who persuaded William the Conqueror to invade England : and 
his son Robert married the grand-daughter of Henry the First, King 
of France, commanded the right wing of the Duke of Normandy 
at the battle of Hastings, and was created Earl of Leicester in 
1103. Robert, the third Earl of Leicester, grandson of the first, 
died and was buried in Greece, on his return from the Holy 
Land in 1190 ; and his sister, it may he remarked, having been 
married to the Earl of Pembroke, was mother of Strongbow, the 
invader of Ireland. The eldest son of this last named Robert 
died without issue $ his second son, Roger, was Bishop of Saint 
Andrews; and his third son, William, having been born at Ham- 
bledon or Hamilton, in Leicestershire, took the surname ^'de 
Hamilton" from that place, and was the more especial stock of the 
widely diffused families of that name. About the year 1215, 
having gone into Scotland to visit his sister, who was married to 
the Earl of Winton, he was there well received by the Scottish 
king, under whose favour he settled in that country, and inter- 
married with the daughter and representative of the Earl of Stra- 
thern. His son. Sir Gilbert, married Isabella, the niece to King 
Robert Bruce, the issue of which marriage Sir Walter, or perhaps 
more correctly, Sir William Hamilton, particularly distinguished 
himself at Bannockburn, where he received the honour of knight- 
hood under the banner on the field. 

His son. Sir Gilbert, having spoken honourably of the great 
merits of Robert Bruce, in the court of Edward King of England 


hk 13^5, receifed an insult from J oho dc Spencer wlitch led, to i 
rencontre in which the latter felL Hamilton thereupon, appre^ 
bensive of court influence and resentment against him, fled to 
Scotland. In thib his ffight being closelj pursued into a forest,- 
he mud. his sen'ant chatiged clothes with two wood cutters, and 
taking their saw were cutting through an oak tree when their pur-* 
iuen came up. Perceiving his servant's attention too much fixed 
i^pon them, he hastily reminded him of his assumed duty by the 
word ** through V rebuked by which presence of mind the servant 
renevffed his work, the pursuers passed on unsuspecting, and Siv 
Gilbert adopted the call ** through" with the oak tree and saw a» 
bt$ motto and crest. Soon after his arrival in Scotland he obtained 
a gnmt of the barony of Cadzow, in Lanark^ire,, theniceforth! 
called Hamilton. 

lo 1346 Sir David Hambleton of Cadsow, accompanied King 
David Bruce to the battle of Durham, where he was taken prisoner 
with his royal master^ but soon after ransomed* He was subse- 
quently one of the Magnates Scotis, who assembled at Scobe to. 
acknowledge John Earl of Carrioky eldest son of King Robert the 
Second, undoubted heir of the crown. 

In 1357 the earliest mention of the name appear^ to occur in 
Ireland, when the king committed the custody of the manor of 
Prongan, during the minority of its heir, to Thomas de Hamilton.* 
In 1455 Sir John Hamilton, grandson of the befbre-men-; 
tioned Sir David of Cadzow, was joined with the Earl of Angus 
hi the command of the royal army on the memorable occasion 
when the Earl of Douglas was totally routed. In 1474 Sir James 
HatnilioD, Lord Hamilton of Cadzow, a lineal descendant of WiU 
ham de Hamilton who first assumed the name, was married to 
the Princess Mary, eldest daughter of James the Second, King ol 
Scotland. His daughter married the Earl of Lennox and Darn-' 
ley, and was ancestress of James the First of England. 

James Hamilton, second Earl of Arran, was Regent of Scot- 
land in 1543, &c. during the minority of Queen Mary, was declared 
next to her the second person in the kingdom, and was created 
Duke of Chattelherault by Henry the Second of France. 

In 1608 Hans Hamilton, the Uneal descendant of the Lords 
of Cadiow, died minister of Dunlop in Scothnd. His eldest son. 


James Hamilton was the first of the fiimily who settled in Iralaiid 
in hb father's life-time, having been sent thither with Janes FhI- 
lerton by James the Sixth, afterwards the First of England, to 
encourage hb adherents and secure hb interest in Ireland ; the 
more prudently to effectuate which, and to conceal the real mo- 
tives of their mission, they assumed the character and office of 
school-masters, and actually presided over that grammar achool 
at which Primate Usher received hb early education, and iron 
which he entered Trinity College under said Hamilton, then a 
Fellow of that university. On the accession of King James to the 
crown of England, he rewarded thb his agent's services by exten- 
sive grants of lands in the County Down, and conferred on him 
successively the honor of knighthood and the titles of Viscount 
Claneboy and Earl of Clanbrassil, which titles became extinct by 
the failure of his line in his grandson. Viscount Claneboy also 
acquired considerable estates in the County Louth, by assignment 
from Sir Nicholas Bagnal ; and having invited his brothers from 
Scotland to participate in the advantages which his rank, property, 
and influence gave him in Ireland, ^ve of them came over accord- 
ingly hither. Of these Archibald, the second son of Hans Hamil- 
ton of Dnnlop, became the ancestor of the Hamiltons of Killi- 
leagh and Killough ; Gawen, the third son of Hans, was ancestor 
of Robert Hamilton of the Carragh of Kildare. John Hamilton, 
the fourth son of Hans, settled in Armagh ; he married Sarah, 
daughter of Sir Anthony Brabazon, and was the ancestor of the 
lines of Mount Hamilton in the County of Carlow, of Sheep Hill 
in the County of Dublin, and Rock Hamilton in the County of 
Down. William Hamilton, fifth son of the Rev. Hans, was an- 
cestor to the Hamiltons of Bangor, Tyrella, Balbriggan,(of whom 
hereafter,) and Tollymore, as was Patrick Hamilton of the Hamil- 
tons of Granshaw and Mount Clithero, some of whom returned 
to Scotland, while others are yet established in the barony of 

Early in the aforesaid reign of James the First, another James 
Hamilton, grandson of the Earl of Arran, having been created 
Baron of Abercorn, and soon afterwards Baron of Hamihon, 
Mount Castle, and Kilpatrick, and Earl of Abercorn, had summons 
under the same designations to the Irish House of Peers. He also 


obtained a large grant of lands in the Barony of Strabane and 
County of Tyrone, whereon he built a castle, church, school-house, 
and town. Con Q 'Neili is recorded to have consented to this 
gift of a portion of his immemorial inheritance, in consideration 
of a pardon granted to him by the king at the suit of said James 
Hamilton. Sir William Hamilton had also, about the same time, 
large grants in the said county, which were in 1631 declared for- 
feited to the crown, by reason of said Sir William haying demised 
^e same to '< mere Irish," contrary to the conditions of his let- 
ters patent. In 1615 James Hamilton of Keckton acquired the 
manor of Drumka with the islands in the County of Fermanagh, 
which he afterwards sold to John Archdall, who took out a fresh 
patent for same ; while about that time Robert Hamilton, Esq. 
acquired considerable estates in the said county ; and Sir Gaude 
Hamilton was seised of upwards of 3000 acres in the County 
Cavan, as were other members of this family of different tracts 

In 1618 James, the second Earl .of Abercorn, was created 
Lord Hamilton, Baron of Strabane, which honour was, however, 
on his lordship's petition, transferred to his next brother the Hon. 
Claude Hamilton. In 1623 Malcolm Hamilton, a native of Scot- 
land, and Chancellor of Down, was consecrated Archbishop of 
CasheL In 1626 Sir George Hamilton acquired a most valuable 
interest in lands in the county of Donegal, but forfeited same by 
not taking the oath of supremacy. 

In 1630 the Marquis of Hamilton commanded a force of Bri- 
tish auxiliaries in the service of the King of Sweden. In 1640 
Thomas Hamilton, second E^rl of Haddington, having actively 
espoused the cause of the Covenanters, was blown up in the castle 
of Douglas, (of which he was governor,) with several of his kindred 
and adherents. 

In 1642 Captain William Hamilton was one of those who 
aided in the defence of Drogheda. 

In 1648 James Duke of Hamilton fell a sacrifice to his loyalty, 
and was beheaded, while his brother William, who succeeded to 
the title, was slain at the battle of Worcester in 1661. 

In 1660 James, the third Baron of Strabane, having adhered 
to Sir Phelim O'Neill, held the fort of Charlemont against the 
usurping powers, and on its capture fled to the woods of Monter- 


tUfl(g in the county of Tjroiid, where he wl» taken prisoiier. His 
V«8i etiitates were thereupon coofiscaled, and the possession thereof 
given in 1657 to Edward Roberts^ Esq., his Highoessfs Auditor 
C09er«L Amongst those who sought redress from the Court ei 
CUAi09y in consequence of the Iriaii forfeitures of this period, were 
^r Francb Hamilton for lands in the counties of Cavan and An* 
trim, Sir George Hamilton in Tyrone, Kildaiv, Clare, and Cork, 
James Hamilton in Monaghan, Roscommon, and Meath, Captain 
William Hamilton in Longford, Down, and Tyrone; and Sir Hans 
(the son of William before mentioned as the ancestor of the. Bal^ 
hriggan hue) for lands in the county of Down, of one of wbofe 
boroughs, KiUileagli, he was the representative in parliament. 

In 1659 Archibald Hamilton of Ballygally in the county of 
Tyrone, died seised in fee of upwards of 1200 acres in the county 
of Tyrone. In 1660 Sir Francis Hamilton was one of the com* 
mistfiouers appointed for putting into execution the king^s decla* 
ration, as afterwards embodied in the Act of Settlement, and in 
the same year, Hugh Hamilton was created Baron of Glenawly 
in the county of Antrim. 

In 1667 George Count Hamilton commanded an Irish regi^ 
ment in the service of Louis the Fourteenth, and was engaged ia 
the campaigns of 1673 and 1674 under Marshal Turenne. He 
particularly distinguished himself at the battles of Sentsheim and 
Entsheim, and as the French writers say, «< se surpassa" at the 
battle of Altenheim. In 1674, when Turenne fell in his last cam- 
paign by a cannon boll, the French army was saved from utter 
destruction by the intrepidity of this gallant gentleman. The cir- 
cumstance is detailed with such force and interest by Mr. Matthew 
O'Conor in the following passage of his recently published **• Fie* 
turesque and Historical Recollections of Switzerland, &c., as may 
more than justify the extract : — « At Sabbach, Montecucoli's bat^ 
talions fell back on a defile; Turenne, imagining that he had 
obtained an advantage, advanced to reconnoitre, and a cannon^ 
ball terminated his earthly career. The French army might be 
compared to a ship that had foundered, her sails flapping, her 
masts shattered, the sport of the winds and the waves, without any 
destination. The French colours fluttered, at times advanced, 
then feU back ; while irresolution and dismay marked the move- 
ments of their army. The eagle-eyo of Montecucoli at once 


penetrated into these convulsive motions : ike soul of the French 
aroiy had perished. He recalled his battalions, and his cavalry 
were ordered to the charge, the courage and conduct of one man 
^aved the French from irreparyble defeat. Hamilton, an Irishman^ 
the brother of the author of the • Memoirs of Grammont,' of the 
noble family of Sirabane, who had been bani^ed by Whig bigotry 
from the court of Charles the Second, on account of his Popish 
creed, advanced and covered the retreat. Two Irish regiments 
sustained and repulsed the charge of the imperial catrassiers, and 
during ten successive days bore the brunt of the attacks made by 
the imperial cavalry, until the greater part of the French had re- 
crossed the Rhine. The German infantry was unable to come up 
Ivith the retreating army. At Altenheim, the Irish and some 
French battalions withstood the shock of the imperial army, and 
ultimately effected their retreat. In the military annals of France, 
there is not a prouder day than that of Altenheim* The fame of 
Turenne has been imisortalized by the poets and historians of the 
eighteenth oentury, and expanded by the glories of the age of 
Louis the Fourteenth. The renown of Montecucoli is narrowed 
to the study of his campaigns ; but, as long as the sdence of war 
occupies the cares of mankind, his name will not sank in obUvtoUi 
and he will rank with the great men of his own country, — the 
Colonnas, the Farneses, the Spinolas, and the princes of the house 
pf Savoy." In 1676 this Count Hamilton made the campaign under 
Marshal de Luxembourg, but on the march towards Saverne, was 
killed in the neighbourhood of Zebernsteeg, with a great number 
of the three regiments he commanded, and but for whose gallant 
conduct the French would, as on the former occasion, have been 
entirely cut to pieces. 

In 1688 Richard Hamilton, a Roman Catholic General, the 
fifih son of George Hamilton of Donalong in the County Tyrone, 
an eitainent officer in the service of Charles the First, and who 
had himself served with considerable reputation in France, but 
was banished on account of his imprudent addresses to the king's 
daughter, the Princess of Conti ; was afterwards engaged in the 
service of King James in Ireland, and at the battle of the Boyne 
led the Irish itifmitry to the very maurgin of the river to expose 
the passage of the French and English. He was taken prisoner 
on that occasion at the last charge. So great a majority, how« 


ever, of the Hamiltons espoused the cause of Kin^ William, that no 
le^ than forty six of the name were attainted or otherwise proscribed 
in King James's parliament of 1689. In that parliament Claude 
Hamilton, the fifth Baron of Strabane, was one of the sitting 
Roman Catholic peers. He attended King James from France, 
and would Have returned thither after the battle of the Boyne^ 
but perished in the voyage; the estates and title of Strabane 
having been forfeited by his previous outlawry, were, however, 
restored to his brother Charles. 

At the' same period Captain James Hamilton, a kinsman of 
the said Baron Strabane, who had been for a time in the ser- 
vice and confidence of James the Second, espoused the cause if 
William, and took a distinguished part for him at the siege of 
Londonderry. He afterwards succeeded to the Earldom of 
Abercorn, but continuing to reside in Ireland was created Barod 
Mountcastle and Viscount Strabane. Gustavus Hamilton, a 
grandson of Lord Paisley, having also distinguished himself in the 
service of King William at Aughrim and the Boyne, and yet more 
especially by *^ wading through the Shannon and storming the 
tower of Athlone at the head of the English grenadiers," received 
a grant of 5382 acres in this country, and was in 1714 created 
Baron Hamilton of Stackallan, and in 1717 raised to the Viscounty 
of Boyne. The names of Andrew Hamilton and two John Ha- 
miltons occur in the signatures of the relieved garrison of Derry, 
in the address to King William, while George Hamilton, fifth son 
of the Earl of Selkirk, distinguished himself with particular 
bravery at the battle of the Boyne under the same monarch, at 
Aughrim in 1691, at Steinkirk in 1692, and at Lauden in the fol- 
lowing year; for all which and other military achievements he 
was in 1695 advanced to the peerage as Earl of Orkney, and 
had grants of a considerable proportion of the estates of King James 
in Ireland. In 1704 he acquitted himself heroically at the battle 
of Blenheim ; in 1706 was at the siege of Menin ; in 1708 com- 
manded the van of the army at the passing of the Scheld ; assisted 
at the siege of Tournay ; was at the battle of Malplaquet, and 
rendered numerous other services, which were rewarded with a 
succession of honours to the time of his death in 1736. 

In 1691 Henry Hamilton of Baillieborough, was killed on the 
walls of Limerick. From him is descended, in the fourth degree, 


James Hans Hamiltoiiy Esq. of Sheep Hill, a deputy lieutenant 
of the County of Dublin. 

In 1720 died at St. Germain's the accomplished Anthony 
Count Hamilton, author of the Memoirs of Grammont, (who 
had married his sister,) and for many years the delight and orna- 
ment of the most splendid circles of society. He was a native 
of Ireland, whence he passed over with his family to France as 
adherents of Charles the Second. At the Restoration he again 
returned to England, but was, on the Revolution, a second time 
obliged to fly to the Continent. In the time of King James he 
obtained a regiment of foot in Ireland, and the government of 
Limerick, whence, on the abdication, he returned into France, and 
devoted himself to literary pursuits. He was brother of the gal- 
lant individual, before-mentioned as having made the campaigns 
with Turenne and Luxembourg, both having been the sons of 
Sir George Hamilton by Mary Butler, sister of the Duke of 

In 1730 the Princess of Orange stood sponsor for the infant 
daughter of James Hamilton, Earl of Clanbrassil, who in 1752 
married the Earl of Roden, and on the death of her brother with- 
out issue the Clanbrassil estates passed through her to the Roden 

From the year 1739 to the year 1760 Alexander Hamilton, 
the purchaser of Balbriggan, and the lineal descendant in the fifth 
degree from the Rev. Hans Hamilton of Dunlop, was the repre- 
sentative in parliament of the borough of Killileagh. He was 
succeeded in the property of Balbriggan by his son the Hon. George 
Hamilton, who was member of parliament for Belfast, Solicitor Ge- 
neral, and Baron of the Exchequer; and yet more distinguished for 
his public spirit in promoting the trade and welfare of his country. 
He died at Oswestry in 1793, and was buried in the family vault 
at Balrothery. Alexander had another son, Hugh, distinguished 
as a philosopher and divine, successively Fellow of Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin, Dean of Armagh, Bishop of Clonfert, and afterwards 
of Ossory. The baron died in 1793, whereupon Balbriggan de- 
scended to his son, the Rev. George Hamilton, who by his wife 
Anna, eldest daughter of Thomas Peppard, had issue the present 
inheritor George Alexander Hamilton, Esq., a deputy lieutenant 


of the Couoty of Dublin afid a repr^sentatiTe cif the city iti tbe 
Ust parliament ; the lineal descendant in ihe twenty-^fth de^ee 
from Bernard) the nobleman of Saxony with whom this memoir 

In 1786 Doctor William Hamilton, Fellow of Trini^ College^ 
Dublin, published the ingenious letters eoncerning the coaal of 

In the eighteenth century, Alexander Hamilton, a native of 
St. Croix, but of the Scotch house of Grange in Argylei^ire^ 
having emigrated to New York at th« age of aixteen, and entered 
himself at Columbia College, joined the patriot sfmj at the age 
of nineteen, «nd subsequently greatly distinguished himself in thb 
American war. He led the Americans at the storming of York* 
town. In 1787 he developed and defended in a series of letters^ 
under the name of Publius, the plan of the national governmenl^ 
and in 1 789, oa Washington's election to the prefilden<^, was b^ 
him appointed to fill the office of chief secretary. In the following 
year he brought forward bk lunuiioitt and ingentbus system of 
funding the public debt and forming a national bank. His success 
in these measures acquired him the epithet of the financial saviour 
of the United States ; he because the inseparable companion of 
Washington, and in 1798, when that great man was again entreated 
to marshal the forces of his country, the appointment of Hamilton 
to the post of second in command was made an imperative condi- 
tion of his acquiescence. In 1807, having opposed the election of 
Colonel Burr to the governorship of New York, he was chd-* 
lenged by that gentleman, when a duel took place between them 
in New Jersey, where at the first fire Hamilton was i^ortally 

In 1796 Captain Sir Charles Hamilton of the Melpomene cap- 
tured the French corvette la Revanche, in 1800 took the island 
of Goree, and in the following year commanded numerous attadis 
on the French settlements in Africa; while in 1799 Sir Edward 
Hamilton, knight, commander of the Surprise 6f thirly-two guns, 
gallantly re-captured the Hermione of forty-fbur guns under the 
fort of Cavallo, mounted with 200 pieces of cannon, subsequently 
obtained the grand cross of the fiath, and was created a baronet 
in 1819. In 1803 died Sir William Hamilton, the celebrated 


jiistofian and ntturalist; and in 1814 John Hamihon of Wood* 
brook in the county of Tyrone was created a baronet, having, pre- 
viously so distingubhed himself in the Peninsular war, Aat th# 
Prince Regent of Portugal conferred upon him the insignia of a 
knight commander of the order of the Tower and Sword, and the 
JCing of Portugal the grand cross of the same4iliaiinguahed ordef. 

A short distance from Balbriggan is 


whidi had been the manorial seat of a branch of the 
43amewall ftimily from the commencement of the 
fourteenth century. Lord Lansdowne is now the 
principal proprietor of the fee, and is characterized 
by all his tenantry as an excellent landlord. 

Here is a very handsome cottage of Mr. Gilbert^ 
opposite which, in a fkrm yard, the wreck of the an- 
cient castle may be traced on a site, commanding a 
most extensive and sublime prospect. Near it are 
the remains of the old church, within which may be 
seen a stone, that seems to have formed the arching of 
the castle doorway, and bears the date of 1689. On 
the ground in front of the farm-house Is another 
stone of the same edifice, charged witb the armorial 
bearings of the families of Buriford, Howth, and 

In early times the chapelry of Lamhecher at Bremore was 
subserrient to the church of Lusk> and long after its disunion paid 
a pension thereto* ' 

For a notice of the church of Bremore in 1200, see ante at 
" Babrothery." 

By a. private act of parriament of 1560, it was enacted, that 


James Barnewall of Bremore, and Margaret hb wife, should haye 
the tithe fish within << the corde of Bremore,'* and, accordingly a 
subsequent inquisition finds his descendant John seised of a castle, 
forty messuages, and sixty acres here, a water-mill, with the water 
course running by the land of Foulkstowu and Moorpitts, and of all 
wrecks of the sea, and tithes of fishes i^pertaining to said manor. 

In 1606 James Barnewall, son and heir of said John, had 
livery of seisin of Bremore.* 

In 1641 several barks lying off Skerries were plundered by the 
Confederates, and the spoil carried to << Barnewall of Bremore, a 
prime man.^f 

In 1663 the lan^s of Bremore and Newhaven were found to 
be worth £100 per annum, and to contain 405 acres. About 
which time, James Barnewall of Bremore was one of the signers 
of the Roman Catholic Remonstrance. 

In 1736 Captain Vernon, then sheriff of the county of Dublin, 
being directed to give possession of the castle of Bremore to Mr. 
Tummon, was opposed by Captain Mac Culloch and his depend- 
ants. Fifty shots were exchanged, but without slaughter, at last 
the ammunition of the castle being spent, the besiegers drew near, 
made a breach, and took the garrison prisoners ; but, Mac Cul- 
loch, his wife, and one O'Neill, having retired to a garden-house, 
necessitated another attack until they also were captured, and 
with the rest brought prisoners of war to Kilmainham gaol. 

From Bremore, a pretty hedge road conducts to 
Balscadden, opening occasional vistas at right of the 
intermediate country to Drogheda, the fine castle of 
Gormanston towering amidst its woods, and the re- 
mote encircling sea. 


This little village, more anciently called Bally- 
scadden, is situated in a deep glen, cut up by a rugged 

• Rot Pat in Cane. Hib. t Borlase's Irish Rebellion. 


ravine, that in winter is the bed of the mountain rills. 
The churchyard exhibits the remains of the old 
church, but neither contains any monument of note, 
unless perhaps one to the Walshes of Stidalt. Near 
the village are four acres of glebe. There is also a 
new Roman Catholic church here, rectangular and 

The parish is in the deanery of Garristown, and 
comprises 3948a. Or. 38p. in sixteen townlands; the 
vicarage appertains to the Dean and Chapter of Christ 
Church, in whom the rectory is impropriate, and to 
whose treasurer the rectorial tithes, estimated at the 
annual value of £120, are payable. In the Catholic 
arrangement, it is in the union of Balrothery. Its 
population in 1831 was 1011 persons, of whom the 
Poor Inquiry Report states 220 to be labourers, sixty 
getting permanent employment, and 160 occasional. 
The Report of 1835 states, that there are not ten 
Protestants in the parish. The National Board of 
Education gave £63 for the building of schools here^ 
£35 for fitting them up, and allows £14 annually for 
their support. 

Balscadden was an ancient manor of the Ormonde 
family. The principal proprietors here now are the 
Marquis of Lansdowne, Lord Gormanston, Mr. Wood, 
and Mr. Aynwright. The average acreable rent is 
355. per annum. 

In 1178, when Archbishop Laurence O' Toole confirmed the 
possessions of Christ Church, the church of Balscadden and its 
tithes, and the advowson of its vicarage, were enumerated amongst 
them, which right was subseq»jently further assured by the char- 

2 I 


ter of King H#nry the Thifd,* gubject to tho conditioo ihgt four 
tonoDg should be maintained there, to celebrate masses for thd 
souls of said king and Archbishop Luke. 

In 1250 King Henry granted in frankalmoigne to the cathe- 
dral of Christ Church, Dublin, three carucates, 89a., and a mill 
in Balscadden, also the homage and service due by Robert and An* 
drew Passelewe (Paisley) and William Fitz Milo from their tene- 
ments in the same village, with one carucate and 12a., which Wal- 
ter le Blund held in farm. The contents of this tract of land 
were estimated at thirty librates, and were granted to Christ 
Church on the condition of paying f o the dean and chapter of 
fit. Patrick's half the yearly profits, but the prior and convent, 
after they had obtained possession, refused to fulfil the condition, 
whereof complaint being made. Archbishop Luke, with the advice 
of John de Taunton, Bishop of Kildare, and others, made an order 
that the manor should still continue in the possession of the prior 
and convent of the Holy Trinity, but that they should assign 
therefrom fifteen librates to the dean and diapter.f This moiety 
the dean and chapter subsequently exchanged for certain lands 
called Rathsallagh and Ballyog^n, near Carrickmines4 

In 1306 this church was valued to Pope Nicholas's taxation 
at £10. For a notice of the manor in 1385, see at " Turvey." 

In 1421 Henry of Marleburgh, the Irish annalist, was vicar 
of this parish. His chronicles commence at 1265 and terminate 
in this year. They are published at the close of Dr. Hanmer's 
Chronicle, and are frequently quoted by Archbishop Ussher, who 
affirms that the best MS. copy of them is in the Cottonian col- 
lection. For a notice of the manor in 1461, see at ^< Turvey." 

In 1515 Sir Thomas Butler was found seised of this and other 
manors in this connty. In 1539 the vicarage was taxed to the 
First Fruits at £4 I2s. Ad., while the regal visitation of 1615 re- 
ports the rectory as impropriate to the church of the Holy Tri- 
nity, that the vicarage was worth £12 per annum, and was filled 
by Thomas Hood, and that the church and chancel were then in 
good repair. 

• Alan's Liber Niger. t Dign. Dec. p. 110. 

X Repertorium Viride. 


Ib 161d this mMlor belonged to the Earl of Ormonde. At 
the time of the commonwealth survey> SOa. of commonage, [dan- 
tation measure, were stated to be here. 

For a notice of James Duke of York's possessions in this pa- 
rish in 1665, see ante, at « Bahrothery." In 1666 Robert Fin- 
glas had a grant of certab premises here, and in particular of the 
church land of Babcadden» defined as thirty acres. In 1669 Jenico 
Lord Oormanstown passed patent for '< the farm of the land of 
Ballyscadden,^I12A., the parks of Stamullen> 60a., ftc, plantation 

In the civil war of 1688 James Hackett forfeited the town and 
lands of Tobbertown and Ballygaddy, with the land of the church 
of Balscadden, containing 208a., 6cc. 

In 1697 the Rev. Andrew Finglas was returned as parish priest 
of Balscadden and Balrothery, resident, as the document states, 
at Tobbertown, being eighty years old, lame, and blind, and hav- 
ing Mr. John Coghran, as his curate, living with him. 

In 1708 the Hollow Blade Company had a grant of (inter 
ttlia) Balscadden, SIa., with church land called Priorslond, ^A., 
part of the estate of the before.mentioned James Hackett, at- 

In 1805 the Board of First Fruits granted £500 towards build- 
ing a new church here. In 1888, however, this parish was re- 
turned as one of those in which the Protestant service had not 
been celebrated for the last three years. 

A road leads hence to the Naul, at the Dublin 
side of the stream that bounds the county. It com- 
mands some pretty views of the glen ; but the lover 
of the picturesque should turn at Tobberstown, de- 
scend to the bridge of Doulagh, and, thence crossing 
into the county Meath, pursue the little road that 
leads by the river to what is called the old mill, but 
now the new mill of the Naul. The hedges along 
this road were (July, 1836,) breathing the perfume 
of wild roses and woodbine, while in the shady ditches 

2 i2 


behind them, the sheep lay listlessly panting in the 
heated atmosphere. In such an hour it was cooling, 
as by sympathy, to see the bathers plunging 

** Their fervent limbs in the refreshing stream,** 

and to look upon that stream itself, gliding in graceful 
meanders, while the silence of the valley was broken 
only by its babbling current, or the strokes of the 
mill-wheel that laboured to impede it. Hence the 
lovely glen of the Naul, with Westown House peering 
at its head ; and Harbertstown, with its turret on a 
yet greater elevation, can only be seen to advantage 
by the pedestrian, who thus reaches a portion of the 
valley, called the Roches, closely hemmed in by pre- 
cipitate cliffs, rich with vegetable drapery at their 
base, and in their tall summits caverned to a consi- 
derable depth. The gap of this fine glen is sentinelled 
at the Meath side by Snowton Castle, and on the 
Dublin by the dark castle, especially termed of the 


Its grey walls, here variegated with mossy streaks, 
^here clothed in the livery of everlasting verdure, or 
checquered between with those picturesque weather- 
stains, which time only can shed over the works of 
man. A small lake formed here, and for which there 
is every facility, without much loss of good ground, 
would make this a truly enchanting scene. 

The river that waters the glen, enters the sea at 
Knockingen, working several mills in its course, while 

NAUL. 485 

the caves alluded to are said to have been formerly 
the receptacle of plunderers and robbers, who retreated 
here, and were protected by the castle. One of these, 
called in the Irish Shaun Kittoch^ or Left-handed 
Jack, was famed for many daring depredations. He 
long eluded the pursuit of justice, but having been at 
length taken, with an Amazonian female, the intrepid 
companion of all his exploits, both paid the debt due 
to the injured laws of their country. 

In the glen is a spa, that Doctor Rutty notices as 
a comparatively pure chalybeate, of a modern degree 
of strength, to obtain the benefit of which in perfec- 
tion it is necessary to resort to the fountain. " It 
seems worthy of notice," he adds, " that the glyn, in 
which this spring is found, abounds with a rotten Irish 
slate, which is of the mildest kind, or of the least de- 
gree of acidity, I have observed, being of a very 
mildly acid, and sweet, austere, or vitriolic taste, and 
water poured hot upon it, acquired a strong sulphu- 
reous smell, and it struck partly purple and partly 
blue with galls, the characteristic of martial vitriol. 
I moreover observed a rock of this slate to yield a 
nitrous efflorescence, as do likewise several stones of 
the like kind in the neighbouring country, which also 
by decoction yield a calcareous nitre."* Lieutenant 
Archer, in his survey of this county, says, he observed 
near this crops of different veins of coal, as also fine 
yellow ochre. 

The old castle of the Naul is a square building 

♦ Rutty'8 Mineral Waters, p. 364. 


on an eminence, that projects into the glen, and com- 
mands its whole extent, upwards and downwards. A 
flight of winding steps leads to its summit. The re- 
mains of Snowton Castle, on the opposite side of tlie 
stream, are now insignificant. It formerly belonged 
to the Caddells. 

The village comprises about fifty cottages. It has 
a plain church, adjoining which is a chauntry, now 
unroofed, with a slab over the doorway, stating its 
appropriation for the remains of the Hon. Colonel 
Hussey, of Westown, and his lady, Mable Hussey, 
otherwise Bamewall, 1710. There is also a Roman 
Catholic church here of the T form ; the Catholic 
union comprising with Naul, Damastown, or Holly- 
wood, Ballyboghill, Gralfagh, and Westpalstown. The 
National Board have likewise erected male and female 
schools here, at an expense of £138, and allow £20 
per annum for their support. 

The parish comprises 2627a. 2r. 21 p., in thirteen 
townlands; and its population was returned in 1831 
as 758 persons, of whom 744 were Roman Catliolics. 
The Poor Inquiry of 1835 calculated that there were 
118 labourers here, of whom seventy-three were per- 
manently employed, forty*one occasionally, and four 
almost always unemployed. In the Protestant arrange- 
ment, the rectory being impropriate in Mr. Pollard, 
this parish ranks as a vicarage, united with those 
of Hollywood and Grallagh ; the church of the union 
being in this parish, and the patronage in the Marquis 
of Drogheda. The proprietors in this parish are 
Mr. Hussey, Mr. Tennison, and Mrs. Bunbury. 

NAUL. 487 

Acred>le rent varies from £1 10^. to £2 5^., while 
a cabin, without land, is let at from £l 10«. to £2 
per annum. 

So early as the reign of King Jobs, the original castle is 
thought to have been erected here, by Stephen de Crues, then 
proprietor of the Naul* It would rather appear^ however, that 
this esfe^Jte was not acquired by that C^mily until the close of the 
thirteenth, or the beginning of the fourteenth century, whei^ one 
of them; intermarrying with the heiress of Simon de GeneviUc, in 
her right obtained the manor. The church was about the same 
time united to the priory oi Lantbony pear Gloucester* See 
** Garristown," ad ann. 1200. 

In the beginning of the fourteenth century, the Prior 9f St. 
John of Jerusalem was sejsed of a messuage and two carucates of 
land herein.* 

In the hostings during the reigns of Henry the Eighth and 
BUzabeth, << Caddell of the Naul" (he was settled at Huggards- 
town in this parish) did service with two armed horsemen, while 
Walter Cruise w^s more expressly summoned in right of the Naul 
and Grallagh. 

In 1605 Christopher Cruise was seised in fee of the Naul, 
Lieighlinstown, Leniston, Flackston, and Loughmean, one eastle 
and 500 acres,t and, by iiiquisition pf 16U, the abbey of Duleek 
was found seised of (inter alia) the rectory of Naul, containing 
Naul, Jarnestown, Weston of the Naul, Rathaggardston, Rey- 
nojdston, and Dowlagh, and the tithes thereof, all which were 
granted to Lord Moore by patent of 17 James I., and confirmed 
by another patent of the 15 Chas. I. 

in 1641 the castle, &c. of the Naul were forfeited by Christo- 
pher Cruise, Esq., as was Haggardstown, before mentioned, by 
John Caddell ; and in 1666 James Duke of York passed patent 
for 500a. plantation measure here, which were, on his attainder, 
granted in 1703 to William Barton of Thomastown in the county 
of Louth. The manor subsequently passed to the BeUew family, 
and from them by marriage to that of Hussey* 

* Rot Claus. Edw. 111. t Inquis. in Cane Hib. 


In 1697 the Rev. Owen Smyth was parish priest of Naul, 
Hollywood, Westpalstown, and BallyboghiU. 

In 1700 John Usher, as executor of Sir Thomas Newcomen, 
claimed and was allowed before the court at Chichester house, a 
leasehohl interest in the lands of Naul, little Rath, &c. 

Immediately adjacent to the village is Westown 
House, formerly a seat of the Bellew family, now the 
residence of Anthony Strong Hussey, Esq., one of 
the deputy lieutenants for the county of Meath. It 
is a handsome seat, overlooking the glen and all the 
beauties of the adjacent country. 

In reference to the subject of botany, some banks 
here present the geranium lucidunif shining crane's- 
bill. While on the road sides between this and Bre- 
more are found cheledonium majus^ celandine, con- 
taining a gold coloured juice of some medical virtues, 
also the pyrethrum Parthenium^ common feverfew. 

The direct way from Naul to Hollywood leaves 
the hill of Knockbrack on the south ; the traveller, 
however, who takes 'the road that goes over this 
height, will be well rewarded by the magnificent ex- 
tent of mountain, plain, and water which it affords, ex- 
hibiting, in a noble panorama, Slieve Gullion in the 
county of Armagh, Moume mountains in the county 
of Down, the Hill of Carlingford and Clogher Head 
in the county of Louth, Gormanston Castle peering 
from the intervening wooded plain, Balbriggan whiten- 
ing the shore, the fine semicircular perspective of sea, 
dotted by the villages of Rush, Dunabate, Portrane, 
Malahide, Beldoyle, the islands of Lambay and Ire- 
land's Eye, with the promontory of Howth ; while 


to the south the plains of Meath, Kildare, and Dub- 
lin, are seen spreading to the foot of a fine termina- 
tion of mountains, between which Kingstown and the 
metropolis can be discerned, and, amidst the landscape, 
the silvery line of Dublin Bay shooting far into the 
interior. It is not to be forgotten, that this hill is 
reputed to abound with most excellent coals. 


the next locality on this route, was an ancient manor 
of the family who thence derived their name, and 
extended over the lands of Hollywood, Kinawde, 
Brownstown, Newtown, Ballyrichard, Damastown, &c. 

The hill particularly called Hollywood, commands 
a prospect more limited at northward than that seen 
from Knockbrack, but at southward equally extensive. 
The little village is on the descent of the latter side, 
and presents the ruins of another of the Fingal spe- 
cies of triple-arched belfry churches, with nave and 
chancel, the former sixteen yards long by six wide. 
The windows and doorways of this edifice are round 
arched. There are no tombs worthy of notice in 
either the church or churchyard, and both are thickly 
filled with thorns. There is a quarry immediately 
adjacent, which supplies lime, building, and rotten 

The parish bears the same name, and extends 
over 4789a. 3r. 5p., comprised in fifteen townlands, 
the chief proprietors being Lord Howth, Sir Comp- 
ton Domville, Sir Thomas Staples, &c. Its popula- 


tion wa8 returned in 1831 as 1022 persons^ of whom 
1005 were Roman Catholics. Rent varies from one 
guinea to thirty-seven shillings per acre annuallj, 
wages being one shilling per day. 

In the Protestant arrangement, the rectory being 
impropriate in the Marquis of Drogheda, the parish 
ranks as but a vicarage, episcopally united from time 
immemorial with those of Naul and Grallagh, all in 
the deanery of Garristown, and gift of the aforesaid 
Marquis. There are five acres and a half of glebe 
annexed, and the income of the union is augmented 
by £31 per annum from Primate Boulter's fund. In 
the Catholic dispensation this parish is in the union 
of Naul. 

The church here was from a vary eajrly period appropriated to 
the canons of Lanthony near Gloucester. 

In 1206 King John directed a reference to ascertain whether 
Hollywood, then the fee of Geoffrey de Marisco, had been ob- 
tained on an exchange by the Archbishop of Dublin.* 

In 12d0 flourished John de Hollywood, a famous philosopher 
and mathematician, and so called from having been born here^ 
" In his springing years," says Hanmer, <* he sucked the sweet 
milk of good learning in the famous university of Oxford, after- 
wards he went to Paris, where he professed the learned sciences 
with singular commendations, and there slumbereth in the dust of 
the earth, whose exequies and funerals were there with great lar 
mentations wlemmted" He wrote four books respectiv^y treating 
< De Spherd Mundi,' « De Algarismo,' < De Anni Ratione sive de 
compute ecclesiastico,' and < Breviarium Juris.' The first of these 
works has been commented upon by many learned men, and par- 
ticukrly by Christopher Clavius. He died at Paris as before 
mentioned, and was buried there in the cloisters of the convent of 

• Lit, Pat in Turr. Load. 


St. Maturine) otherwise called the convent of the Holy Trinity 
for the redempton of captives ; a ^here is engraved upon his 
tomb.* For a notice of Hollywood and its dependant chapelry of 
Grallagh, in this century, see at " Clonmethan.'' 

About the year 1302 « there arose a great controversy in law 
between Richard de Feringes, Archbishop of Dublin, and the 
Lord Edmund Butler, touching the manor of Hollywood in Fingal, 
with the appurtenances, which manor the Lord Butler recovered 
by an arbitrament or composition taken between them in the 
King's Bench at Dublin."t 

In 1310 Roger de Sacro Bosco (Hollywood) was summoned 
to attend the parliament of Kilkenny, and in 1334 Henry Holly* 
wood, a Dominican fnax, was directed to parley with O'Conor, 
Prince of the Irish of Connaught, and to receive for his expenses 
and services forty shillings. 

In 1355 Robert Hollywood was Chief Remembrancer of the 
Exchequer. In 1361 Robert de Hollywood, a member of this fa- 
mily, was one of those gentlemen, <<the worthiest then in chivalry,'* 
who were knighted by Lionel Duke of Clarence. In 1373 he had 
a grant of £40 for his services in the wars in the counties of Kil- 
kenny and Carlow, and in 1377 was required to march with his 
retinue against the O'Byrnes and CTooles. In 1401 Christopher 
Hollywood was one of those empowered by the king to hold con- 
vocations of the prelates, magnates, &c., to record their proceed- 
ings and to assess the state subsidies voted by them. For notices 
in 1416 and 1420, see at " Artane." 

In 1422 the Hollywood family were on inquisition found 
seised of various lands in Hollywood, Brownstown, Cloghran, &c.| 
The former denomination being charged with a certain chief rent 
to the priory of the Holy Trinity of LismuUen, in the county of 
Meaih. The same family had also the patronage of the vicarage 
of Hollywood, until by the marriage of the heiress of Sir Robert 
Hollywood with Robert Burnell of Balgriffin, it passed to the 
latter family. 

• Ware's Writers, p. 73. t HolinsUed. 

X Rot. Pat in Caxu^ Hib. 


Tn 1539 the Rectory here was taxed to the First Fruits at 
£4 \4s, and the vicarage at £2 ISs, 4d. Irish. 

A rental of the sixteenth century states that the Priory of 
Kilmainham was seised of (inter alia) seven acres in the mountaio 
of Hollywood, as